Ms Ramaiah Medical College
Ms Ramaiah Medical College
Kawatra P.,Ms Ramaiah Medical College
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research | Year: 2015
P glycoprotein (P gp) is a 170kD protein product of the ABCB1 gene located on chromosome 7q 21. It consists of two membrane bound domains and two cytoplasmic nucleotide binding domains. It functions as an efflux pump located on the apical epithelium of intestine, pancreas, gut and endothelial lining of various tissues including the blood brain barrier. Apart from protecting the body from the toxic effects of xenobiotics, it also plays a role in determining the bioavailability and distribution of drugs. The vacuum model and the flippase model have been proposed as the mechanism of action. The broad substrate specify shared between P gp and cyp3A4 has resulted in assumption that they probably work in concert with each other. Over the recent years, it has been postulated that genetic polymorphism in the expression of MDR1 gene regulates the response to various drugs. Therefore multiple drug resistance (MDR) may be genetically determined. The susceptibility of individuals to diseases such as ulcerative colitis and cancer is also determined by the expression of this unique pump. It has been found to be responsible for 30-40% of treatment failure in epilepsy. Recently various modulators of P gp are being exploited in order to overcome drug resistance. Unlike the first two generations, the third generation modulators like tariquidar are highly selective for P gp and do not interact with cytP450.Thus P gp can prove to be a vital tool in assessing the genetic susceptibility of an individual to disease and drug resistance and thus tailor therapy to them. © 2015, Global Research Online. All rights reserved.
Kawatra P.,Ms Ramaiah Medical College |
Rajagopalan R.,Ms Ramaiah Medical College
Pharmacognosy Research | Year: 2015
Cinnamon, due to its exotic flavor and aroma, is a key ingredient in the kitchen of every household. From the beginning of its use in 2800 BC by our ancestors for various purposes such as anointment, embalming and various ailments, it has instigated the interest of many researchers. Recently many trials have explored the beneficial effects of cinnamon in Parkinsons, diabetes, blood, and brain. After extensive research on PubMed and Google scholar, data were collected regarding its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antilipemic, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, and anticancer effect. This systematic review underlines the surplus health benefits of this clandestine ingredient and the scope of further research in these clinical scenarios. © 2015 Pharmacognosy Research.
Fu L.S.,The First Peoples Hospital Of Yancheng |
Doreswamy V.,Ms Ramaiah Medical College |
Prakash R.,Ms Ramaiah Medical College
Neural Regeneration Research | Year: 2014
Neural degeneration is a very complicated process. In spite of all the advancements in the molecular chemistry, there are many unknown aspects of the phenomena of neurodegeneration which need to be put together. It is a common sequela of the conditions of niacin deficiency. Neural degeneration in Pellagra manifests as chromatolysis mainly in pyramidal followed by other neurons and glial cells. However, there is a gross lack of understanding of biochemical mechanisms of neurodegeneration in niacin deficiency states. Because of the necessity of niacin or its amide derivative NAD in a number of biochemical pathways, it is understandable that several of these pathways may be involved in the common outcome of neural degeneration. Here, we highlight five pathways that could be involved in the neuraldegeneration for which evidence has accumulated through several studies. These pathways are: 1) the tryptophan-kyneurenic acid pathway, 2) the mitochondrial ATP generation related pathways, 3) the poly (ADP-ibose) polymerase (PARP) pathway, 4) the BDNF-TRKB Axis abnormalities, 5) the genetic influences of niacin deficiency. © 2014, Neural Regeneration Research. All right reserved.
