MSD Animal Health Innovation GmbH

Schwabenheim, Germany

MSD Animal Health Innovation GmbH

Schwabenheim, Germany
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Kilp S.,MSD Animal Health Innovation GmbH | Ramirez D.,Centro Industrial Santiga | Allan M.J.,MSD Animal Health Innovation GmbH | Roepke R.K.,MSD Animal Health Innovation GmbH | Nuernberger M.C.,MSD Animal Health Innovation GmbH
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2014

Background: Fluralaner is a novel systemic insecticide and acaricide. The purpose of these studies was to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of fluralaner in Beagle dogs following single oral or intravenous (i.v.) administration. Methods. Following the oral administration of 12.5, 25 or 50 mg fluralaner/kg body weight (BW), formulated as chewable tablets or i.v. administration of 12.5 mg fluralaner/kg BW, formulated as i.v. solution to 24 Beagles, plasma samples were collected until 112 days after treatment. Plasma concentrations of fluralaner were measured using HPLC-MS/MS. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by non-compartmental methods. Results: After oral administration, maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) were reached within 1 day on average. Fluralaner was quantifiable in plasma for up to 112 days after single oral and i.v. treatment. The apparent half-life of fluralaner was 12-15 days and the mean residence time was 15-20 days. The apparent volume of distribution of fluralaner was 3.1 L/kg, and clearance was 0.14 L/kg/day. Conclusions: Fluralaner is readily absorbed after single-dose oral administration, and has a long elimination half-life, long mean residence time, relatively high apparent volume of distribution, and low clearance. These pharmacokinetic characteristics help to explain the prolonged activity of fluralaner against fleas and ticks on dogs after a single oral dose. © 2014 Kilp et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Meesters R.J.W.,University of Los Andes, Colombia | Hooff G.P.,MSD Animal Health Innovation GmbH
Bioanalysis | Year: 2013

Dried blood spots have become a popular method in a variety of micro blood-sampling techniques in the life sciences sector, consequently competing with the field of conventional, invasive blood sampling by venepuncture. Dried blood spots are widely applied in numerous bioanalytical assays and have gained a significant role in the screening of inherited metabolic diseases, in PK and PD modeling; in the treatment and diagnosis of infectious diseases; and in therapeutic drug monitoring. Recent technological developments such as automation, online extraction, mass spectrometric direct analysis and also conventional dried blood spot bioanalysis, as well as future developments in dried blood spot bioanalysis are highlighted and presented in this article. © 2013 Future Science Ltd.


Williams H.,MSD Animal Health Innovation GmbH | Young D.R.,Young Veterinary Research Services | Qureshi T.,490 Franklin Circle | Zoller H.,MSD Animal Health Innovation GmbH | Heckeroth A.R.,MSD Animal Health Innovation GmbH
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2014

Background: Fluralaner, a novel isoxazoline, has both acaricidal and insecticidal activity through potent blockage of GABA- and L-glutamate-gated chloride channels. This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo effects of fluralaner exposure on flea (Ctenocephalides felis) reproduction. Methods. Blood spiked with sub-insecticidal fluralaner concentrations (between 0.09 and 50.0 ng/mL) was fed to fleas for 10 days using a membrane system. Cessation of reproduction in exposed fleas was assessed using flea survival, egg hatchability, and control of oviposition, pupae, and flea emergence. Fluralaner efficacy for in vivo Ctenocephalides (C.) felis control on dogs was assessed using a simulated flea-infested home environment. During a pre-treatment period, dogs were infested twice on days -28 and -21 with 100 adult unfed fleas to establish a thriving population by day 0 of the study. On day 0, one group of dogs was treated with fluralaner (Bravecto™; n = 10), while another group served as negative control (n = 10). Following treatment, dogs were infested three times with 50 fleas on days 22, 50 and 78 to simulate new infestations. Live flea counts were conducted weekly on all dogs for 12 weeks starting 1 day before treatment. Results: Fluralaner potently inhibited flea reproduction capacity in vitro. Oviposition ceased completely at concentrations as low as 25.0 ng/mL. While no ovicidal effect was observed, fluralaner exerted a larvicidal effect at exceptionally low concentrations (6.25 ng/mL). In the simulated flea-infested home environment, flea-control efficacy on fluralaner-treated dogs was >99% at every time point measured for 12 weeks. No adverse events were observed in fluralaner-treated dogs. Conclusions: Fluralaner completely controls egg laying, larval development and flea reproduction even at sub-insecticidal concentrations. Oral treatment of dogs with fluralaner is highly effective for eliminating fleas in a simulated flea-infested home environment. © 2014 Williams et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Gassel M.,MSD Animal Health Innovation GmbH | Wolf C.,MSD Animal Health Innovation GmbH | Noack S.,MSD Animal Health Innovation GmbH | Williams H.,MSD Animal Health Innovation GmbH | Ilg T.,MSD Animal Health Innovation GmbH
Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Year: 2014

