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Muranyi D.,Hungarian Natural History Museum | Gamboa M.,Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries | Orci K.M.,MTA ELTE MTM Ecology Research Group
Zootaxa | Year: 2014

Zwicknia Murányi, gen. n. is erected for the Capnia bifrons species group sensu Zhiltzova, 2001 with the description of three new species based on morphology, mating call, and the mitochondrial DNA marker cytochrome c oxidase I: Z. acuta Murányi & Orci, sp. n., Z. kovacsi Murányi & Gamboa, sp. n. and Z. rupprechti Murányi, Orci & Gamboa, sp. n.. Zwicknia bifrons (Newman, 1838) comb. n. is selected as the type species and redescribed. The other three species placed into Zwicknia, gen. n., Z. sevanica (Zhiltzova, 1964) comb. n., Z. tuberculata (Zhiltzova, 1964) comb. n., and Z. turkestanica (Kimmins, 1950) comb. n. are redescribed based only on morphological characters. Comparative morphological studies and newly discovered characters of the genitalia has allowed for the first time a synopsis of the adults of the West Palaearctic and Nearctic genera of Capniidae. Arsapnia Banks, 1897 (type species: A. decepta Banks, 1897 comb. rev.) is removed from synonymy with Capnia Pictet, 1841 with new combinations, Arsapnia arapahoe (Nelson & Kondratieff, 1988) comb. n., A. coyote (Nelson & Baumann, 1987) comb. n., A. pileata (Jewett, 1966) comb. n., A. sequoia (Nelson & Baumann, 1987) comb. n., A. teresa (Claassen, 1924) comb. n., A. tumida (Claassen, 1924) comb. n., and A. utahensis (Gaufin & Jewett, 1962) comb. n. A new sensu stricto diagnosis of Capnia is proposed with comments on the taxa retained in Capnia sensu lato. © 2014 Magnolia Press.


Vas Z.,Szent Istvan University | Csorba G.,Hungarian Natural History Museum | Rozsa L.,MTA ELTE MTM Ecology Research Group
Parasitology Research | Year: 2012

The taxonomic richness of lice (Phthiraptera) varies considerably among their avian and mammalian hosts. Previous studies explored some factors shaping louse diversity; however, the so-called Eichler's rule-according to which taxonomic richness of parasites co-varies with that of their hosts-has never been tested. Our study incorporates all families of birds and mammals and the whole order of lice to test this co-variation, thus we present the widest taxonomic range to test any correlates of louse richness. Louse richness data were controlled for uneven sampling effort. We used the method of independent contrasts to control for phylogenetic effects. We found a strong correlation between the species richness of avian and mammalian families and generic richness of their lice. We discuss some alternative macroevolutionary and macroecological hypotheses that may explain this phenomenon that may well be a general feature of parasitism and it seems possible that this effect contribute considerably to global biodiversity. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.


Rozsa L.,MTA ELTE MTM Ecology Research Group | Vas Z.,Hungarian Natural History Museum
ORYX | Year: 2015

The co-extinction of parasitic taxa and their host species is considered a common phenomenon in the current global extinction crisis. However, information about the conservation status of parasitic taxa is scarce. We present a global list of co-extinct and critically co-endangered parasitic lice (Phthiraptera), based on published data on their host-specificity and their hosts' conservation status according to the IUCN Red List. We list six co-extinct and 40 (possibly 41) critically co-endangered species. Additionally, we recognize 2-4 species that went extinct as a result of conservation efforts to save their hosts. Conservationists should consider preserving host-specific lice as part of their efforts to save species. © 2014 Fauna & Flora International.


Molnar V A.,Debrecen University | Tokolyi J.,Debrecen University | Vegvari Z.,Debrecen University | Sramko G.,MTA ELTE MTM Ecology Research Group | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Ecology | Year: 2012

Herbarium collections contain long-term data for a wide range of taxa and provide unique opportunities to evaluate the importance of life-history components in driving species-specific responses to climate change. In this paper, we analyse the relationships between change in flowering dates and life-history traits within a phylogenetic framework. The study is based on an extensive data set of herbarium specimens of orchids collected in Hungary between 1837 and 2009, supplemented by recent field observations (1980-2011). Of the 39 taxa investigated, 31 (79%) showed apparent advancement in mean flowering time. Among these, advancement was statistically significant in nine taxa. The rest (eight taxa) showed non-significant delays in flowering. Averaging across all taxa, flowering time advanced by 3 days (3.8% of flowering period) during the last 50 years compared with the period before 1960. In taxa showing significant advancement, flowering times advanced by 7.7 days (8.6% of the flowering period). The most extreme advancement was 13.9 days. Multivariate models were used to evaluate ways in which life history may affect phenological responses to climate change. Pollination mode (i.e. deceptive vs. rewarding vs. autogamous), life span (i.e. short-lived vs. long-lived), biogeographical distribution type (i.e. Mediterranean vs. non-Mediterranean) and flowering time (i.e. mean date of blooming) emerged as important factors that influence changes in flowering through time. Phylogenetic relatedness did not predict phenological response. The strongest response was observed in orchids that flower relatively early in spring, exhibit an autogamous or deceptive pollination mechanism, have a long life span and possess a Mediterranean centre of distribution. Synthesis. Our investigation demonstrates that the majority of Hungarian orchids have shifted their yearly mean flowering to earlier dates during the past 50 years. Certain life-history traits, but not phylogenetic relatedness, were found to be important in predicting climatic responsiveness in European terrestrial orchids. Our investigation demonstrates that the majority of Hungarian orchids have shifted their yearly mean flowering to earlier dates during the past 50 years. Certain life-history traits, but not phylogenetic relatedness were found to be important in predicting climatic responsiveness in European terrestrial orchids. © 2012 British Ecological Society.


