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Diaz E.,Jet Propulsion Laboratory | Green D.,NASA | Goodman M.,MSFC | Kirschbaum D.,GSFC | And 3 more authors.
Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC | Year: 2016

NASA and its partners are working to provide actionable data from a variety of space/airborne resources and scientific capabilities in order to provide responders with information to assist in the relief and humanitarian operations after a disaster. The presentation will focus on NASA's plans, strategies, future work and partner collaborations in enabling rapid assessment for Disaster Response. The talk will also focus on previous response examples highlighting some of the products generated, such as ground based geodetic observations and optical/radar data from international and domestic partners, to compile a variety of products, including "vulnerability maps," used to determine risks that may be present, and "damage proxy maps," used to determine the type and extent of existing damage. A synopsis of lessons learned useful for responding to future events that would improve the effectiveness of an agency wide response will also be presented.


News Article | May 12, 2017
Site: news.yahoo.com

FILE PHOTO: NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) 70-metric-ton configuration is seen launching to space in this undated artist's rendering released August 2, 2014. REUTERS/NASA/MSFC/Handout via REUTERS/File Photo CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. (Reuters) - NASA has delayed the first launch of its heavy-payload rocket until 2019 and decided against an idea floated by the White House to put astronauts aboard the capsule that is set to fly around the moon, the U.S. space agency said on Friday. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration had hoped to launch the Space Launch System, or SLS, rocket in November 2018. The rocket will send the deep-space Orion capsule on a high lunar orbit. The launch is part of NASA's long-term program to use the rocket to get astronauts and equipment to Mars. In February, at the behest of President Donald Trump's administration, NASA began to weigh the implications of adding a two-person crew for the trial flight. The conclusion of the study was to wait until a second flight before adding a crew, NASA Acting Administrator Robert Lightfoot said. The research "really reaffirmed that the baseline plan we have in place was the best way for us to go,” he told reporters on a conference call. Adding systems to support a crew would have cost NASA $600 million to $900 million more and would likely have delayed the flight to 2020, he said. Even without a crew, the SLS will not be ready to blast off from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida until 2019, Lightfoot said, adding that the agency would have a more specific timeframe in about a month. The delay would push back the rocket’s second flight beyond 2021, said NASA Associate Administrator William Gerstenmaier. The delays are largely due to technical issues encountered during the development of SLS and Orion, as well as tornado damage to the rocket’s manufacturing plant in New Orleans. By the end of the next fiscal year on September 30, 2018, NASA will have spent $23 billion on the rocket, capsule, launch site and support systems, according to an audit by NASA’s Office of Inspector General. That excludes $9 billion spent on the mothballed Constellation lunar exploration program, which included initial development of the Orion and a second heavy-lift rocket. Initially, the SLS rocket, which uses engines left over from the space shuttle program and shuttle-derived solid rocket boosters, will have the capacity to put about 77 tons (70 metric tons) into an orbit about 100 miles (160 km) above Earth. Later versions are expected to carry nearly twice that load. “We’re really building a system,” Gerstenmaier said. “It is much, much more than one flight.”


