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Prasad P.,University of Delhi | Tiwari A.K.,University of Delhi | Kumar K.M.P.,MS Ramiah Medical College | Ammini A.C.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | And 3 more authors.
BMC Medical Genetics | Year: 2010

Background: To determine association of nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ADP ribosyltransferase-1 (ADPRT1), aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B1 (AKR1B1), receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE), glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase-2 (GFPT2), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) genes with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) among Asian Indians with type 2 diabetes; and to identify epistatic interactionss between genes from the present study and those from renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), and chemokine-cytokine, dopaminergic and oxidative stress pathways (previously investigated using the same sample set).Methods: Type 2 diabetes subjects with CRI (serum creatinine ≥3.0 mg/dl) constituted the cases (n = 196), and ethnicity and age matched individuals with diabetes for a duration of ≥ 10 years, normal renal functions and normoalbuminuria recruited as controls (n = 225). Allelic and genotypic constitution of 10 polymorphisms (SNPs) from five genes namely- ADPRT1, AKR1B1, RAGE, GFPT2 and PAI-1 with diabetic CRI was investigated. The genetic associations were evaluated by computation of odds ratio and 95% confidence interval. Multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out to correlate various clinical parameters with genotypes, and to study epistatic interactions between SNPs in different genes.Results: Single nucleotide polymorphisms -429 T>C in RAGE and rs7725 C>T SNP in 3' UTR in GFPT2 gene showed a trend towards association with diabetic CRI. Investigation using miRBase statistical tool revealed that rs7725 in GFPT2 was a perfect target for predicted miRNA (hsa miR-378) suggesting the presence of the variant 'T' allele may result in an upregulation of GFPT2 contributing to diabetic renal complication. Epistatic interaction between SNPs in transforming growth factor TGF-β1 (investigated using the same sample set and reported elsewhere) and GFPT2 genotype was observed.Conclusions: Association of SNPs in RAGE and GFPT2 suggest that the genes involved in modulation of oxidative pathway could be major contributor to diabetic chronic renal insufficiency. In addition, GFPT2 mediated overproduction of TGF-β1 leading to endothelial expansion and thereby CRI seems likely, suggested by our observation of a significant interaction between GFPT2 with TGF-β1 genes. Further, identification of predicted miRNA targets spanning the associated SNP in GFPT2 implicates the rs7725 SNP in transcriptional regulation of the gene, and suggests GFPT2 could be a relevant target for pharmacological intervention. Larger replication studies are needed to confirm these observations. © 2010 Prasad et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Mohan Kumar K.,MS Ramiah Medical College | Segu S.,Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2013

Introduction: The cross finger flap is a useful option for coverage of finger defects. The Adipofascial flap, a variant has been a good option being aesthetically more acceptable. Since hand is generally exposed part, we tried to find out the aesthetic value of the adipofascial cross finger flap. Methods: We operated on 15 patients who had complex defects on the fingers, who needed a flap cover and accepted for the adipofascial variant. We asked for ten independent non-medical literate persons to rate the photos of donor site and recipient site of these patients. We also requested the same ten people to rate the photos of similar, paired defects of the standard flap, which were obtained from the department archive. Results: All the flaps survived. The mean score for adipofascial flap donor finger was 3.859 and it was 3.6 for the donor finger of the standard cross finger flap. The Cornbach's alpha of the interpretors was more than 0.7 for donor fingers and more than 0.9 for recipient fingers. The ICC was 0.767 foradipofascial donor finger and more than 0.9 for recipient fingers of both flaps. Conclusion: Adipofascial cross finger flap may be an aesthetically better flap. Source


Sandhya B.,AJ Institute of Medical science | Carol B.M.S.,MS Ramiah Medical College | Kotian M.S.,Kasturba Medical College | Ganaraja B.,Manipal University India
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2013

