Krishna V.V.,University of Gottingen |
Drucker A.G.,Bioversity International |
Pascual U.,University of Cambridge |
Pascual U.,Basque Center for Climate Change |
And 2 more authors.
Ecological Economics | Year: 2013
This paper examines the role of direct compensation payments for agrobiodiversity conservation, using minor millet landraces in India as an example. The cost of farmer participation in a hypothetical 'payments for agrobiodiversity conservation services' (PACS) scheme is estimated using a stated preference valuation approach. Significant inter-crop and inter-varietal differences are observed with respect to consumption values, upon which the compensation demanded by farm households is shown to primarily depend. Drawing on a categorisation of consumption values and farmer preferences, the paper points to the importance of simultaneously considering a range of potential interventions in order to conserve a priority portfolio of agrobiodiverse resources in predominantly subsistence-based agricultural systems. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Jayakumar K.,Sathyabama University |
Malarvannan S.,Ms Swaminathan Research Foundation
International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering | Year: 2015
Urban land use and land covers have considerably been changed throughout worldwide and India is no exception for the same. Urban information is very limited and crucial and not updated in a systemic manner in some cases. Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) are the state of the art tools widely used for the management of urban resources. Available spatial information is not in single end. To overcome this problem, open source based WebGIS is developed and spatial datasets were incorporated for wider dessimination of urban information to all the stakeholders for better planning and management through web. The results of the present study revealed that in Tiruvallur block most of the areas are covered by water bodies, open space, agricultural land had decreased from 18,941 ha to 14,135 ha over the period of 25 years. In contrast, built-up areas increased from 1,889 ha in 1988 to 6,696 ha in 2013. The WebGIS based study is useful to stakeholders with up-to-date spatial information on residential and non-residential areas in order to guide strategic implementation of sustainable urban land use planning and management. © 2015 CAFET-INNOVA TECHNICAL SOCIETY. All rights reserved.
Rameshkumar N.,Ms Swaminathan Research Foundation |
Rameshkumar N.,University of Pune |
Sproer C.,DSMZ Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH |
Lang E.,DSMZ Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH |
Nair S.,Ms Swaminathan Research Foundation
FEMS Microbiology Letters | Year: 2010
The taxonomic status of a nitrogen-fixing bacterium, strain MSSRF38 T, isolated from the rhizosphere of mangrove-associated wild rice (Porteresia coarctata Tateoka), in Pichavaram, India, was studied using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the novel strain MSSRF38T was most closely related to Vibrio ruber DSM 16370T (98.3% gene sequence similarity), Vibrio rhizosphaerae DSM 18581T (98.2% sequence similarity) and <96% to the remaining Vibrio species. Multilocus sequence analysis using ftsZ, gapA, gyrB and mreB genes showed low levels of gene sequence similarities (82-90%) with all species of the genus Vibrio with validly published names, indicating that strain MSSRF38T occupies a distinct phylogenetic position. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments showed that strain MSSRF38T had <70% DNA-DNA similarity to its closest neighbours V. ruber DSM 16370 T (27.4%) and V. rhizosphaerae DSM 18581T (12.1%). Strain MSSRF38T could be differentiated from its relatives on the basis of several phenotypic characteristics. The major fatty acids were feature 3 (including C16:1ω7c and/or C15:0 iso 2-OH), C16:0, C18:1ω7c, C14:0 and C12:0. The DNA G+C content was 45.4 mol%. Based on genotypic, phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and DNA-DNA analyses, the name Vibrio mangrovi sp. nov. (type strain MSSRF38 T=LMG 24290T=DSM 19641T) is proposed for this novel taxon. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Narayanan M.K.R.,MS Swaminathan Research Foundation |
Sujanapal P.,MS Swaminathan Research Foundation |
Kumar N.A.,MS Swaminathan Research Foundation |
Sasidharan N.,Kerala Forest Research Institute Peechi |
Sivadasan M.,King Saud University
Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas | Year: 2010
A new species of Miliusa Lesch. ex A. DC. (Annonaceae) allted to M. indica, sect. Miliusa, is described and illustrated from the Western Ghats of India.
Shetty P.,Ms Swaminathan Research Foundation |
Shetty P.,University of Southampton
Current Science | Year: 2015
The concept of food security developed over the last 50 or more years addressed primarily the need for the production and access to adequate food grains to feed the world's increasing population. Nutrition security, a later development, was a much broader concept since nutritious and safe diets alongside adequate biological and proper social environments ensures appropriate growth and development in childhood and helps promote health and prevent disease in adulthood. The need for a paradigm shift in policy formulation from focusing on food security at the aggregate level to nutrition security at the level of each child and adult implied that the definition 'food and nutrition security' integrates both the conceptual frameworks of food security and nutrition security. This integrated approach aspires not merely to address the micronutrient malnutrition which is a bigger problem than food energy deficiency, but is a foodbased approach that also tackles non-food factors such as water, sanitation and care practices.