Polarization spectra of the hydrogen Lyman-α line from the Sun taken by the CLASP sounding rocket experiment. Credit: NAOJ, JAXA, NASA/MSFC; background full-Sun image: NASA/SDO For the first time in the world, scientists have explored the magnetic field in the upper solar atmosphere by observing the polarization of ultraviolet light from the Sun. They accomplished this by analyzing data taken by the CLASP sounding rocket experiment during its 5-minute flight in space on September 3, 2015. The data show that the structures of the solar chromosphere and transition region are more complicated than expected. Now that ultraviolet spectropolarimetry, the method used in the CLASP project, has been proven to work, it can be used in future investigations of the magnetic fields in the upper chromosphere and the transition region to better understand activity in the solar atmosphere. By analyzing the characteristics of light from the Sun, astronomers can determine how it has been emitted and scattered in the solar atmosphere, and thus determine the conditions in the solar atmosphere. Because magnetic fields are thought to play an important role in various types of solar activity, many precise measurements have been made of the magnetic fields at the solar surface ("photosphere"), but not so many observations have measured the magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere above the surface. While visible light is emitted from the photosphere, ultraviolet (UV) light is emitted and scattered in the parts of the solar atmosphere known as the chromosphere and the transition region. CLASP is a project to investigate the magnetic fields in the upper chromosphere and the transition region, using the hydrogen Lyman-α line in UV. The international team used data from the CLASP spectropolarimeter, an instrument which provides detailed wavelength (color) and polarization (orientation of the light waves) information for light passing through a thin slit. The left side of Figure 1 shows the position of the spectropolarimeter slit on a background image taken by the slit-jaw camera onboard CLASP; the diagrams on the right side show the wavelength and polarization data. The researchers discovered that the hydrogen Lyman-α line from the Sun is actually polarized. Some of the polarization characteristics match those predicted by the theoretical scattering models. However, others are unexpected, indicating that the structures of the upper chromosphere and transition region are more complicated than expected. In particular, the team discovered that polarization varied on a spatial scale of 10 - 20 arcsec (one hundredth - one fiftieth of the solar radius). In addition to the scattering process, magnetic fields can also affect the polarization. To investigate if the measured polarization was affected by the magnetic field, the team observed 3 different wavelength ranges: the core of the hydrogen Lyman-α line (121.567 nm), whose polarization is affected by even a weak magnetic field; an ionized silicon emission line (120.65 nm) whose polarization is affected only by a relatively strong magnetic field; and the wing of the hydrogen Lyman-α spectral line, which is not sensitive to magnetically induced polarization changes. The team analyzed these 3 polarizations above 4 regions on the solar surface with different magnetic fluxes (regions A, B, C, and D in Figure 1). The results plotted in Figure 2 demonstrated that the large deviations from the expected scattering polarization in the Lyman-α core and the silicon line are in fact due to the magnetic fields, because the Lyman-α wing polarization remains almost constant. These epoch-making results are the first to directly show that magnetic fields exist in the transition region. They also demonstrate that ultraviolet spectropolarimetry is effective in studying solar magnetic fields. Moreover, these results have shown that sounding rocket experiments like CLASP can play an important role in pioneering new techniques, even though they are small scale and short term compared to satellites. Dr. Ryoko Ishikawa, project scientist for the Japanese CLASP team, describes the significance of the results, "The successful observation of polarization indicative of magnetic fields in the upper chromosphere and the transition region means that ultraviolet spectropolarimetry has opened a new window to such solar magnetic fields, allowing us to see new aspects of the Sun." These results appear as "Discovery of Scattering Polarization in the Hydrogen Lyα Line of the Solar Disk Radiation" by R. Kano, et. al. in the Astrophysical Journal Letters in April 2017 and "Indication of the Hanle Effect by Comparing the Scattering Polarization Observed by CLASP in the Lyman-α and Si III 120.65 nm Lines" by R. Ishikawa, et. al. in The Astrophysical Journal in May 2017. Explore further: SUMI rocket to study the Sun's magnetic fields More information: R. Kano et al, Discovery of Scattering Polarization in the Hydrogen LyLine of the Solar Disk Radiation, The Astrophysical Journal (2017). DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aa697f


