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Posa R.,University of Kaposvár | Magyar T.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Stoev S.D.,Trakia University | Glavits R.,Autopsy kkt | And 3 more authors.
Veterinary Pathology | Year: 2013

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae has a primary role in the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). The objective of this study was to determine whether fumonisin mycotoxins influence the character and/or the severity of pathological processes induced in the lungs of pigs by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Four groups of pigs (n = 7/group) were used, one fed 20 ppm fumonisin B1 (FB1) from 16 days of age (group F), one only infected with M. hyopneumoniae on study day 30 (group M), and a group fed FB1 and infected with M. hyopneumoniae (group MF), along with an untreated control group (group C). Computed tomography (CT) scans of infected pigs (M and MF) on study day 44 demonstrated lesions extending to the cranial and middle or in the cranial third of the caudal lobe of the lungs. The CT images obtained on study day 58 showed similar but milder lesions in 5 animals from group M, whereas lungs from 2 pigs in group MF appeared progressively worse. The evolution of average pulmonary density calculated from combined pixel frequency values, as measured by quantitative CT, was significantly influenced by the treatment and the age of the animals. The most characteristic histopathologic lesion in FB1-treated pigs was pulmonary edema, whereas the pathomorphological changes in Mycoplasma-infected pigs were consistent with catarrhal bronchointerstitial pneumonia. FB1 aggravated the progression of infection, as demonstrated by severe illness requiring euthanasia observed in 1 pig and evidence of progressive pathology in 2 pigs (group MF) between study days 44 and 58. © The Author(s) 2013.


Kovacs M.,University of Kaposvár | Kovacs M.,MTA KE Mycotoxins in the food chain Research Group | Posa R.,University of Kaposvár | Tuboly T.,Szent Istvan University | And 6 more authors.
Research in Veterinary Science | Year: 2016

The possible interaction between Pasteurella multocida and the mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1), recognised as one of the most often food/feed contaminant, was studied with the aim to evaluate whether and how FB1 can influence and/or complicate the development and severity of various pathological damages provoked by Pasteurella multocida in some internal organs of pigs. Heavier lung pathology was seen in pigs experimentally infected with Pasteurella multocida, when the same were exposed to 20 ppm dietary levels of fumonisin B1 (FB1) as was assessed by gross pathology, pathomorphological examinations, clinical biochemistry and some immunological investigations. The most typical damages in FB1 treated pigs were the strong oedema in the lung and the slight oedema in the other internal organs and mild degenerative changes in the kidneys, whereas the typical pathomorphological findings in pigs infected with Pasteurella multocida was broncho-interstitial pneumonia. FB1 was found to aggravate pneumonic changes provoked by P. multocida in the cranial lobes of the lung and to complicate pneumonic damages with interstitial oedema in the lung. No macroscopic damages were observed in the pigs infected only with Pasteurella multocida. It can be concluded that the feed intake of FB1 in pigs may complicate or exacerbate the course of P. multocida serotype A infection. © 2016


Kovacs M.,University of Kaposvár | Kovacs M.,MTA KE Mycotoxins in the Food Chain Research Group | Tornyos G.,University of Kaposvár | Matics Z.,MTA KE Mycotoxins in the Food Chain Research Group | And 7 more authors.
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2013

T-2 toxin (T-2) was administered to adult Pannon White (n=10/group) male rabbits for 65 days, first in a suspension by gavage (0.05, 0.1 or 0.2. mg/animal/day), and secondly mixed into the feed (0.33 and 0.66. mg/kg feed). In the first experiment 0.1. mg T-2 exposure resulted in temporary decrease in feed intake, slower increase in the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) induced testosterone synthesis, slight centrolobular infiltration in the liver and a slight hyperplasia of the Leydig cells. In addition to the temporary feed refusal effect, 0.2. mg T-2 caused a temporary decrease in plasma albumin and urea concentrations, lesser glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in the seminal plasma, a greater (by 320%) ratio of spermatozoa with cytoplasmic droplets, slower increase in the GnRH-induced testosterone synthesis, centrolobular infiltration in the liver, slightly hyperaemic testes and increased proliferative activity of the Leydig cells. The two smaller doses applied in feed (0.33 and 0.66. mg/kg) did not cause any significant adverse effect, and no feed refusal was observed. According to these results the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of T-2 for adult rabbit males was found to be <0.1. mg/animal/day (<0.02. mg/kg. b.w./day). © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Belhassen T.,National Institute of Agronomy of Tunis | Bonai A.,University of Kaposvár | Gerencser Z.S.,National Institute of Agronomy of Tunis | Matics Z.S.,National Institute of Agronomy of Tunis | And 4 more authors.
World Rabbit Science | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the live yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the growth performance, caecal ecosystem and overall health of growing rabbits. A control diet was formulated (crude protein: 15.9%; neutral detergent fibre: 31.6%) and another diet obtained by supplementing the control diet with 1 g of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (6.5×109 colony-forming units) per kg of diet. Ninety 35-d old rabbits were allotted into 3 groups: TT (rabbits offered the supplemented diet from 17 d of age onwards), CT (rabbits offered supplemented diet from 35 d) and CC (rabbits fed non-supplemented diet). Body weight (BW) and feed intake were measured weekly and mortality was controlled daily. At 35, 42 and 77 d of age, 6 rabbits from each group were slaughtered and digestive physiological traits, serum clinical chemistry parameters, fermentation traits, and the composition of caecal microbiota examined. At 42 and 56 d of age, 10 rabbits from each group were injected intraperitoneally with 100 μg/animal of ovalbumin and blood samples were collected for examination of plasma immunological parameters. Throughout the experiment (5-11 wk), weight gain and feed intake (37.8 and 112.6 g/d, on av.) were not affected by yeast, except for weight gain in the first week after weaning, which was the highest in TT animals among the 3 groups (48.1 vs. 43.9 and 44.2 g/d for TT, CC and CT, respectively; P=0.012). This may be due to the increased trend in feed intake (P=0.072) in the TT group (96.4 g/d) compared to the others. Mortality (5/90) was low and did not differ among the 3 groups. Treatments had no effect on slaughter traits at the 3 sampling dates (35, 42 and 77 d). Only the weight of the empty caecum (% BW) was higher (P=0.02) in CC (2.2%) and CT (2.3%) than in TT group (1.8%) at 77 d of age. Treatments did not overtly affect the caecal microbiota, although the number of total anaerobic bacteria and Bacteroides were lower (108 and 107/g caecal digesta, respectively) in rabbits from CC group compared to those of CT and TT groups at 42 d of age (P=0.03). No difference between groups was observed for caecal short chain fatty acids profile, blood traits, or IgG and cytokine profile. In conclusion, supplementation of feed with yeast did not modify growth traits and resulted in only a temporary increase in weight gain and a slightly altered caecal microbiota after weaning. © WRSA, UPV, 2003.