Sramko G.,MTA ELTE MTM Ecology Research Group | Sramko G.,Debrecen University | Molnar V. A.,Debrecen University | Hawkins J.A.,University of Reading | Bateman R.M.,Jodrell Laboratory
Annals of Botany | Year: 2014

Background and Aims Lizard orchids of the genus Himantoglossum include many of Eurasia's most spectacular orchids, producing substantial spikes of showy flowers. However, until recently the genus had received only limited, and entirely traditional, systematic study. The aim of the current work was to provide a more robust molecular phylogeny in order to better understand the evolutionary relationships among species of particular conservation concern. Methods All putative species of Himantoglossum s.l. were sampled across its geographical range. A large subsample of the 153 populations studied contributed to an initial survey of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (nrITS) ribotypes. Smaller subsets were then sequenced for four plastid regions and the first intron of the low-copy-number nuclear gene LEAFY. Rooted using Steveniella as outgroup, phylogenetic trees were generated using parsimony and Bayesian methods from each of the three datasets, supplemented with a ribotype network. Key Results The resulting trees collectively determined the order of branching of the early divergent taxa as Himantoglossum comperianum > H. robertianum group > H. formosum, events that also involved significant morphological divergence. Relaxed molecular clock dating suggested that these divergences preceded the Pleistocene glaciations (the origin of the H. robertianum group may have coincided with the Messinian salinity crisis) and occurred in Asia Minor and/or the Caucasus. Among more controversial taxa of the H. hircinum-jankae clade, which are only subtly morphologically divergent, topological resolution was poorer and topological incongruence between datasets was consequently greater. Conclusions Plastid sequence divergence is broadly consistent with prior, morphologically circumscribed taxa and indicates a division between H. hircinum-adriaticum to the west of the Carpathians and H. jankae-caprinum (plus local endemics) to the east, a distinction also suggested by nrITS ribotypes. LEAFY phylogenies are less congruent with prior taxonomic arrangements and include one likely example of paralogy. Himantoglossum metlesicsianum fully merits its IUCN Endangered status. Potentially significant genetic variation was detected within Steveniella satyrioides, H. robertianum and H. hircinum. However, confident circumscription of the more derived species of Himantoglossum s.s., including local endemics of hybrid origin, must await future morphometric and population-genetic analyses. © 2014 The Author.


Lakos A.,Center for Tick Borne Diseases | Korosi A.,MTA ELTE MTM Ecology Research Group | Foldvari G.,Szent Istvan University
Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift | Year: 2012

Tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA) is an emerging infection caused by Rickettsia slovaca. We describe here the seasonal, age and gender characteristics as well as the association with horse contact as risk factors for acquiring TIBOLA in comparison with another, more frequent tick-borne disease, Lyme borreliosis. We analysed a dataset of 855 patients diagnosed with either Lyme (n = 805) or TIBOLA (n = 50) disease using Fisher's exact tests and generalized linear models. Then we performed a matched case-control study in which all TIBOLA patients were paired with one Lyme patient matching in age and gender. We identified the species of ticks collected from the TIBOLA patients (n = 16). We found that horse contact was significantly more frequent among TIBOLA (34/50; 68 %) than among Lyme patients (110/805; 13.7 %) (OR = 13.35, p < 0.001). The younger age and female gender associated with higher risk of acquiring TIBOLA (OR = 3.99, p < 0.001). Ten of the 16 ticks were D. marginatus, six were D. reticulatus suggesting that both species are responsible for transmitting R. slovaca. Two patients acquired the infection from male ticks. TIBOLA is a tick-borne zoonosis, which might have a specific association with horse contact. © Springer-Verlag Wien 2012.


