Kāyankulam, India
Kāyankulam, India

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Anilkumar K.M.,MSM College | Jinisha B.,Cochin University of Science and Technology | Manoj M.,Cochin University of Science and Technology | Jayalekshmi S.,Cochin University of Science and Technology
European Polymer Journal | Year: 2017

The present work is an attempt to find the suitability of Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) - Poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) blend polymer based solid electrolyte membranes for applications in all solid state magnesium ion cells. On solvating the PEO-PVP blend with different concentrations of Mg(NO3)2 salt, the PEO-PVP-Mg(NO3)2 complex electrolyte, termed as the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) is formed. Flexible free-standing membranes of this SPE of thickness around 100 µm are obtained by solution casting technique. The amorphous nature of the semi-crystalline polymer PEO is enhanced by the addition of the Mg salt, as revealed by XRD, FE-SEM and Raman studies. The ionic conductivity evaluated for this SPE membrane is four orders higher than that of pure PEO and close to that of liquid electrolytes used in Mg ion cells. The highest Mg ion conductivity observed for the SPE membrane, in the present work is 5.8 × 10−4 S cm−1 at room temperature and is higher than previously reported ionic conductivity for Mg salt complexed solid polymer electrolytes. The Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) curve of the SPE with stainless steel (SS) blocking electrodes shows wide electrochemical window of 4 V. The Mg ion cells assembled using this SPE as the electrolyte, without the need for any additional separator show an open circuit voltage around 1.46 V and are electrochemically active. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


KM A.,MSM College | Manoj M.,Cochin University of Science and Technology | Jinisha B.,Cochin University of Science and Technology | Pradeep V.S.,Cochin University of Science and Technology | Jayalekshmi S.,Cochin University of Science and Technology
Electrochimica Acta | Year: 2017

A nanocomposite of manganese oxide (Mn3O4) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) is obtained by simple, physical mixing of the components and its suitability as electrode material for high power supercapacitors is analysed by detailed electrochemical characterization. Mn3O4 nanorods of average diameter 36 nm is synthesized via hydrothermal method and rGO, by chemical reduction of GO, obtained by modified Hummer's method. The structural and morphological studies using XRD, Raman spectroscopy, BET, SEM and TEM techniques reveal that, in the nanocomposite, the Mn3O4 nanorods are dispersed homogenously within the rGO layers, with the structural characteristics of the component materials kept intact. The nanocomposite electrode with the component materials taken in 1:1 ratio shows excellent 3 electrode electrochemical performance in 1 M Na2SO4 and 2 electrode performance in organic electrolyte. The 3 electrode measurements show specific capacitance of 228 F g−1 at 5 A g−1 for the nanocomposite electrode. The 2 electrode measurements using symmetric supercapacitor test cells give a capacitance of 94 F g−1, an energy density of 82 Wh kg−1 at 1 A g−1, a power density of 7097 W kg−1 and good cycling stability with 95% of the initial capacitance remaining after 5000 cycles at 5 A g−1. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Jinisha B.,Cochin University of Science and Technology | KM A.,MSM College | Manoj M.,Cochin University of Science and Technology | Pradeep P.,Cochin University of Science and Technology | Jayalekshmi J.,Cochin University of Science and Technology
Electrochimica Acta | Year: 2017