Isoxazolines are a novel class of parasiticides that are potent inhibitors of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channels (GABACls) and l-glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls). In this study, the effects of the isoxazoline drug fluralaner on insect and acarid GABACl (RDL) and GluCl and its parasiticidal potency were investigated. We report the identification and cDNA cloning of Rhipicephalus (R.) microplus RDL and GluCl genes, and their functional expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The generation of six clonal HEK293 cell lines expressing Rhipicephalus microplus RDL and GluCl, Ctenocephalides felis RDL-A285 and RDL-S285, as well as Drosophila melanogaster RDLCl-A302 and RDL-S302, combined with the development of a membrane potential fluorescence dye assay allowed the comparison of ion channel inhibition by fluralaner with that of established insecticides addressing RDL and GluCl as targets. In these assays fluralaner was several orders of magnitude more potent than picrotoxinin and dieldrin, and performed 5-236 fold better than fipronil on the arthropod RDLs, while a rat GABACl remained unaffected. Comparative studies showed that R.microplus RDL is 52-fold more sensitive than R.microplus GluCl to fluralaner inhibition, confirming that the GABA-gated chloride channel is the primary target of this new parasiticide. In agreement with the superior RDL on-target activity, fluralaner outperformed dieldrin and fipronil in insecticidal screens on cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), yellow fever mosquito larvae (Aedes aegypti) and sheep blowfly larvae (Lucilia cuprina), as well as in acaricidal screens on cattle tick (R.microplus) adult females, brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) adult females and Ornithodoros moubata nymphs. These findings highlight the potential of fluralaner as a novel ectoparasiticide. © 2013 The Authors.


Walther F.M.,MSD Animal Health Innovation GmbH | Allan M.J.,MSD Animal Health Innovation GmbH | Roepke R.K.,MSD Animal Health Innovation GmbH | Nuernberger M.C.,MSD Animal Health Innovation GmbH
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2014

Background: Fluralaner is a novel systemic ectoparasiticide for dogs providing long-acting flea- and tick-control after a single oral dose. The pharmacokinetics of orally administered drugs may be influenced by feeding. This study investigated the influence of concurrent feeding on fluralaner pharmacokinetics. Methods. Twelve fasted or fed beagles received a single oral administration of 25 mg fluralaner/kg body weight in a chewable tablet. Plasma samples were collected at multiple post-treatment time points for fluralaner concentration analysis. Clinical observations were performed on all dogs at regular intervals throughout the study. Results: Fluralaner was readily absorbed in fasted and fed dogs administered at a dose of 25 mg/kg BW with a similar mean tmax for both groups. In fed dogs, AUC and Cmax were increased compared to fasted dogs by a factor of 2.5 and 2.1 respectively. The difference in AUC and Cmax between the fed and fasted groups was statistically significant. No adverse events were observed following oral fluralaner administration to fasted and fed dogs. Conclusions: Fluralaner is absorbed to a considerable extent in fasted and fed dogs. Administration of fluralaner chewable tablets with food significantly increases bioavailability. © 2014 Walther et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Taenzler J.,MSD Animal Health Innovation GmbH | Liebenberg J.,ClinVet International | Roepke R.K.A.,MSD Animal Health Innovation GmbH | Heckeroth A.R.,MSD Animal Health Innovation GmbH
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2015