Background: The Indian population is overwhelmed by the rapid developmental activities in the new millennium. This has brought in urbanization and several banes of the faster life. Alcoholism is one among the menaces which have to be tackled at an early stage. Objective: To assess the subjective expectancies from alcohol intake in young college students. Methods: We carried out a survey on the expectancy from youth of the alcohol effects, which in fact is known as the principal motivator of alcohol intake. We chose the pre-university students (n= 200; 100 males and 100 females) of one of the oldest and prestigious colleges of Mangalore (south India). The survey used the Comprehensive Effect of Alcohol (CEOA) where the students had to respond to two sets of 38 questions, in which they would mention whether they agreed or disagreed to the statement regarding the effects of alcohol intake. Results: From the results, we found that these young students were in agreement of the view that alcohol could cause a positive reinforcement. They also strongly agreed that alcohol consumption could cause negative effects. This was significantly more pronounced among the girls. Strikingly, only 25% of the boys and 14.5% of girls had consumed alcohol before, who indicated a stronger positive reinforce response as compared to those who had not tasted alcohol. Conclusions: The results reveal that the first exposure to alcohol consumption is the key factor which leads to alcoholism. If the experience of alcohol intake and the effects of alcohol are liked with the subjects, that becomes a motivating factor for future attempts. This needs a closer look by the clinicians, counselors and the parents, who need to actively interfere in educating the youth and in guiding them in the right direction during their formative ages. Source


Kumaraswamy M.,MS Ramiah Medical College | Waiker V.P.,MS Ramiah Medical College
Journal of Tissue Viability | Year: 2014

Introduction Torsion is a well-known phenomenon involving organs with long mesentery. Torsion in the ear lobule is rare. Ear lobule is very well vascularized. In cases of partial cleft ear lobule, there is a small segment of lobule inferior to the cleft which is vascularized through the pedicles on either side of the cleft. Case report A lady aged 89 years presented with discoloration of the ear lobule. She was diagnosed as having gangrene of the central part of lobule. The segment of the lobule had undergone more than 360 torsion. She underwent debridement of gangrenous part and lobuloplasty. Discussion and conclusion In our case laxity of the stretched lobule caused the torsion of the segment followed by gangrene. This rare complication indicates the need for correction of the cleft lobule not only for esthetic purpose, but also for the prevention of torsion. © 2013 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Hiremath B.V.,MS Ramiah Medical College | Hegde N.,MS Ramiah Medical College
Breast Disease | Year: 2015

Breast diseases are rising in incidence especially in developing countries. However, most research focuses on breast cancer. Analysing the spectrum of breast disease will enable establishment of efficient breast clinics within an existing general surgery out-patient department with minimal additional investment or personnel whilst providing quality care. OBJECTIVES: To study the spectrum of breast disease in an urban general surgical centre in India. To use a 'Clinic-within-a-Clinic' model to provide affordable care and accurate early diagnosis to patients with breast disorders. MATERIALS & METHODS: A prospective study was conducted over 1 year at M. S. Ramaiah Hospital, Bangalore by a single general surgical unit. 903 patients who presented to the OPD with a variety of breast-related symptoms were included in the study (896 women and 7 men). Relevant history was taken; the patients were then examined and investigated according to our protocol and patterns were recognized. RESULTS: Benign breast disease formed the majority of the cases (640 patients, 70.87%). The 21-30 years age group had the most patients (272 patients, 30.12%). ANDI was the commonest diagnosis (522 patients, 57.8%). 92 patients (10.18%) were diagnosed with cancer. More than 50% of these were less than 50 years of age. Majority of the patients (511 patients, 56.58%) could be managed conservatively. The cost of diagnosis and treatment was found to be a small fraction of that in specialized breast units of western countries using our 'Clinic-within-a-clinic' model. CONCLUSION: Research on the demographic and clinical pattern of breast disease can help establish and efficient, effective and affordable diagnostic and therapeutic systems in developing nations. © 2015-IOS Press and the authors. Source

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