Dsouza N.D.R.,Mangalore University |
Murthy N.S.,MS Ramaiah Medical College |
Aras R.Y.,Mangalore University
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2013
Projection of cancer incidence is essential for planning cancer control actions, health care and allocation of resources. Here we project the cancer burden at the National and State level to understand the magnitude of cancer problem for the various calendar years from 2011 to 2026 at 5-yearly intervals. The age, sex and site-wise cancer incidence data along with populations covered by the registries were obtained from the report of National Cancer Registry Programme published by Indian Council of Medical Research for the period 2001-2004. Pooled age sex specific cancer incidence rates were obtained by taking weighted averages of these seventeen registries with respective registry populations as weights. The pooled incidence rates were assumed to represent the country's incidence rates. Populations of the country according to age and sex exposed to the risk of development of cancer in different calendar years were obtained from the report of Registrar General of India providing population projections for the country for the years from 2001 to 2026. Population forecasts were combined with the pooled incidence rates to estimate the projected number of cancer cases by age, sex and site of cancer at various 5-yearly periods Viz. 2011, 2016, 2021 and 2026. The projections were carried out for the various leading sites as well as for 'all sites' of cancer. In India, in 2011, nearly 1,193,000 new cancer cases were estimated; a higher load among females (603,500) than males (589,800) was noted. It is estimated that the total number of new cases in males will increased from 0.589 million in 2011 to 0.934 million by the year 2026. In females the new cases of cancer increased from 0.603 to 0.935 million. Three top most occurring cancers namely those of tobacco related cancers in both sexes, breast and cervical cancers in women account for over 50 to 60 percent of all cancers. When adjustments for increasing tobacco habits and increasing trends in many cancers are made, the estimates may further increase. The leading sites of cancers in males are lung, oesophagus, larynx, mouth, tongue and in females breast and cervix uteri. The main factors contributing to high burden of cancer over the years are increase in the population size as well as increase in proportion of elderly population, urbanization, and globalization. The cancer incidence results show an urgent need for strengthening and augmenting the existing diagnostic/treatment facilities, which are inadequate even to tackle the present load.
Ganjekar S.,MS Ramaiah Medical College |
Desai G.,National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences |
Chandra P.S.,National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences
Bipolar Disorders | Year: 2013
Objectives: Most studies acknowledge that postpartum psychosis is a variant of bipolar disorder with certain unique clinical features. There have been several descriptions of similarities and differences between postpartum psychosis and postpartum mania to support this conclusion. However, not many studies have compared postpartum-onset and nonpostpartum-onset mania. This study compared short-term outcome, clinical features, and severity of symptoms between these two groups. Methods: Two groups of women (n = 30 each) matching the study criteria were recruited from psychiatric inpatient units in India during the period from April 2007 to August 2008. They had been systematically assessed for psychiatric symptoms and symptom severity using the Comprehensive Psychopathology Rating Scale (CPRS), Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), and Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF). To evaluate short-term outcome, all assessments were conducted within a week of admission and were repeated at six weeks. Results: Women with postpartum-onset mania had higher scores on the HDRS, indicating more depressive symptoms. The score on the anxiety factor of the HDRS was also higher in the postpartum group. Based on CPRS ratings, perplexity, muscle tension, worrying, inner tension, lability of mood, lassitude, and disorientation were more common in the postpartum group, while typical manic symptoms were more common in the nonpostpartum group. Duration of hospital stay and short-term outcome were, however, similar in the two groups. Conclusions: Symptoms of depression and anxiety are more common and more severe in mania of postpartum onset and typical manic symptoms are fewer. However, six-week outcomes appear similar to those of nonpostpartum mania. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Krishnaveni C.,A deemed University |
Kulkarni R.,Ms Ramaiah Medical College
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2013
The renal anatomy and its development is complex. This complexity is associated with numerous variations. Each renal variation has its own clinical and surgical importance. There is a good correlation between the ascent of the kidney, the level of its origin and number of the renal arteries. Any anomaly in the renal artery development may be due to a delay in the kidney ascension and it can lead to an ectopic kidney. Ectopic kidneys are more frequent in males and they are observed commonly on the left side. In the present study, we came across a rare case of a unilateral right renal ectopia and bilateral multiple renal arteries, with 5 renal arteries on the right side and 2 on the left side. The renal veins were 3 on the right side and two on the left side, with the retro aortic left renal vein, which were observed during the routine dissection of a male cadaver. This observation would be of immense importance for surgeons, interventional radiologists, nephrologists and vascular surgeons.