News Article | May 8, 2017
Site: www.businesswire.com

DALLAS--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Jacobs Engineering Group Inc. (NYSE:JEC) received the 2017 Dwight D. Eisenhower Award for Excellence, given by the Small Business Administration (SBA) for the company’s exemplary work with small businesses. The award recognized Jacobs’ Engineering & Science Services & Skills Augmentation (ESSSA) Group at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Randy Lycans, Jacobs Vice President and ESSSA Group General Manager, accepted the award in the Services category during the celebration of National Small Business Week held April 30 to May 1, in Washington, D.C. “This award is a testament to our dedication to building mutually beneficial relationships with small business partners to provide innovative solutions to clients while at the same time support local economies,” said Ward Johnson, Jacobs Senior Vice President. “We are honored to accept this award on behalf of all our partners and look forward to continue to bring together our knowledge and experience to service NASA Marshall Space Flight Center.” Jacobs supports NASA at multiple sites across the U.S., including a presence at NASA MSFC for more than 30 years. The ESSSA Group has a staff of more than 1,000 employees, with Jacobs as prime contractor and Aerodyne Industries, All Points Logistics, Bevilacqua Research Corporation, ERC, Geocent, Lee & Associates, Qualis Corporation and Tuskegee University as small business teammate companies, along with 35 other small business subcontractors. Jacobs’ support to NASA MSFC programs encompasses the International Space Station, Space Launch System, advanced space transportation and exploration systems, payload development and operations, space optics fabrication and test, and advanced materials development and test. The Eisenhower Award, named after Dwight D. Eisenhower, who was president the year the SBA was founded, is given to large federal prime contractors that exemplify partnering with small businesses in the areas of research and development, manufacturing, service, construction and utility. Nominees for the Eisenhower Award are selected from contractors nationwide who demonstrate a strong commitment to small businesses through contract utilization and effectiveness, mentoring and outreach, and corporate policies and management support. Jacobs is one of the world’s largest and most diverse providers of full-spectrum technical, professional and construction services for industrial, commercial and government organizations globally. The company employs over 54,000 people and operates in more than 25 countries around the world. For more information, visit www.jacobs.com. Statements made in this release that are not based on historical fact are forward-looking statements. We base these forward-looking statements on management’s current estimates and expectations as well as currently available competitive, financial and economic data. Forward-looking statements, however, are inherently uncertain. There are a variety of factors that could cause business results to differ materially from our forward-looking statements. For a description of some of the factors which may occur that could cause actual results to differ from our forward-looking statements please refer to our Form 10-K for the year ended September 30, 2016, and in particular the discussions contained under Items 1 - Business, 1A - Risk Factors, 3 - Legal Proceedings, and 7 - Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations. We do not undertake to update any forward-looking statements made herein.


News Article | February 21, 2017
Site: www.prnewswire.co.uk

ATX-MS-1467 Reduced the Number and Volume of Brain Lesions With a Very Promising Safety Profile Apitope, the drug discovery and development company focused on treating the underlying cause of autoimmune diseases, announces positive results from the Phase IIa clinical study of its lead product candidate, ATX-MS-1467, for the treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis. The Phase IIa, open-label, one arm study evaluated the effects of ATX-MS-1467 in 19 patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis. The investigational product was administered intradermally (ID) every 2 weeks for 20 weeks. Following a dose titration of 50 and 200 μg in the initial 4 weeks of treatment a dose of 800μg was administered fortnightly for a further of 16 weeks. There were statistically significant reductions in total and new T1 Gadolinium enhancing lesions measured using MRI during treatment as well as a significant reduction in the volume of T1 Gadolinium enhancing lesions. The data also showed a strong trend towards improvement in the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC) score that is used clinically as an indicator of improvement in disability. There were no treatment related serious adverse events and the adverse event profile was mild. Dr Keith Martin, Chief Executive Officer of Apitope, commented, "We are delighted with these positive results that confirm both clinical findings in our Phase Ib trial as well as preclinical results showing significant decreases in MRI detected lesions and disability in a standard multiple sclerosis model. We will continue to progress the development of ATX-MS-1467 as a treatment for multiple sclerosis and are currently preparing for a Phase IIb placebo controlled study to demonstrate clinical efficacy." Dr Jeremy Chataway, Consultant Neurologist, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London, commenting on the results said, "Having been the Chief Investigator on the previous Phase Ib study, it is pleasing to see these promising confirmatory Phase IIa results where ATX-MS-1467 has shown both an encouraging efficacy and an excellent safety and tolerability profile. While these patients were only treated for 20 weeks, results in a Phase IIb study with a longer treatment period will be interesting." The compound had previously completed a Phase I clinical study in six patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) and a second Phase I study in 43 relapsing multiple sclerosis patients, assessing safety and biological parameters. The latest results support the further development of ATX-MS-1467 in multiple sclerosis. Apitope is a European biotech company focused on the discovery and development of disease modifying therapies for abnormal immune responses, including autoimmune diseases such as, multiple sclerosis, Graves' disease, and uveitis; and Factor VIII intolerance. Apitope has a patented discovery platform which enables selection of disease-modifying peptide therapies for the target of interest; and has already generated a pipeline of seven programmes in clinical and preclinical development, of which the lead programme in multiple sclerosis is in Phase II. The discovery engine selects Apitopes™ - Antigen Processing Independent epiTOPES. Apitopes are soluble, synthetic peptides from the human sequence which can selectively suppress abnormal immune responses and reinstate the normal immune balance. Stakeholders in the company include Wales Life Sciences Fund, Vesalius Biocapital, LRM, the Wellcome Trust and the US MS charity, Fast Forward. Apitope's lead product candidate is ATX-MS-1467, a potentially disease-modifying therapy for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, is a novel peptide-based therapeutic identified using Apitope's proprietary technology platform. It consists of four short peptides that are derived from myelin basic protein, a key autoantigen in multiple sclerosis. It is designed to induce immunological tolerance of the body's T cells to key autoantigens thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. For more information on the Company, please visit: www.apitope.com For further information: Apitope Dr Keith Martin, CEO Tel: +44-(0)-1291-63-55-11 keith.martin@apitope.com For media enquiries: Hume Brophy Conor Griffin, Alexia Faure, Alexander Protsenko Tel: +44-(0)-20-7862-6381 apitope@humebrophy.com


