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Osteikoetxea-Molnar A.,Eötvös Loránd University | Szabo-Meleg E.,University of Pécs | Szabo-Meleg E.,MTA PTE Nuclear Mitochondrial Interactions Research Group | Toth E.A.,Eötvös Loránd University | And 12 more authors.
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences | Year: 2016

Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) are long intercellular connecting structures providing a special transport route between two neighboring cells. To date TNTs have been reported in different cell types including immune cells such as T-, NK, dendritic cells, or macrophages. Here we report that mature, but not immature, B cells spontaneously form extensive TNT networks under conditions resembling the physiological environment. Live-cell fluorescence, structured illumination, and atomic force microscopic imaging provide new insights into the structure and dynamics of B cell TNTs. Importantly, the selective interaction of cell surface integrins with fibronectin or laminin extracellular matrix proteins proved to be essential for initiating TNT growth in B cells. These TNTs display diversity in length and thickness and contain not only F-actin, but their majority also contain microtubules, which were found, however, not essential for TNT formation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Ca2+-dependent cortical actin dynamics exert a fundamental control over TNT growth-retraction equilibrium, suggesting that actin filaments form the TNT skeleton. Non-muscle myosin 2 motor activity was shown to provide a negative control limiting the uncontrolled outgrowth of membranous protrusions. Moreover, we also show that spontaneous growth of TNTs is either reduced or increased by B cell receptor- or LPS-mediated activation signals, respectively, thus supporting the critical role of cytoplasmic Ca2+ in regulation of TNT formation. Finally, we observed transport of various GM1/GM3 + vesicles, lysosomes, and mitochondria inside TNTs, as well as intercellular exchange of MHC-II and B7-2 (CD86) molecules which may represent novel pathways of intercellular communication and immunoregulation. © 2016 Springer International Publishing


Barko S.,University of Pécs | Szatmari D.,University of Pécs | Bodis E.,University of Pécs | Turmer K.,University of Pécs | And 6 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects | Year: 2016

Background Weil's syndrome is caused by Leptospira interrogans infections, a Gram negative bacterium with a distinct thin corkscrew cell shape. The molecular basis for this unusual morphology is unknown. In many bacteria, cell wall synthesis is orchestrated by the actin homolog, MreB. Methods Here we have identified the MreB within the L. interrogans genome and expressed the His-tagged protein product of the synthesized gene (Li-MreB) in Escherichia coli. Li-MreB did not purify under standard nucleotide-free conditions used for MreBs from other species, requiring the continual presence of ATP to remain soluble. Covalent modification of Li-MreB free thiols with Alexa488 produced a fluorescent version of Li-MreB. Results We developed native and denaturing/refolding purification schemes for Li-MreB. The purified product was shown to assemble and disassemble in MgCl2 and KCl dependent manners, as monitored by light scattering and sedimentation studies. The fluorescence spectrum of labeled Li-MreB-Alexa488 showed cation-induced changes in line with an activation process followed by a polymerization phase. The resulting filaments appeared as bundles and sheets under the fluorescence microscope. Finally, since the Li-MreB polymerization was cation dependent, we developed a simple method to measure monovalent cation concentrations within a test case prokaryote, E. coli. Conclusions We have identified and initially characterized the cation-dependent polymerization properties of a novel MreB from a non-rod shaped bacterium and developed a method to measure cation concentrations within prokaryotes. General significance. This initial characterization of Li-MreB will enable future structural determination of the MreB filament from this corkscrew-shaped bacterium. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Engelmann P.,University of Pécs | Hayashi Y.,University of Aarhus | Bodo K.,University of Pécs | Ernszt D.,University of Pécs | And 11 more authors.
Developmental and Comparative Immunology | Year: 2016

Flow cytometry is a common approach to study invertebrate immune cells including earthworm coelomocytes. However, the link between light-scatter- and microscopy-based phenotyping remains obscured. Here we show, by means of light scatter-based cell sorting, both subpopulations (amoebocytes and eleocytes) can be physically isolated with good sort efficiency and purity confirmed by downstream morphological and cytochemical applications. Immunocytochemical analysis using anti-EFCC monoclonal antibodies combined with phalloidin staining has revealed antigenically distinct, sorted subsets. Screening of lectin binding capacity indicated wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) as the strongest reactor to amoebocytes. This is further evidenced by WGA inhibition assays that suggest high abundance of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine in amoebocytes. Post-sort phagocytosis assays confirmed the functional differences between amoebocytes and eleocytes, with the former being in favor of bacterial engulfment. This study has proved successful in linking flow cytometry and microscopy analysis and provides further experimental evidence of phenotypic and functional heterogeneity in earthworm coelomocyte subsets. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Turmer K.,University of Pécs | Turmer K.,Janos Szentagothai Research Center | Orban J.,University of Pécs | Orban J.,Janos Szentagothai Research Center | And 5 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects | Year: 2015