Bors I.,MTA KE Mycotoxins in the Food Chain Research Group | Szabo-Fodor J.,MTA KE Mycotoxins in the Food Chain Research Group | Kovacs M.,MTA KE Mycotoxins in the Food Chain Research Group | Kovacs M.,University of Kaposvár
Poljoprivreda | Year: 2015

Maize (Zea mays L.) is often contaminated with Fusarium verticillioides. This harmful fungus produces fumonisins as secondary metabolites. These fumonisins can appear both free and hidden form in planta. The hidden form is usually bound covalently to cereal starch. From the hidden fumonisins, during enzymatic degradation, glycosides are formed, and the fumonisin is further decomposed during a de-esterification step. In this short communication some preliminary DFT calculated structural results which could be useful in the future to help to understand the van der Waals force controlled molecular interactions between these kinds of mycotoxin molecules and enzymes are demonstrated. © 2015, Faculty of Agriculture in Osijek. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Hungarian Academy of Sciences, MTA KE Mycotoxins in the food chain Research Group, Szent Istvan University, Trakia University and University of Kaposvár
Type: | Journal: Research in veterinary science | Year: 2016

The possible interaction between Pasteurella multocida and the mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1), recognised as one of the most often food/feed contaminant, was studied with the aim to evaluate whether and how FB1 can influence and/or complicate the development and severity of various pathological damages provoked by Pasteurella multocida in some internal organs of pigs. Heavier lung pathology was seen in pigs experimentally infected with Pasteurella multocida, when the same were exposed to 20ppm dietary levels of fumonisin B1 (FB1) as was assessed by gross pathology, pathomorphological examinations, clinical biochemistry and some immunological investigations. The most typical damages in FB1 treated pigs were the strong oedema in the lung and the slight oedema in the other internal organs and mild degenerative changes in the kidneys, whereas the typical pathomorphological findings in pigs infected with Pasteurella multocida was broncho-interstitial pneumonia. FB1 was found to aggravate pneumonic changes provoked by P. multocida in the cranial lobes of the lung and to complicate pneumonic damages with interstitial oedema in the lung. No macroscopic damages were observed in the pigs infected only with Pasteurella multocida. It can be concluded that the feed intake of FB1 in pigs may complicate or exacerbate the course of P. multocida serotype A infection.


PubMed | University of Veterinary Medicine and MTA KE Mycotoxins in the Food Chain Research Group
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Acta veterinaria Hungarica | Year: 2016

The mycotoxin T-2 has many harmful effects on mammalian cells and reproductive functions. In the present study, the in vitro effect of T-2 toxin on mouse blastocysts was examined. Embryos were cultured in media supplemented with 0.5, 0.75 and 1 ng/ml T-2. Different exposure times were applied [96 h (treatment I) or 24 h following 72 h in toxin-free media (treatment II)]. Blastomere number, nuclear chromatin status and blastocoel formation were investigated in blastocysts. Our data show that the effect of T-2 toxin may vary depending on the stage of the embryo at the start of exposure. At 96 h of exposure, the blastocysts had blastomeres with normal chromatin quality but their developmental potential was decreased. After 24 h of exposure applied following a 72-h culture, blastomeres had a higher level of chromatin damage, although their developmental potential was the same as in the control embryos. In both cases, decreased mitotic rate was found, which resulted in decreased blastomere number even at low toxin concentration.


PubMed | MTA KE Mycotoxins in the Food Chain Research Group and Eötvös Loránd University
Type: | Journal: Toxicology letters | Year: 2016

Pyrethroids are neurotoxic insecticides showing significant selective toxicity on insects over mammals, but effects on mammalian nervous system are not negligible. These substances act on the voltage-gated sodium channel, prolonging the duration of the open state. The present study focused on the effect of the pyrethroid esfenvalerate on the excitability of neuronal networks in vitro. From isolated rat brain slices, neocortical and hippocampal evoked field potentials were recorded; four concentrations (5-40M) of esfenvalerate were tested using in vitro administration of the commercial product Sumi-Alpha 5 EC

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