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Osteikoetxea-Molnar A.,Eotvos Lorand University | Szabo-Meleg E.,University of Pecs | Szabo-Meleg E.,MTA PTE Nuclear Mitochondrial Interactions Research Group | Toth E.A.,Eotvos Lorand University | And 12 more authors.
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences

Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) are long intercellular connecting structures providing a special transport route between two neighboring cells. To date TNTs have been reported in different cell types including immune cells such as T-, NK, dendritic cells, or macrophages. Here we report that mature, but not immature, B cells spontaneously form extensive TNT networks under conditions resembling the physiological environment. Live-cell fluorescence, structured illumination, and atomic force microscopic imaging provide new insights into the structure and dynamics of B cell TNTs. Importantly, the selective interaction of cell surface integrins with fibronectin or laminin extracellular matrix proteins proved to be essential for initiating TNT growth in B cells. These TNTs display diversity in length and thickness and contain not only F-actin, but their majority also contain microtubules, which were found, however, not essential for TNT formation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Ca2+-dependent cortical actin dynamics exert a fundamental control over TNT growth-retraction equilibrium, suggesting that actin filaments form the TNT skeleton. Non-muscle myosin 2 motor activity was shown to provide a negative control limiting the uncontrolled outgrowth of membranous protrusions. Moreover, we also show that spontaneous growth of TNTs is either reduced or increased by B cell receptor- or LPS-mediated activation signals, respectively, thus supporting the critical role of cytoplasmic Ca2+ in regulation of TNT formation. Finally, we observed transport of various GM1/GM3 + vesicles, lysosomes, and mitochondria inside TNTs, as well as intercellular exchange of MHC-II and B7-2 (CD86) molecules which may represent novel pathways of intercellular communication and immunoregulation. © 2016 Springer International Publishing Source

Kengyel A.,University of Pecs | Kengyel A.,Janos Szentagothai Research Center | Becsi B.,Debrecen University | Konya Z.,Debrecen University | And 5 more authors.
European Biophysics Journal

The unconventional myosin 16 (Myo16), which may have a role in regulation of cell cycle and cell proliferation, can be found in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. It has a unique, eight ankyrin repeat containing pre-motor domain, the so-called ankyrin domain (My16Ank). Ankyrin repeats are present in several other proteins, e.g., in the regulatory subunit (MYPT1) of the myosin phosphatase holoenzyme, which binds to the protein phosphatase-1 catalytic subunit (PP1c). My16Ank shows sequence similarity to MYPT1. In this work, the interactions of recombinant and isolated My16Ank were examined in vitro. To test the effects of My16Ank on myosin motor function, we used skeletal muscle myosin or nonmuscle myosin 2B. The results showed that My16Ank bound to skeletal muscle myosin (KD ≈ 2.4 µM) and the actin-activated ATPase activity of heavy meromyosin (HMM) was increased in the presence of My16Ank, suggesting that the ankyrin domain can modulate myosin motor activity. My16Ank showed no direct interaction with either globular or filamentous actin. We found, using a surface plasmon resonance-based binding technique, that My16Ank bound to PP1cα (KD ≈ 540 nM) and also to PP1cδ (KD ≈ 600 nM) and decreased its phosphatase activity towards the phosphorylated myosin regulatory light chain. Our results suggest that one function of the ankyrin domain is probably to regulate the function of Myo16. It may influence the motor activity, and in complex with the PP1c isoforms, it can play an important role in the targeted dephosphorylation of certain, as yet unidentified, intracellular proteins. © 2015, European Biophysical Societies' Association. Source

Engelmann P.,University of Pecs | Hayashi Y.,University of Aarhus | Bodo K.,University of Pecs | Ernszt D.,University of Pecs | And 11 more authors.
Developmental and Comparative Immunology

