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Yoo K.-H.,Bens Laboratory Co. | Kim S.-J.,MSC Co. | Jeong J.-M.,University of Suwon
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2011

The purpose of this study was to measure the blood glucose level and glycemic index (GI) in response to persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb) syrup extracted from persimmon and extract of persimmon by-products. Major component analyses of persimmon syrup I (PS I, 95:5 mixture of purified persimmon syrup and non-purified persimmon syrup) and persimmon syrup Π (PS Π, 50:50 mixture ratio of purified persimmon syrup and non-purified persimmon syrup) were 0.3±0.1 and 0.6±0.2 mg/g for total polyphenolic compounds and 70.6±0.6 and 66.6±1.6% for total carbohydrates, respectively. Blood glucose responses of PS I and PS Π were determined using both normal ICR mice and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Further, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed on diabetic rats to assess the effects of the experimental diets. Blood glucose response and OGTT showed that blood glucose levels were significantly lower in mice and diabetic rats fed PS I and PS Π compared to those fed diets of sugar, maple syrup, or honey. The GIs of healthy volunteers in response to PS I and PS Π were calculated to be 51.9 and 35.7, respectively. On the contrary, the GIs of healthy volunteers fed diets including sugar, maple syrup, or honey were 52.6, 20.0, and 93.0, respectively. These results suggest that persimmon syrup can be used for both the treatment of diabetics and healthy people due to its beneficial effects on blood glucose level.

Singer M.,University College London | Jones A.M.,MSC Co.
Critical Care | Year: 2011

The purpose of this bench-to-bedside review is to summarize the literature relating to complement activation in sepsis and other critical illnesses and the role of C1-esterase inhibitor (C1 INH) as a potential therapy. © 2011 BioMed Central Ltd.

Kim D.H.,MSC Co. | Kim K.B.W.R.,Pukyong National University | Cho J.Y.,Soonchunhyang University | Ahn D.H.,Pukyong National University
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2014

This study was performed to investigate the inhibitory effects of brown algae extracts on histamine production in mackerel muscle. First, antimicrobial activities of brown algae extracts against Morganella morganii were investigated using a disk diffusion method. An ethanol extract of Ecklonia cava (ECEE) exhibited strong antimicrobial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ECEE was 2 mg/ml. Furthermore, the brown algae extracts were examined for their ability to inhibit crude histidine decarboxylase (HDC) of M. morganii. The ethanol extract of Eisenia bicyclis (EBEE) and ECEE exhibited significant inhibitory activities (19.82% and 33.79%, respectively) at a concentration of 1 mg/ml. To obtain the phlorotannin dieckol, ECEE and EBEE were subjected to liquid-liquid extraction, silica gel column chromatography, and HPLC. Dieckol exhibited substantial inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 0.61 mg/ml, and exhibited competitive inhibition. These extracts were also tested on mackerel muscle. The viable cell counts and histamine production in mackerel muscle inoculated with M. morganii treated with ≥2.5 MIC of ECEE (weight basis) were highly inhibited compared with the untreated sample. Furthermore, treatment of crude HDCinoculated mackerel muscle with 0.5% ECEE and 0.5% EBEE (weight basis), which exhibited excellent inhibitory activities against crude HDC, reduced the overall histamine production by 46.29% and 56.89%, respectively, compared with the untreated sample. Thus, these inhibitory effects of ECEE and EBEE should be helpful in enhancing the safety of mackerel by suppressing histamine production in this fish species. © 2014 by The Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnology.

Kim B.-R.,Pukyong National University | Kim K.-B.-W.-R.,Pukyong National University | Kim M.-J.,Pukyong National University | Kim D.-H.,MSC Co. | And 8 more authors.
Korean Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2014

This study was conducted to investigate the inhibitory effect of Ecklonia cava (EC) and Eisenia bicyclis (EB) ethanol extract on histamine production in mackerel. Changes in viable cell counts, histamine contents, pH and VBN of mackerel fillet treated with ethanol extracts during 25 days at 4 were measured. Treatments of EC and EB ethanol extract had reduced growth of viable cells by 2 log cycles during storage. Production of histamine was decreased by EC and EB extracts (115 and 96 ppm) when compared to the control at 5 days (384 ppm). The pH of mackerels treated with EC and EB extracts were no different, while the pH of the control increased during storage. Furthermore, the VBN of mackerels treated with EC and EB extracts were significantly decreased when compared to the control. In conclusion, EC and EB extract may reduce scombroid fish poisoning by decreasing histamine production in mackerel during refrigerated storage. © The Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnology.

Jones A.M.,MSC Co. | Kuijper E.J.,Leiden University | Wilcox M.H.,University of Leeds
Journal of Infection | Year: 2013

Clostridium difficile infection is the leading cause of diarrhoea in the industrialised world. First identified in 1935, our knowledge about the clonal population structure, toxins and PCR ribotypes is still increasing. New PCR ribotypes and sequence types are frequently added. In the last decade hypervirulent strains have emerged and been associated with increased severity of disease, high recurrence and significant mortality. Although previously a primarily hospital- or health-care acquired infection, since the 1990's C. difficile infections that are community-acquired have been increasingly reported. Risk factors include hospitalisation, advancing age and prior antibiotic use. The ubiquitous presence of C. difficile in the environment and asymptomatic intestinal colonisation may be important reservoirs for infection and the changing epidemiology of C. difficile infection. Although surveillance in Europe is now a requirement of the European Commission, reporting is not standardised or mandatory. Here we review the current literature, guidelines on diagnosis and treatment and conclude by highlighting a number of areas where further research would increase our understanding. © 2012 The British Infection Association.

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