News Article | November 11, 2015
Site: phys.org

That's a benefit for numerous industries where the clamping force of bolts is critical, including construction, auto assembly, nuclear power, racing, aviation and space. "Any performance application will have a need for this," says Dr. Gang Wang, assistant professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering who is testing the new washer system with Dr. David (Andy) Hissam, a UAH mechanical and aerospace engineering doctoral graduate who works at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and is the team lead for the Propulsion Detailed Design Branch (ER34). A bolt's clamping force, called preload, is generated as the bolt stretches during tightening. The two most common methods of applying preload are torque control and turn control. In torque control, a specified torque is placed on the fastener, typically with a torque wrench. In turn control, the nut is turned through a specified angle that stretches the bolt the desired amount. Both methods are only approximations of the true preload exerted because friction plays a major role in the readings obtained. "When you use a torque wrench, you are measuring torque, not the preload. You can be off the bolt's specified preload by plus or minus 35 percent by using a torque wrench as an indicator because of the amount of friction involved, which is very difficult to quantify," says Dr. Hissam. "That means," says Dr. Hissam, indicating a drawing of a flange, "that to get 2,000 pounds of preload on each bolt, a different torque value would have to be applied to each one." The washer the pair is developing uses piezoelectric filaments connected to a handheld device that registers the preload value by reading the electrical output of the filaments. Piezoelectric materials have the capacity generate a voltage when they are subjected to mechanical stress. "When you tighten it up, this directly indicates how much force this washer is experiencing, which is directly related to the bolt's preload," say Dr. Wang. "Instead of a plus or minus 35 percent variance, we are shooting for a closer range, like 5 percent to 10 percent." The two have filed a NASA Disclosure of Invention and New Technology and have received a 2016 MSFC Center Innovation Fund grant to further test and refine the washer. "We are continuing to look for additional sources of funding in order to further develop it," Dr. Wang says. Tests getting underway now will involve determining an appropriate low-cost material in which to embed the piezoelectric filaments, vibration and temperature testing and trials to accumulate the data necessary to provide accurate preload readings. "Two things we are after are accuracy and to keep the costs down," says Dr. Wang. "We want to test so that we can be sure that when a technician tightens a bolt he gets that specific value he is looking for every time." Because a piezoelectric load cell is ceramic and fragile, the tests will also provide information about optimizing washer design to avoid breaking the sensing elements. "You don't want a force directly applied to the piezo matter; you will break it," Dr. Wang says. Since that renders the washer's measuring capability useless, the washer's metallic elements must be designed to carry the majority of the load. "We are also looking at what type of material we should use to surround the piezo material that will protect it best," he says. "That way we can be sure the piezo element will provide an accurate reading and not break." If the elements can be preserved, the washer could be used many times. "There should be no reason," Dr. Hissam says, "that it can't be reused."


Arnold Sr. W.R.,Defense Group Inc. | Fitzgerald M.,MSFC | Rosa R.J.,MSFC | Stahl H.P.,NASA
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2013