Background: The preventive effect of fluralaner chewable tablets (Bravecto™) against transmission of Babesia canis by Dermacentor reticulatus ticks was evaluated. Methods: Sixteen dogs, tested negative for B. canis by PCR and IFAT, were allocated to two study groups. On day 0, dogs in one group (n=8) were treated once orally with a fluralaner chewable tablet according to label recommendations and dogs in the control group (n=8) remained untreated. On days 2, 28, 56, 70 and 84, dogs were infested with 50 (±4) B. canis infected D. reticulatus ticks with tick in situ thumb counts 48 ± 4 h post-infestation. Prior to each infestation, the D. reticulatus ticks were confirmed to harbour B. canis by PCR analysis. On day 90, ticks were counted and removed from all dogs. Efficacy against ticks was calculated for each assessment time point. After treatment, all dogs were physically examined in conjunction with blood collection for PCR every 7 days, blood samples for IFAT were collected every 14 days and the dog's rectal body temperature was measured thrice weekly. From dogs displaying symptoms of babesiosis or were PCR positive, a blood smear was taken, and, if positive, dogs were rescue treated and replaced with a replacement dog. The preventive effect was evaluated by comparing infected dogs in the treated group with infected dogs in the untreated control group. Results: All control dogs became infected with B. canis, as confirmed by PCR and IFAT. None of the 8 treated dogs became infected with B. canis, as IFAT and PCR were negative throughout the study until day 112. Fluralaner chewable tablet was 100 % effective against ticks on days 4, 30, 58, and 90 and an efficacy of 99.6 % and 99.2 % was achieved on day 72 and day 86 after treatment, respectively. Over the 12-week study duration, a 100 % preventive effect against B. canis transmission was demonstrated. Conclusions: A single oral administration of fluralaner chewable tablets effectively prevented the transmission of B. canis by infected D. reticulatus ticks over a 12-week period. © 2015 Taenzler et al.


Walther F.M.,MSD Animal Health Innovation GmbH | Allan M.J.,MSD Animal Health Innovation GmbH | Roepke R.K.,MSD Animal Health Innovation GmbH | Nuernberger M.C.,MSD Animal Health Innovation GmbH
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2014

Background: Fluralaner is a novel systemic insecticide and acaricide that provides long acting efficacy in dogs after a single oral treatment. This study investigated the safety of oral administration of fluralaner in chewable tablets to dogs at the highest recommended treatment dose and at multiples of this dose. Methods. Thirty-two (16 male and 16 female) healthy 8-week old Beagle dogs weighing 2.0 - 3.6 kg at first administration were included in the study. Fluralaner was administered on three occasions at 8-week intervals at doses of up to 56, 168, and 280 mg fluralaner/kg body weight, equivalent to 1, 3, and 5 times the highest recommended treatment dose of fluralaner; sham dosed dogs served as controls.During the study, all dogs were clinically observed, and their health was carefully monitored including body weight development, food consumption and measurement of hematology, coagulation, clinical chemistry (including measurement of levels of ACTH and C-reactive protein) and urinalysis. Following euthanasia of the dogs, complete gross post mortem examination, including organ weight determination, and histopathological examination of multiple tissues were conducted. Results: There were no clinical findings related to fluralaner treatment. Statistically significant differences between the treated groups and the control group were observed for some clinical pathology parameters and organ weights; none of these findings were considered to be of clinical relevance. Conclusions: Oral administration of fluralaner at the highest recommended treatment dose (56 mg/kg) at 8-week intervals is well tolerated and has a safety margin of more than five in healthy dogs eight weeks of age or older and weighing at least 2 kg. © 2014 Walther et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Olsen A.S.,University of Southern Denmark | Warrass R.,MSD Animal Health Innovation GmbH | Douthwaite S.,University of Southern Denmark
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2015