Baldi A.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Baldi A.,Institute of Ecology and Botany | Batary P.,University of Gottingen | Batary P.,MTA ELTE MTM Ecology Research Group | Kleijn D.,Wageningen University
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2013

Agricultural intensification is a major threat to biodiversity. Agri-environment schemes, the main tools to counteract negative impacts of agriculture on the environment, are having mixed effects on biodiversity. One reason for this may be the limited number of species (groups) covered by most studies. Here, we compared species richness and abundance of 10 different species groups on extensively (0.5 cattle/ha) and intensively (1.0-1.2 cattle/ha) grazed semi-natural pastures in 42 fields in three Hungarian regions. Plants, birds and arthropods (leafhoppers, true bugs, orthopterans, leaf-beetles, weevils, bees, carabids, spiders) were sampled. We recorded 347 plant species, 748 territories of 43 bird species, and 51,883 individuals of 808 arthropod species. Compared to West European farmlands, species richness was generally very high. Grazing intensity had minor effects on α and β diversity, abundance and composition of the species assemblages. Region had significant effects on species richness and abundance of four taxa, and had strong effects on β diversity and species composition of all taxa. Regional differences therefore contributed significantly to the high overall biodiversity. We conclude that both grazing regimes deliver significant biodiversity benefits. Agri-environmental policy at the EU level should promote the maintenance of large scale extensive farming systems. At the national level, the effectiveness of agri-environment schemes should be improved via promoting and using research evidence. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Lukacs B.A.,Balaton Limnological Research Institute | Sramko G.,MTA ELTE MTM Ecology Research Group | Molnar V A.,Debrecen University
Biological Conservation | Year: 2013

Temporary pools are unusual habitats because they share features of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. They are habitats of community interests according to the Natura 2000 network (Natura code: 3130 and 3170), and can be found in several climatic regions where they harbours various wetland habitats. Whereas Mediterranean temporary pools are well studied, only a few papers deal with their continental counterparts, probably because they are mainly found on arable fields often displaying decades-lasting dormancy. This study aims at filling this gap in our knowledge by evaluating plant species composition, habitat types and diversity of temporary pools in a region of continental climate. We analysed data from 185 phytosociological relevés (79 historical and 106 contemporary data) from different types of waterlogged arable fields, including rice paddy fields, from the Pannonian Ecoregion. We found significant differentiations of rice paddy fields from 'other' waterlogged arable fields according to ordination, classification and regression analyses. Diversity partitioning of species abundance data showed that these habitats have a very high alpha (species number, Simpson and Shannon) and beta diversity, which means that all the sites have high importance in habitat conservation. We found many vascular plants listed in IUCN and national red lists among the indicator and characteristic species of continental temporary pools. Our results demonstrate the conservation importance of continental temporary pools in relation to habitat and biodiversity management and conservation planning. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Kormann U.,University of Gottingen | Rosch V.,University of Gottingen | Batary P.,University of Gottingen | Tscharntke T.,University of Gottingen | And 3 more authors.
Diversity and Distributions | Year: 2015

Aim: Biodiversity across the globe is heavily eroded by intensified management at local and landscape scales. Species communities of calcareous grasslands, which are among Europe's most diverse habitats, are severely threatened by the cessation of appropriate traditional management, loss of habitat connectivity and simplification of the surrounding landscape. However, our understanding of these often interrelated factors remains limited, in particular for trait-mediated responses across taxa. Here, we test the independent effects of local management (grazing, mowing and abandonment), habitat connectivity (measured by a connectivity index) and landscape complexity (indicated by the percentage of arable land) on nine taxa: plants, butterflies, bees, grasshoppers, hoverflies, spiders, true bugs, rove beetles and leafhoppers on small semi-natural calcareous grassland remnants (< 1 ha). Location: Central Germany. Methods: We use a joint analysis across taxa to identify general and trait-mediated responses (body size and Red List status) in species richness, abundance and community composition. Results: We identified three key drivers of local diversity patterns: First, an increasing proportion of arable land from 10% to 80% led to a 29% loss of overall species richness. Second, despite differences between taxa, increasing habitat connectivity generally enhanced species richness. Connectivity effects were more accentuated in the large species per taxon, which can be expected to be good dispersers. Finally, grazing reduced species richness and abundance much more than annual mowing or short-term abandonment (5-15 years), in particular for red-listed species. We attribute this to plant resource removal through overgrazing and trampling. Main conclusions: For the conservation management of small calcareous grasslands, we advocate an alternating strategy of mowing or lenient grazing and short-term abandonment, prioritizing connected fragments surrounded by diverse landscapes. Despite taxon-specific responses, our study across nine taxa demonstrates universal, trait-mediated effects of management, landscape complexity and connectivity on local biodiversity in fragmented communities. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Rozsa L.,MTA ELTE MTM Ecology Research Group | Apari P.,Eötvös Loránd University
Parasitology | Year: 2012

Head lice transmit to new hosts when people lean their heads together. Humans frequently touch their heads to express friendship or love, while this behaviour is absent in apes. We hypothesize that this behaviour was adaptive because it enabled people to acquire head lice infestations as early as possible to provoke an immune response effective against both head lice and body lice throughout the subsequent periods of their life. This cross-immunity could provide some defence against the body-louse-borne lethal diseases like epidemic typhus, trench fever, relapsing fever and the classical plague. Thus the human 'touching heads' behaviour probably acts as an inherent and unconscious 'vaccination' against body lice to reduce the threat exposed by the pathogens they may transmit. Recently, the eradication of body-louse-borne diseases rendered the transmission of head lice a maladaptive, though still widespread, behaviour in developed societies. © Copyright 2012 Cambridge University Press.

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