Flow cytometry is a common approach to study invertebrate immune cells including earthworm coelomocytes. However, the link between light-scatter- and microscopy-based phenotyping remains obscured. Here we show, by means of light scatter-based cell sorting, both subpopulations (amoebocytes and eleocytes) can be physically isolated with good sort efficiency and purity confirmed by downstream morphological and cytochemical applications. Immunocytochemical analysis using anti-EFCC monoclonal antibodies combined with phalloidin staining has revealed antigenically distinct, sorted subsets. Screening of lectin binding capacity indicated wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) as the strongest reactor to amoebocytes. This is further evidenced by WGA inhibition assays that suggest high abundance of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine in amoebocytes. Post-sort phagocytosis assays confirmed the functional differences between amoebocytes and eleocytes, with the former being in favor of bacterial engulfment. This study has proved successful in linking flow cytometry and microscopy analysis and provides further experimental evidence of phenotypic and functional heterogeneity in earthworm coelomocyte subsets. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd Source

Kovacs-Oller T.,University of Pecs | Kovacs-Oller T.,Janos Szentagothai Research Center | Raics K.,Janos Szentagothai Research Center | Raics K.,University of Pecs | And 9 more authors.
Cell and Tissue Research

Connexin36 (Cx36) is the major gap junction forming protein in the brain and the retina; thus, alterations in its expression indicate changes in the corresponding circuitry. Many structural changes occur in the early postnatal retina before functional neuronal circuits are finalized, including those that incorporate gap junctions. To reveal the time-lapse formation of inner retinal gap junctions, we examine the developing postnatal rat retina from birth (P0) to young adult age (P20) and follow the expression of Cx36 in the mRNA and protein levels. We found a continuous elevation in the expression of both the Cx36 transcript and protein between P0 and P20 and a somewhat delayed Cx36 plaque formation throughout the inner plexiform layer (IPL) starting at P10. By using tristratificated calretinin positive (CaR+) fibers in the IPL as a guide, we detected a clear preference of Cx36 plaques for the ON sublamina from the earliest time of detection. This distributional preference became more pronounced at P15 and P20 due to the emergence and widespread expression of large (>0.1 μm2) Cx36 plaques in the ON sublamina. Finally, we showed that parvalbumin-positive (PV+) AII amacrine cell dendrites colocalize with Cx36 plaques as early as P10 in strata 3 and 4, whereas colocalizations in stratum 5 became characteristic only around P20. We conclude that Cx36 expression in the rat IPL displays a characteristic succession of changes during retinogenesis reflecting the formation of the underlying electrical synaptic circuitry. In particular, AII cell gap junctions, first formed with ON cone bipolar cells and later with other AII amacrine cells, accounted for the observed Cx36 expressional changes. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Turmer K.,University of Pecs | Turmer K.,Janos Szentagothai Research Center | Orban J.,University of Pecs | Orban J.,Janos Szentagothai Research Center | And 5 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects

Background Actin filament bundling proteins mediate numerous processes in cells such as the formation of cell membrane protrusions or cell adhesions and stress fiber based locomotion. Among them alpha-actinin and fascin are the most abundant ones. This work characterizes differences in molecular motions in actin filaments due to the binding of these two actin bundling proteins. Methods We investigated how alpha-actinin and fascin binding modify the conformation of actin filaments by using conventional and saturation transfer EPR methods. Results The result characteristic for motions on the microsecond time scale showed that both actin bundling proteins made the bending and torsional twisting of the actin filaments slower. When nanosecond time scale molecular motions were described the two proteins were found to induce opposite changes in the actin filaments. The binding of one molecule of alpha-actinin or fascin modified the conformation of numerous actin protomers. Conclusion As fascin and alpha-actinin participates in different cellular processes their binding can serve the proper tuning of the structure of actin by establishing the right conformation for the interactions with other actin binding proteins. Our observations are in correlation with the model where actin filaments fulfill their biological functions under the regulation by actin-binding proteins. General significance Supporting the general model for the cellular regulation of the actin cytoskeleton we showed that two abundant actin bundling proteins, fascin and alpha-actinin, alter the conformation of actin filaments through long range allosteric interactions in two different ways providing the structural framework for the adaptation to specific biological functions. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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