Hariharan G.N.,Ms Swaminathan Research Foundation |
Kesavan P.C.,Ms Swaminathan Research Foundation
Current Science | Year: 2015
The M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation (MSSRF) set up as a not-for-profit scientific trust with M. S. Swaminathan as the Founder-Chairman in 1988 is dedicated to sustainable agriculture, natural resources management and rural development. Relevant science and ecotechnologies are harnessed for fostering human livelihood and conservation of nature. MSSRF has developed biovillages and modern ICT-based Village Knowledge Centres (VKCs) for skill and knowledge empowerment respectively of the rural communities. Ecotechnologies are the resultant of lending frontier technologies with traditional knowledge and ecological prudence of the indigenous communities. These have pro-nature, pro-poor and prowomen orientation. The evergreen revolution of MSSRF is designed to fight both the famines of food and rural livelihoods. As against the bureaucratic 'top-down' approach, MSSRF practices 'bottom-up' and participatory approach. The VKCs with lab to land and land to lab linkages provide solutions almost instantaneously to the problems of the small and marginal farming, fishing and landless rural families. These are briefly discussed in the paper.
Kesavan P.C.,Ms Swaminathan Research Foundation
Current Science | Year: 2015
At the time of India's independence in 1947, India's food production for national food security was highly insufficient. Malthusian scourge in the backdrop of Bengal famine of 1943 was looming. It was at a time of critical food shortage in the 1960s, commodity-centric exploitative agriculture, miscalled as Green Revolution, was ushered in by Swaminathan-Borlaug partnership. It changed India's image then as begging bowl to bread basket! As had been foreseen and forewarned, the Green Revolution resulted in environmental degradation, enhanced social inequities and had little to do with sustainable agriculture and rural development. With the lessons learnt, Swaminathan developed a systems approach-based evergreen revolution to achieve productivity in perpetuity without accompanying environmental and social harm. It is also designed to fight both the famines of food and rural livelihoods with the help of ecotechnologies having pro-nature, pro-poor, pro-women and pro-livelihood orientation. The present article elaborates these aspects.
Nagarajan S.,Ms Swaminathan Research Foundation |
Bhavani R.V.,Ms Swaminathan Research Foundation |
Swaminathan M.S.,Ms Swaminathan Research Foundation
Current Science | Year: 2014
Despite impressive gain in agricultural production and greater availability of food, a large population in India is suffering from nutritional imbalance. Improvements in total agricultural production leading to nutritive food would help combat under nutrition. To demonstrate the feasibility of agriculture- based remedy to malnutrition, five villages in Wardha district of Maharashtra were selected for validating the farming system for nutrition (FSN) approach. On-farm demonstrations of arable crops and women-managed community nutrition gardens (CNGs) of vegetables and fruits were initiated. A wide choice of nutritive vegetables to be grown was promoted to reduce the off-farm transport cost and ensure higher availability of nutritive vegetables to the households. The additional nutritional gain through FSN can be quantified in terms of equivalence and can be calibrated to ensure that the households get the recommended daily intake of nutrition. Accordingly, a FSN approach is evolved to provide nutritional security to every household.
Usha B.,Ms Swaminathan Research Foundation |
Keeran N.S.,Ms Swaminathan Research Foundation |
Harikrishnan M.,Ms Swaminathan Research Foundation |
Kavitha K.,Ms Swaminathan Research Foundation |
Parida A.,Ms Swaminathan Research Foundation
Biologia Plantarum | Year: 2011
Metallothioneins are involved in detoxification of heavy metals. A cDNA encoding type 3 metallothionein (PcMT3) was isolated from the salt stressed leaf cDNA library of Porteresia coarctata (Roxb.) Tateoka (wild rice) that grows well in the heavy metal laden estuarine soils. The PcMT3 cDNA (581 bp) encodes a protein of 64 amino acids. PcMT3 is highly homologous (82 %) to OsMT-I-3a of rice, but is unique from other type 3 plant MTs due to the presence of an additional glycine residue in the C-terminal domain. Analysis of the 5′ upstream region of PcMT3 showed the presence of cis-acting elements like the CG box and STRE previously reported to be involved in gene expression under heavy metal stress. Southern analysis suggested the presence of more than one copy of PcMT3-like sequences in the P. coarctata genome. Analysis of genomic clone of PcMT3 revealed the presence of two introns. A comparison of the genomic sequence of PcMT3 with closely similar type 3 MTs from rice and mangrove species revealed conservation in the number and position of introns. Transcript profiling for PcMT3 in P. coarctata leaves in the presence of Cd, Cu and Zn showed an increase in transcript accumulation. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Govindan G.,MS Swaminathan Research Foundation |
Ramalingam S.,MS Swaminathan Research Foundation
Journal of Cellular Physiology | Year: 2016
Recent advances in the targeted genome engineering enable molecular biologists to generate sequence specific modifications with greater efficiency and higher specificity in complex eukaryotic genomes. Programmable site-specific DNA cleavage reagents and cellular DNA repair mechanisms have made this possible. These reagents have become powerful tools for delivering a site-specific genomic double-strand break (DSB) at the desired chromosomal locus, which produces sequence alterations through error-prone non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) resulting in gene inactivations/knockouts. Alternatively, the DSB can be repaired through homology-directed repair (HDR) using a donor DNA template, which leads to the introduction of desired sequence modifications at the predetermined site. Here, we summarize the role of three classes of nucleases; zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator like effector nucleases (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR associated protein 9 (Cas9) system in achieving targeted genome modifications. Further, we discuss the progress towards the applications of programmable site-specific nucleases (SSNs) in treating human diseases and other biological applications in economically important higher eukaryotic organisms such as plants and livestock. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2380–2392, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.