Objectives: To determine how resistance to macrolides is conferred in field isolates of Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica that lack previously identified resistance determinants for rRNA methylation, efflux and macrolide-modifying enzymes. Methods: Isolates of P. multocida and M. haemolytica identified as being highly resistant (MICs >64 mg/L) to the macrolides erythromycin, gamithromycin, tilmicosin, tildipirosin and tulathromycin were screened by multiplex PCR for the previously identified resistance genes erm(42), msr(E) and mph(E). Strains lacking these determinants were analysed by genome sequencing and primer extension on the rRNAs. Results: Macrolide resistance in one M. haemolytica isolate was conferred by the 23S rRNA mutation A2058G; resistance in three P. multocida isolates were caused by mutations at the neighbouring nucleotide A2059G. In each strain, all six copies of the rrn operons encoded the respective mutations. There were no mutations in the ribosomal protein genes rplD or rplV, and no other macrolide resistance mechanism was evident. Conclusions: High-level macrolide resistance can arise from 23S rRNA mutations in P. multocida and M. haemolytica despite their multiple copies of rrn. Selective pressures from exposure to different macrolide or lincosamide drugs presumably resulted in consolidation of either the A2058G or the A2059G mutation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.


Rohdich N.,MSD Animal Health Innovation GmbH | Roepke R.K.,MSD Animal Health Innovation GmbH | Zschiesche E.,MSD Animal Health Innovation GmbH
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2014

Background: Fluralaner, a new molecular entity of the isoxazoline class, has potent insecticidal and acaricidal activity and can be safely administered orally to dogs. Methods. A randomized, investigator-blinded, multi-centered field study compared the flea- and tick-control efficacy for dogs over a 12-week period with either a single oral dose of Bravecto™ (fluralaner) formulated as a chewable tablet or with three sequential topical Frontline™ (fipronil) treatments. Individual dogs were the experimental unit for ticks and households were the experimental unit for fleas. A total of 108 tick-infested dogs were treated with Bravecto™ (fluralaner) and 54 tick-infested dogs were treated with Frontline™ (fipronil). Dogs in 115 flea-infested households received Bravecto™ (fluralaner) and dogs in 61 flea-infested households received Frontline™ (fipronil). Flea and tick counts were conducted on all dogs at weeks 2, 4, 8, and 12 following initial treatment and efficacy was calculated as the mean percent reduction in tick or flea count at each time point compared with the mean pretreatment initiation count for each treatment group. Additionally, the percentages of tick-free and flea-free households were determined. Results: At weeks 2, 4, 8, and 12, Bravecto™ (fluralaner) flea-control efficacy in treated households was 99.2%, 99.8%, 99.8%, and 99.9% respectively, while Frontline™ (fipronil) efficacy was 94.1%, 93.0%, 96.0%, and 97.3%, respectively. Bravecto™ (fluralaner) tick-control efficacy on treated dogs at weeks 2, 4, 8, and 12 was 99.9%, 99.9%, 99.7%, and 100%, respectively, and Frontline™ (fipronil) tick efficacy was 97.6%, 93.8%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. Of dogs showing clinical flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) signs at the study start, 85.7% in the Bravecto™ (fluralaner)-treated group and 55.6% in the Frontline™ (fipronil)-treated group were evaluated at each time point as showing no clinical signs of FAD until study completion. Conclusions: Bravecto™ (fluralaner) administered once orally to dogs in a chewable tablet was highly effective for 12 weeks against fleas and ticks on privately-owned dogs and was significantly non-inferior (ticks) and superior (fleas) in comparison with topical Frontline™ (fipronil) administered 3 times sequentially. © 2014 Rohdich et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Walther F.M.,Merck Animal Health | Allan M.J.,MSD Animal Health Innovation GmbH | Roepke R.K.A.,MSD Animal Health Innovation GmbH
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2016

Background: Fluralaner is a novel systemic ectoparasiticide for cats providing immediate and persistent flea- and tick-control after a single topical dose. Emodepsid and praziquantel are routinely used to control intestinal worm infections in cats. The safety of concurrent use of fluralaner and a commercially available emodepsid-praziquantel combination topical solution was investigated using topical administrations at the maximum recommended dose rates. Findings: Few mild and transient clinical findings like erythema at the administration site and single incidences of salivation or vomiting were observed. All of which were consistent with the individual product leaflets. There were no findings suggesting an increased safety risk associated with the concurrent treatment of cats with fluralaner and emodepsid-praziquantel. Conclusions: Concurrent treatment with fluralaner, emodepsid and praziquantel is well tolerated in cats. © 2016 The Author(s).

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