In the present study, flexible and freestanding solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) films based on poly ethylene oxide (PEO) and poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) complexed with lithium nitrate (LiNO3) have been developed by solution casting method. Morphological features of the synthesised SPE films have been investigated in detail using X-ray Diffraction, Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy and Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy techniques. These films have smooth surface morphology and porous nature along with good thermal stability above 400 °C. The novelty of the present work is the introduction of these flexible SPE films for Li storage applications. The films exhibit room temperature ionic conductivity around 1.13 × 10−3 S cm−1 which is quite comparable to that of liquid electrolytes. For these SPE films, the total ion transport number and lithium ion transference number are 0.9997 and 0.332 respectively. Electrochemical characterizations have been carried out by assembling prototype Li-ion cells with LiFePO4 as the cathode active material, lithium as the anode and the SPE film of the present work serving both as the separator film and the solid electrolyte. These cells show an open circuit voltage of 3.26 V and good electrochemical activity as evidenced from the cyclic voltammetry studies. These novel type of flexible SPE films from PEO/PVP/LiNO3 composites with remarkable room temperature ionic conductivity, good thermal stability and promising electrochemical activity offer excellent application prospects for realizing all solid state Li ion cells and other solid state, electrochemical energy storage devices. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Vysakh A.,Thomas College | Ratheesh M.,Thomas College | Pramod C.,Kerala University | Premlal S.,Drug Standardization Unit | And 2 more authors.
International Immunopharmacology | Year: 2014

We evaluated the protective efficacy of the polyphenolic fraction from virgin coconut oil (PV) against adjuvant induced arthritic rats. Arthritis was induced by intradermal injection of complete Freund's adjuvant. The activities of inflammatory, antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation were estimated. PV showed high percentage of edema inhibition at a dose of 80 mg/kg on 21st day of adjuvant arthritis and is non toxic. The expression of inflammatory genes such as COX-2, iNOS, TNF-α and IL-6 and the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance were decreased by treatment with PV. Antioxidant enzymes were increased and on treatment with PV. The increased level of total WBC count and C-reactive protein in the arthritic animals was reduced in PV treated rats. Synovial cytology showed that inflammatory cells and reactive mesothelial cells were suppressed by PV. Histopathology of paw tissue showed less edema formation and cellular infiltration on supplementation with PV. Thus the results demonstrated the potential beneficiary effect of PV on adjuvant induced arthritis in rats and the mechanism behind this action is due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Bhadrakumari S.,Msm College | Predeep P.,National Institute of Technology Calicut
Journal of Superconductivity and Novel Magnetism | Year: 2010

A novel technique for preparing YBCO/polymer composites showing true superconducting transition above liquid nitrogen temperature has been developed. A thermoplastic polymer, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), was used to improve the flexural properties of the high-temperature superconducting ceramic YBCO. The superconductor/polymer composites exhibited superconducting resistive transition at about 90∈K. The scanning electron micrograph reveals excellent wetting, infiltration, and polymerization of the monomer into the superconducting material. Polymer impregnation has no measurable effect on the critical transition temperature, the width of transition, and Meissner effect. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Bhadrakumari S.,Msm College | Rabiya A.,Msm College
Composite Interfaces | Year: 2014

Ceramic-polymer composite thermistors using superconducting YBa 2Cu2O7-x powder have been fabricated. Percolation and subsequent positive temperature coefficient (PTC) of resistance effects are observed for all the composites. Results indicate that percolation and PTC behaviour are related to the powder characteristics, composite microstructure and ceramic-polymer interface. The reproducibility of the resistivity - temperature behaviour for the polyethylene composites upon thermal cycling is illustrated and is found that the location of the PTC transition is independent of the number of thermal cycles. However, the room temperature resistivity increases by about 1 order of magnitude from the first to the forth cycle. Composite thermistors with room temperature resistivity as low as 1 Ω cm and 11 order of magnitude change at 1 kHz were achieved. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.


Amina S.,MSM College
Journal of Advanced Zoology | Year: 2013

A study on seasonal distribution of Bacillariophyceae on Kayamkulam Back water reveals that twenty four genera were present In the Lake. They were conspicuous by their regular appearance throughout the period of Investigation. Bacillariophyceae exhibited a single dominant peak in all the stations during the month of March and April. In the current observation maximum number of Diatoms were documented during post-monsoon seasons more or less In all the stations. Diatoms value is strongly correlated with dissolved oxygen values at stations. Analysis further revealed the Phytoplankton fluctuations on long-term trends. We conclude that global Phytoplankton concentration has declined over the past century; this decline will lead to be considered in future studies of marine ecosystems, geochemical cycling, ocean circulation and fisheries.