Subramanian M.,Ms Ramaiah Medical College
Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation : an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia | Year: 2010
The nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a well documented complication of hematological malignancies. However, chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is rarely complicated by the NS, and it occurs usually after allogenic stem cell transplantation or interferon alpha therapy for CML. The NS as a complication of untreated CML is also rare. We report a 31-year-old patient who presented with features of The NS. He was diagnosed to have CML one year ago and was on irregular treatment with imatinib mesylate. The renal biopsy and immunofluorescence revealed membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis type I. The patient was retreated with imatinib mesylate and the NS resolved gradually over three months. This maybe the third case in literature of membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis associated with CML.
Praveen S.,Ms Ramaiah Medical College
Journal of Indian Academy of Forensic Medicine | Year: 2011
Killing infant girls is something most of us cannot imagine. As shocking and disturbing as this behavior is, however, we must look at in within its cultural context. In some Indian communities there is a preference for male children. This attitude is rooted in a complex set of social, cultural and economic factors. Daughters will require a sizable financial dowry in order to marry. This dowry system, lack of economic independence, social customs and traditions has relegated the female to a secondary status. Because daughters leave their families of origin, they are often regarded as temporary members of their families and a drain on its wealth. There is an expression in India that "bringing up a daughter is like watering a neighbor's plant". In most of such cases of female infanticide the perpetrator is themother of the infant. Here we are highlighting a case where a new born female was suspected to have been brutally killed by her parent.
Mysorekar V.V.,Ms Ramaiah Medical College
National Medical Journal of India | Year: 2012
Background. About 15% of medical students perform poorly in examinations. This study was done to ascertain the causes for low performance and the effectiveness of counselling and advice regarding study skills in improving performance in a subsequent assessment. Methods. Of the 353 students who appeared for the first internal assessment examination in pathology, 83 (23.5%) scored less than 30% marks. These 83 low-performers were given a questionnaire listing stress-inducing factors and academic problems; 81 filled the questionnaire. Of these, 73 attended sessions on study skills and counselling where they interacted on a one-to-one basis regarding their personal problems. Their performance was evaluated in an internal assessment 6 months later. Results. The low-performers included 52 boys and 29 girls, 19-20 years of age. Non-academic problems contributing to low performance included language problems, problems in adjustment to life outside home, lack of self-confidence, fear of failure and worrying about the future. Academic problems included difficulty in managing study time, lack of concentration while studying, inability to retain what is studied, anxiety before examinations and inability to write an examination. Paired t-test revealed a statistically significant improvement in the post-programme performance of the 73 students who participated in the counselling sessions (p<0.001), while that of the 10 who did not participate in the project, showed no statistically significant difference (p=0.54, Wilcoxon signed rank test). A majority of students felt that the sessions helped to improve their performance (average score 3.83/6.00), change their study behaviour (3.74/6.00) and change their attitude (3.46/6.00). The programme also improved their confidence and self-esteem. Conclusion. Low-performers can benefit from tailored remedial programmes which include counselling and training in stress-coping strategies. © The National Medical Journal of India 2012.
Madhusudhan B.K.,Ms Ramaiah Medical College
Epilepsy and Behavior Case Reports | Year: 2014
We report a case of a 63-year-old lady with bipolar affective disorder on lithium who was brought to our emergency center in a comatose state.Neurologically, the patient was comatose and had generalized hypotonia and hyporeflexia. Lithium toxicity was considered. Laboratory examinations revealed leukocytosis, normal blood sugar, blood level of lithium was 4.7 mEq/L and she had renal dysfunction. Cerebrospinal fluid examination and cranial computerized tomography were unremarkable. Blood lithium level was 4.7 mEq/L. Hemodialysis was initiated. However, in spite of dialysis and decreasing lithium levels, the patient remained unconscious. A possibility of nonconvulsive status epilepticus was considered; hence, EEG was advised. The EEG demonstrated bihemispheric slowing (4- to 5-Hz theta range) with bilateral periodic triphasic waves of 1- to 2-Hz frequency, similar to the EEG changes seen in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.She was started on lorazepam. Her sensorium improved gradually, which correlated with the decline in blood lithium levels. A normal background alpha rhythm on EEG was ensured prior to discharge. At discharge, clinically, she had recovered completely, with no apparent neurological deficit or cognitive impairment.This case highlights the importance of therapeutic drug-level monitoring of lithium, especially where toxicity is suspected, and the important role electroencephalography plays in diagnosing NCSE and its management. © 2014.