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Freeman M.,University of Auckland | Philpott L.C.,University of British Columbia | Abe F.,Nagoya University | Albrow M.D.,University of Canterbury | And 21 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2015

Recently Sumi et al. reported evidence for a large population of planetary-mass objects (PMOs) that are either unbound or orbit host stars in orbits ≤10 AU. Their result was deduced from the statistical distribution of durations of gravitational microlensing events observed by the MOA collaboration during 2006 and 2007. Here we study the feasibility of measuring the mass of an individual PMO through microlensing by examining a particular event, MOA-2011-BLG-274. This event was unusual as the duration was short, the magnification high, the source-size effect large, and the angular Einstein radius small. Also, it was intensively monitored from widely separated locations under clear skies at low air masses. Choi et al. concluded that the lens of the event may have been a PMO but they did not attempt a measurement of its mass. We report here a re-analysis of the event using re-reduced data. We confirm the results of Choi et al. and attempt a measurement of the mass and distance of the lens using the terrestrial parallax effect. Evidence for terrestrial parallax is found at a 3σ level of confidence. The best fit to the data yields the mass and distance of the lens as 0.80 ± 0.30 MJ and 0.80 ± 0.25 kpc respectively. We exclude a host star to the lens out to a separation ∼40 AU. Drawing on our analysis of MOA-2011-BLG-274 we propose observational strategies for future microlensing surveys to yield sharper results on PMOs including those down to super-Earth mass. © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Shvartzvald Y.,Tel Aviv University | Maoz D.,Tel Aviv University | Kaspi S.,Tel Aviv University | Sumi T.,Osaka University | And 38 more authors.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2014

Global 'second-generation' microlensing surveys aim to discover and characterize extrasolar planets and their frequency, by means of round-the-clock high-cadence monitoring of a large area of the Galactic bulge, in a controlled experiment. We report the discovery of a giant planet in microlensing event MOA-2011-BLG-322. This moderate-magnification event, which displays a clear anomaly induced by a second lensing mass, was inside the footprint of our second-generation microlensing survey, involving MOA, OGLE and the Wise Observatory. The event was observed by the survey groups, without prompting alerts that could have led to dedicated follow-up observations. Fitting a microlensing model to the data, we find that the time-scale of the event was tE=23.2 ± 0.8 d, and the mass ratio between the lens star and its companion is q=0.028 ± 0.001. Finite-source effects are marginally detected, and upper limits on them help break some of the degeneracy in the system parameters. Using a Bayesian analysis that incorporates a Galactic structure model, we estimate the mass of the lens at 0.39+0.45-0.19M⊙ at a distance of 7.56 ± 0.91 kpc. Thus, the companion is likely a planet of mass 11.6+13.4-5.6 at a projected separation of 4.3+1.5-1.2 au, rather far beyond the snow line. This is the first pure-survey planet reported from a second-generation microlensing survey, and shows that survey data alone can be sufficient to characterize a planetary model. With the detection of additional survey-only planets, we will be able to constrain the frequency of extrasolar planets near their systems' snow lines. © 2014 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Shvartzvald Y.,Tel Aviv University | Maoz D.,Tel Aviv University | Udalski A.,University of Warsaw | Sumi T.,Osaka University | And 34 more authors.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2016

We present a statistical analysis of the first four seasons from a 'second-generation' microlensing survey for extrasolar planets, consisting of near-continuous time coverage of 8 deg2 of the Galactic bulge by the Optical Gravitational Lens Experiment (OGLE), Microlensing Observations in Astrophysics (MOA), and Wise microlensing surveys. During this period, 224 microlensing events were observed by all three groups. Over 12 per cent of the events showed a deviation from single-lens microlensing, and for ~one-third of those the anomaly is likely caused by a planetary companion. For each of the 224 events, we have performed numerical ray-tracing simulations to calculate the detection efficiency of possible companions as a function of companion-to-host mass ratio and separation. Accounting for the detection efficiency, we find that 55+34 -22 per cent of microlensed stars host a snowline planet. Moreover, we find that Neptune-mass planets are ~10 times more common than Jupiter-mass planets. The companion-to-host mass-ratio distribution shows a deficit at q ~ 10-2, separating the distribution into two companion populations, analogous to the stellar-companion and planet populations, seen in radial-velocity surveys around solar-like stars.Our survey, however,which probes mainly lower mass stars, suggests a minimum in the distribution in the super-Jupiter mass range, and a relatively high occurrence of brown-dwarf companions. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Novati S.C.,California Institute of Technology | Novati S.C.,University of Salerno | Gould A.,Ohio State University | Udalski A.,University of Warsaw | And 95 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2015

We present microlens parallax measurements for 21 (apparently) isolated lenses observed toward the Galactic bulge that were imaged simultaneously from Earth and Spitzer, which was ∼1 AU west of Earth in projection. We combine these measurements with a kinematic model of the Galaxy to derive distance estimates for each lens, with error bars that are small compared to the Sun's galactocentric distance. The ensemble therefore yields a well-defined cumulative distribution of lens distances. In principle, it is possible to compare this distribution against a set of planets detected in the same experiment in order to measure the Galactic distribution of planets. Since these Spitzer observations yielded only one planet, this is not yet possible in practice. However, it will become possible as larger samples are accumulated. © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Jung Y.K.,Chungbuk National University | Udalski A.,University of Warsaw | Sumi T.,Osaka University | Han C.,Chungbuk National University | And 54 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2015

We present an analysis of the gravitational microlensing event OGLE-2013-BLG-0102. The light curve of the event is characterized by a strong short-term anomaly superposed on a smoothly varying lensing curve with a moderate magnification A max ∼ 1.5. It is found that the event was produced by a binary lens with a mass ratio between the components of q = 0.13 and the anomaly was caused by the passage of the source trajectory over a caustic located away from the barycenter of the binary. Based on the analysis of the effects on the light curve due to the finite size of the source and the parallactic motion of the Earth, we determine the physical parameters of the lens system. The measured masses of the lens components are M 1 = 0.096 ± 0.013 M ⊙ and M 2 = 0.012 ± 0.002 M ⊙, which correspond to near the hydrogen-burning and deuterium-burning mass limits, respectively. The distance to the lens is 3.04 ± 0.31 kpc and the projected separation between the lens components is 0.80 ± 0.08 AU. © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..

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