The advances in manufacturing techniques for lightweight mirrors, such as EXELSIS deep core low temperature fusion, Corning's continued improvements in the Frit bonding process and the ability to cast large complex designs, combined with water-jet and conventional diamond machining of glasses and ceramics has created the need for more efficient means of generating finite element models of these structures. Traditional methods of assembling 400,000 + element models can take weeks of effort, severely limiting the range of possible optimization variables. This paper will introduce model generation software developed under NASA sponsorship for the design of both terrestrial and space based mirrors. The software deals with any current mirror manufacturing technique, single substrates, multiple arrays of substrates, as well as the ability to merge submodels into a single large model. The modeler generates both mirror and suspension system elements, suspensions can be created either for each individual petal or the whole mirror. A typical model generation of 250,000 nodes and 450,000 elements only takes 3-5 minutes, much of that time being variable input time. The program can create input decks for ANSYS, ABAQUS and NASTRAN. An archive/retrieval system permits creation of complete trade studies, varying cell size, depth, and petal size, suspension geometry with the ability to recall a particular set of parameters and make small or large changes with ease. The input decks created by the modeler are text files which can be modified by any text editor, all the shell thickness parameters and suspension spring rates are accessible and comments in deck identify which groups of elements are associated with these parameters. This again makes optimization easier. With ANSYS decks, the nodes representing support attachments are grouped into components; in ABAQUS these are SETS and in NASTRAN as GRIDPOINT SETS, this make integration of these models into large telescope or satellite models easier. © 2013 Copyright SPIE.


Arnold Sr. W.R.,Defense Group Inc. | Bevan R.M.,MSFC | Stahl H.P.,NASA
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2013

Advances in mirror fabrication are making very large space based telescopes possible. In many applications, only monolithic mirrors can meet the performance requirements. The existing and near-term planned heavy launch vehicles place a premium on lowest possible mass, and then available payload shroud sizes limit near term designs to 4 meter class mirrors. Practical 8 meter class and beyond designs could encourage planners to include larger shrouds, if it can be proven that such mirrors can be manufactured. These two factors, lower mass and larger mirrors, present the classic optimization problem. There is a practical upper limit to how large of a mirror can be supported by a purely kinematic mount system handling both operational and launch loads. This paper shows how the suspension system and mirror blank need to be designed simultaneously. We will also explore the concepts of auxiliary support systems which act only during launch and disengage on orbit. We will define required characteristics of these systems and show how they can substantially reduce the mirror mass. © 2013 Copyright SPIE.


News Article | November 30, 2016
Site: phys.org

The Fast Neutron Spectrometer (FNS) is now aboard the International Space Station. Neutrons contribute to crew radiation exposure and must be measured to assess exposure levels. The FNS, developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Johnson Space Center (JSC), uses a new instrument design that can significantly improve the reliability of identifying neutrons in the mixed radiation field found in deep space. The MSFC principle investigator and team lead is Mark Christl. The NASA JSC project manager is Catherine Mcleod and the technical lead is Eddie Semones at NASA JSC. "Our technique improves upon the well-establish 'capture-gated' method that uses boron-10 loaded plastic scintillators to measure the energy of fast neutrons," says Evgeny Kuznetsov, a research engineer at UAH's Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), who with CSPAR research scientist John Watts worked on the device. "The central element of FNS is a custom composite scintillator combined with specialized electronics that work together to separate clearly the signals due to neutrons from the signals due to other forms of radiation." The FNS is deployed on the ISS for six months to conduct a technology demonstration to evaluate its performance in a space environment. It will then remain indefinitely to fulfill secondary objectives. "The FNS central detector was manufactured in the lab at NSSTC and comprises a structure of 5,000 regularly spaced neutron sensitive Li6-doped scintillating glass fibers cast in a one-liter plastic scintillator," says Kuznetsov. In combination with specially adjusted parameters of readout electronics, the design allows the detector to measure the neutron spectrum in a mixed radiation environment. "The scintillation light produced in these two scintillators is distinct, and we exploit this difference to better understand the signals generated in response to neutrons," says Watts. "The plastic scintillator responds to the neutron losing all of its energy, and the glass fibers provide positive identification that a neutron was captured. This sequence of signals produces a trigger in the electronics, and the data is recorded for analysis." At UAH, Watts did simulations of the detector performance and simulations of gamma rejection efficiency. Kuznetsov designed front-end electronics boards, which acquire signals from photomultiplier tubes attached at the opposite sides of the central detector. These electronics boards amplify and condition acquired signals to achieve optimal neutron detection efficiency and measurement of the energy of the registered neutrons. Kuznetsov also participated in the manufacturing of the central detector. Data acquired during FNS' flight on the ISS will be used to evaluate the performance of the neutron measurement technique as well as the capability of FNS to operate in the space environment. "This validation is critical to insure FNS can meet the radiation monitoring requirements for the deep space environment during manned exploration missions," says Kuznetsov. "The data collected by FNS will be analyzed and compared to measurements made by other techniques and with calculations of the neutron flux predicted by models of the ISS in the low Earth orbit environment."