Bhadrakumari S.,Msm College | Predeep P.,Laboratory for Unconventional Electronics
Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites | Year: 2010

Composite samples of YBa2Cu3O7-x (Y-123) and linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) are prepared using Y-123 as filler. The electrical and magnetic properties and microstructure of these composites are presented. Although these composites do not show zero resistivity, the intrinsic diamagnetic properties of the superconducting materials are preserved in the composites and there is no change in the transition temperature of the superconductor. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies indicated a systematic variation in the microstructure in terms of the pores present and the extent of the intergrain contacts of the Y-123 filler. © 2010 SAGE Publications.


PubMed | Thomas College, Flavours, Kerala University, Indian Institute of Science and MSM College
Type: | Journal: Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie | Year: 2016

Fresh oyster white translucent sap obtained from the tender unopened inflorescence of coconut trees (Cocos nucifera) is identified to have great health benefits. Drug induced Nephrotoxicity is one of the major causes of renal damage in present generation. As a therapeutic agent, gentamicin imparts direct toxicity to kidney, resulting in acute tubular necrosis, glomerular and tubulointerstitial injury, haemodynamically mediated damage and obstructive nephropathy.There exists an increasing demand for safe and natural agents for the treatment and/or preventionofchronic nephrotoxicity and pathogenesis of kidney diseases. Our study shows the nephro protective/curing effect of a novel powder formulation of micronutrient enriched, unfermented coconut flower sap (CSP). The study was performed on adult male Wistar rats. The animals were grouped into three and treated separately with vehicle, gentamicin and gentamicin+CSP for 16days. Initially, gentamicin treatment significantly (p<0.05)reduced thelevels of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPx) and GSH and increased (p<0.05) the levels of creatinine, uric acid, urea, inflammatory markers (nitrite, IL-6, TNF- , iNOS) and lipid peroxidation. Supplementation of coconut flower sap powder showed significant (p<0.05) reversal of all these biochemical parameters indicating an effective inhibition of the pathogenesis of nephrotoxicity and kidney disease.


PubMed | Thomas College, Drug Standardization Unit, Kerala University, Indian Institute of Science and MSM College
Type: | Journal: Inflammopharmacology | Year: 2016

Kerabala (CB) is a novel ayurvedic formulation used for treating various inflammatory diseases. This formulation was made from virgin coconut oil and it comprises extracts of Sida cordifolia, coconut milk and sesame oil. The current study was performed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory action of CB on carrageenan-induced acute and adjuvant-induced chronic experimental models. 5mg/kg bwt was found to be potent dose from carrageenan model and evaluated its effect in adjuvant-induced chronic arthritic model. The antioxidant assays like SOD, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, lipid peroxidation product, nitrate level and GSH were measured in paw tissue. Hematological parameters like hemoglobin (HB) count, ESR, WBC count, plasma CRP levels were analyzed. By RT-PCR, the inflammatory markers like cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) expressions were evaluated. The extracellular matrix proteins like MMP-2 and MMP-9 were determined by zymography and its expression by western blotting. Histopathology and cytology of paw tissue and synovium were analyzed. The result indicated that there was a significant increment in the levels of antioxidant enzymes on CB administration. The hematological markers such as ESR, WBC and plasma CRP levels were reduced by CB treatment and it also increases the HB level. The upregulated gene level expressions of inflammatory markers like COX-2, iNOS, TNF- and IL-6 were down regulated by administration of CB. MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression significantly reduced by CB administration. Massive influx of inflammatory cell infiltration, proliferative collagen in histological analysis of paw tissue of arthritic rat was decreased by CB administration. Synovial cytology of CB administrated group shows reduced number of reactive mesothelial cells and synovial inflammatory cells. This current study shows that ayurvedic drug CB has an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity in experimental arthritic model. CB as an anti-arthritic drug has beneficial effect for treating inflammation, tissue damage and pain associated with arthritis.

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