Background Actin filament bundling proteins mediate numerous processes in cells such as the formation of cell membrane protrusions or cell adhesions and stress fiber based locomotion. Among them alpha-actinin and fascin are the most abundant ones. This work characterizes differences in molecular motions in actin filaments due to the binding of these two actin bundling proteins. Methods We investigated how alpha-actinin and fascin binding modify the conformation of actin filaments by using conventional and saturation transfer EPR methods. Results The result characteristic for motions on the microsecond time scale showed that both actin bundling proteins made the bending and torsional twisting of the actin filaments slower. When nanosecond time scale molecular motions were described the two proteins were found to induce opposite changes in the actin filaments. The binding of one molecule of alpha-actinin or fascin modified the conformation of numerous actin protomers. Conclusion As fascin and alpha-actinin participates in different cellular processes their binding can serve the proper tuning of the structure of actin by establishing the right conformation for the interactions with other actin binding proteins. Our observations are in correlation with the model where actin filaments fulfill their biological functions under the regulation by actin-binding proteins. General significance Supporting the general model for the cellular regulation of the actin cytoskeleton we showed that two abundant actin bundling proteins, fascin and alpha-actinin, alter the conformation of actin filaments through long range allosteric interactions in two different ways providing the structural framework for the adaptation to specific biological functions. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Czimbalek L.,University of Pécs | Kollar V.,University of Pécs | Kardos R.,University of Pécs | Lorinczy D.,University of Pécs | And 5 more authors.
FEBS Letters | Year: 2015

The effects of toxofilin (an actin binding protein of Toxoplasma gondii) on G-actin was studied with spectroscopy techniques. Fluorescence anisotropy measurements proved that G-actin and toxofilin interact with 2:1 stoichiometry. The affinity of toxofilin to actin was also determined with a fluorescence anisotropy assay. Fluorescence quenching experiments showed that the accessibility of the actin bound ε-ATP decreased in the presence of toxofilin. The results can be explained by the shift of the nucleotide binding cleft into a closed conformational state. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements revealed that actin monomers become thermodynamically more stable due to the binding of toxofilin. © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.


Takacs-Kollar V.,University of Pécs | Lorinczy D.,University of Pécs | Nyitrai M.,University of Pécs | Nyitrai M.,Szentagothai Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology | Year: 2016

The effect of mammalian twinfilin-1 on the structure and dynamics of actin filaments were studied with steady state fluorescence spectroscopy, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry techniques. It was proved before that the eukaryotic budding yeast twinfilin-1 can efficiently bind and severe actin filaments in vitro at low pH values. In the present work steady-state anisotropy measurements revealed that twinfilin can bind efficiently to F-actin. Dilution-induced depolymerization assay proved that mammalian twinfilin-1 has an actin filament severing activity. This severing activity was more pronounced at low pH values. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy measurements could support the severing activity of mouse twinfilin-1. The average rate of depolymerization was more apparent at low pH values. The differential scanning calorimetry measurements demonstrated that mammalian twinfilin-1 could reduce the stiffness within the actin filaments before the detachment of the actin protomers. The structural and dynamic reorganization of actin can support the twinfilin-1 induced separation of actin protomers. The measured data indicated that mammalian twinfilin-1 was able to accelerate the monomers dissociation and/or sever the filaments effectively at low pH values. It was concluded that twinfilin-1 can affect the F-actin in biological processes or under stress situations when the pH is markedly under the physiological level. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Kengyel A.,University of Pécs | Kengyel A.,Janos Szentagothai Research Center | Becsi B.,Debrecen University | Konya Z.,Debrecen University | And 5 more authors.
European Biophysics Journal | Year: 2015