News Article | December 21, 2015
Site: phys.org

Additive manufacturing, or 3-D printing, is a key technology for enhancing space vehicle designs and manufacturing and enabling more affordable exploration missions. The technology has the potential to influence spacecraft built for leaving Earth and spaceships and landers for visiting other destinations. Future plans include performing engine tests with liquid oxygen and methane—key propellants for Martian landers since methane and oxygen production might be possible on the Red Planet. "We manufactured and then tested about 75 percent of the parts needed to build a 3-D printed rocket engine," said Elizabeth Robertson, the project manager for the additively manufactured demonstrator engine at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. "By testing the turbopumps, injectors and valves together, we've shown that it would be possible to build a 3-D printed engine for multiple purposes such as landers, in-space propulsion or rocket engine upper stages." Over the last three years, the Marshall team has been working with various vendors to make 3-D printed parts, such as turbopumps and injectors, and test them individually. To test them together, they connected the parts so that they work the same as they do in a real engine. Only they are not packaged together in a configuration that looks like the typical engine you see on a test stand. "In engineering lingo, this is called a breadboard engine," explained Nick Case, the testing lead for the effort. "What matters is that the parts work the same way as they do in a conventional engine and perform under the extreme temperatures and pressures found inside a rocket engine. The turbopump got its "heartbeat" racing at more than 90,000 revolutions per minute (rpm) and the end result is the flame you see coming out of the thrust chamber to produce over 20,000 pounds of thrust, and an engine like this could produce enough power for an upper stage of a rocket or a Mars lander." Seven tests were performed with the longest tests lasting 10 seconds. During the tests, the 3-D printed demonstrator engine experienced all the extreme environments inside a flight rocket engine where fuel is burned at greater than 6,000 degrees Fahrenheit (3,315 degrees Celsius) to produce thrust. The turbopump delivers the fuel in the form of liquid hydrogen cooled below 400 degrees Fahrenheit (-240 degrees Celsius). These tests were performed with cryogenic liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, propellants that are mainstays of spaceship propulsion systems. Even if methane and oxygen prove to be the Mars propellant of choice, the propellant combination of cryogenic liquid hydrogen and oxygen tests the limits of 3-D printed hardware because it produces the most extreme temperatures and exposes parts to cryogenic hydrogen, which can cause embrittlement. In addition to testing with methane, the team plans to add other key components to the demonstrator engine including a cooled combustion chamber and nozzle and a turbopump for liquid oxygen. "These NASA tests drive down the costs and risks associated with using additive manufacturing, which is a relatively new process for making aerospace quality parts," said Robertson. "Vendors who had never worked with NASA learned how to make parts robust enough for rocket engines. What we've learned through this project can now be shared with American companies and our partners." To make each part, a design is entered into a 3-D printer's computer. The printer then builds each part by layering metal powder and fusing it together with a laser – a process known as selective laser melting. The 3-D printed turbopump, one of the more complex parts of the engine, had 45 percent fewer parts than similar pumps made with traditional welding and assembly techniques. The injector had over 200 fewer parts than traditionally manufactured injectors, and it incorporated features that have never been used before because they are only possible with additive manufacturing. Complex parts like valves that normally would take more than a year to manufacture were built by in a few months. This made it possible to get the parts built and assembled on the test stand much sooner than if they had been procured and made with traditional methods. Marshall engineers designed the fuel pump and its components and leveraged the expertise of five suppliers to build the parts using 3-D printing processes. "This new manufacturing process really opened the design space and allowed for part geometries that would be impossible with traditional machining or casting methods," said David Eddleman, one Marshall's propulsion designers. "For the valve designs on this engine, we used more efficient structures in the piece parts that resulted in optimized performance." All data on materials characterization and performance for these parts will be available in NASA's Materials and Processes Technical Information System, called MAPTIS, which is available to approved users. To learn more about MAPTIS or request access, visit: maptis.nasa.gov/ NASA propulsion engineer Nick Case explains how engineers configured engine parts to make and test additively manufactured engine parts as a system. Credit: NASA/MSFC Explore further: NASA performs first J-2X powerpack test of the year

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