The unconventional myosin 16 (Myo16), which may have a role in regulation of cell cycle and cell proliferation, can be found in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. It has a unique, eight ankyrin repeat containing pre-motor domain, the so-called ankyrin domain (My16Ank). Ankyrin repeats are present in several other proteins, e.g., in the regulatory subunit (MYPT1) of the myosin phosphatase holoenzyme, which binds to the protein phosphatase-1 catalytic subunit (PP1c). My16Ank shows sequence similarity to MYPT1. In this work, the interactions of recombinant and isolated My16Ank were examined in vitro. To test the effects of My16Ank on myosin motor function, we used skeletal muscle myosin or nonmuscle myosin 2B. The results showed that My16Ank bound to skeletal muscle myosin (KD ≈ 2.4 µM) and the actin-activated ATPase activity of heavy meromyosin (HMM) was increased in the presence of My16Ank, suggesting that the ankyrin domain can modulate myosin motor activity. My16Ank showed no direct interaction with either globular or filamentous actin. We found, using a surface plasmon resonance-based binding technique, that My16Ank bound to PP1cα (KD ≈ 540 nM) and also to PP1cδ (KD ≈ 600 nM) and decreased its phosphatase activity towards the phosphorylated myosin regulatory light chain. Our results suggest that one function of the ankyrin domain is probably to regulate the function of Myo16. It may influence the motor activity, and in complex with the PP1c isoforms, it can play an important role in the targeted dephosphorylation of certain, as yet unidentified, intracellular proteins. © 2015, European Biophysical Societies' Association.


Kovacs-Oller T.,University of Pécs | Kovacs-Oller T.,Janos Szentagothai Research Center | Raics K.,Janos Szentagothai Research Center | Raics K.,University of Pécs | And 9 more authors.
Cell and Tissue Research | Year: 2014

Connexin36 (Cx36) is the major gap junction forming protein in the brain and the retina; thus, alterations in its expression indicate changes in the corresponding circuitry. Many structural changes occur in the early postnatal retina before functional neuronal circuits are finalized, including those that incorporate gap junctions. To reveal the time-lapse formation of inner retinal gap junctions, we examine the developing postnatal rat retina from birth (P0) to young adult age (P20) and follow the expression of Cx36 in the mRNA and protein levels. We found a continuous elevation in the expression of both the Cx36 transcript and protein between P0 and P20 and a somewhat delayed Cx36 plaque formation throughout the inner plexiform layer (IPL) starting at P10. By using tristratificated calretinin positive (CaR+) fibers in the IPL as a guide, we detected a clear preference of Cx36 plaques for the ON sublamina from the earliest time of detection. This distributional preference became more pronounced at P15 and P20 due to the emergence and widespread expression of large (>0.1 μm2) Cx36 plaques in the ON sublamina. Finally, we showed that parvalbumin-positive (PV+) AII amacrine cell dendrites colocalize with Cx36 plaques as early as P10 in strata 3 and 4, whereas colocalizations in stratum 5 became characteristic only around P20. We conclude that Cx36 expression in the rat IPL displays a characteristic succession of changes during retinogenesis reflecting the formation of the underlying electrical synaptic circuitry. In particular, AII cell gap junctions, first formed with ON cone bipolar cells and later with other AII amacrine cells, accounted for the observed Cx36 expressional changes. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Deres L.,University of Pécs | Bartha E.,University of Pécs | Palfi A.,University of Pécs | Eros K.,University of Pécs | And 10 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is a suitable model for studies of the complications of hypertension. It is known that activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase enzyme (PARP) plays an important role in the development of postinfarction as well as long-term hypertension induced heart failure. In this study, we examined whether PARP-inhibitor (L-2286) treatment could prevent the development of hypertensive cardiopathy in SHRs. 6-week-old SHR animals were treated with L-2286 (SHR-L group) or placebo (SHR-C group) for 24 weeks. Wistar-Kyoto rats were used as aged-matched, normotensive controls (WKY group). Echocardiography was performed, brain-derived natriuretic peptide (BNP) activity and blood pressure were determined at the end of the study. We detected the extent of fibrotic areas. The amount of heat-shock proteins (Hsps) and the phosphorylation state of Akt-1Ser473, glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3βSer9, forkhead transcription factor (FKHR) Ser256, mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and protein kinase C (PKC) isoenzymes were monitored. The elevated blood pressure in SHRs was not influenced by PARP-inhibitor treatment. Systolic left ventricular function and BNP activity did not differ among the three groups. L-2286 treatment decreased the marked left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy which was developed in SHRs. Interstitial collagen deposition was also decreased by L-2286 treatment. The phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 Thr183-Tyr185, Akt-1Ser473, GSK-3βSer9, FKHRSer256, and PKC εSer729 and the level of Hsp90 were increased, while the activity of PKC α/βIIThr638/641, ζ/λ410/403 were mitigated by L-2286 administration. We could detect signs of LV hypertrophy without congestive heart failure in SHR groups. This alteration was prevented by PARP inhibition. Our results suggest that PARP-inhibitor treatment has protective effect already in the early stage of hypertensive myocardial remodeling. © 2014 Deres et al.

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