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Bangalore, India

Praveen S.,Ms Ramaiah Medical College
Journal of Indian Academy of Forensic Medicine | Year: 2011

Killing infant girls is something most of us cannot imagine. As shocking and disturbing as this behavior is, however, we must look at in within its cultural context. In some Indian communities there is a preference for male children. This attitude is rooted in a complex set of social, cultural and economic factors. Daughters will require a sizable financial dowry in order to marry. This dowry system, lack of economic independence, social customs and traditions has relegated the female to a secondary status. Because daughters leave their families of origin, they are often regarded as temporary members of their families and a drain on its wealth. There is an expression in India that "bringing up a daughter is like watering a neighbor's plant". In most of such cases of female infanticide the perpetrator is themother of the infant. Here we are highlighting a case where a new born female was suspected to have been brutally killed by her parent.

Mysorekar V.V.,Ms Ramaiah Medical College
National Medical Journal of India | Year: 2012

Background. About 15% of medical students perform poorly in examinations. This study was done to ascertain the causes for low performance and the effectiveness of counselling and advice regarding study skills in improving performance in a subsequent assessment. Methods. Of the 353 students who appeared for the first internal assessment examination in pathology, 83 (23.5%) scored less than 30% marks. These 83 low-performers were given a questionnaire listing stress-inducing factors and academic problems; 81 filled the questionnaire. Of these, 73 attended sessions on study skills and counselling where they interacted on a one-to-one basis regarding their personal problems. Their performance was evaluated in an internal assessment 6 months later. Results. The low-performers included 52 boys and 29 girls, 19-20 years of age. Non-academic problems contributing to low performance included language problems, problems in adjustment to life outside home, lack of self-confidence, fear of failure and worrying about the future. Academic problems included difficulty in managing study time, lack of concentration while studying, inability to retain what is studied, anxiety before examinations and inability to write an examination. Paired t-test revealed a statistically significant improvement in the post-programme performance of the 73 students who participated in the counselling sessions (p<0.001), while that of the 10 who did not participate in the project, showed no statistically significant difference (p=0.54, Wilcoxon signed rank test). A majority of students felt that the sessions helped to improve their performance (average score 3.83/6.00), change their study behaviour (3.74/6.00) and change their attitude (3.46/6.00). The programme also improved their confidence and self-esteem. Conclusion. Low-performers can benefit from tailored remedial programmes which include counselling and training in stress-coping strategies. © The National Medical Journal of India 2012.

Rao R.S.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Rao V.,Ms Ramaiah Medical College | Kini S.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine
Obesity Surgery | Year: 2010

Bariatric surgery is considered the most effective current treatment for morbid obesity. Since the first publication of an article by Kremen, Linner, and Nelson, many experiments have been performed using animal models. The initial experiments used only malabsorptive procedures like intestinal bypass which have largely been abandoned now. These experimental models have been used to assess feasibility and safety as well as to refine techniques particular to each procedure. We will discuss the surgical techniques and the postsurgical physiology of the four major current bariatric procedures (namely, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, gastric banding, sleeve gastrectomy, and biliopancreatic diversion). We have also reviewed the anatomy and physiology of animal models. We have reviewed the literature and presented it such that it would be a reference to an investigator interested in animal experiments in bariatric surgery. Experimental animal models are further divided into two categories: large mammals that include dogs, cats, rabbits, and pig and small mammals that include rats and mice. © 2010 Springer Science + Business Media, LLC.

Ganjekar S.,Ms Ramaiah Medical College | Desai G.,National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences | Chandra P.S.,National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences
Bipolar Disorders | Year: 2013

Objectives: Most studies acknowledge that postpartum psychosis is a variant of bipolar disorder with certain unique clinical features. There have been several descriptions of similarities and differences between postpartum psychosis and postpartum mania to support this conclusion. However, not many studies have compared postpartum-onset and nonpostpartum-onset mania. This study compared short-term outcome, clinical features, and severity of symptoms between these two groups. Methods: Two groups of women (n = 30 each) matching the study criteria were recruited from psychiatric inpatient units in India during the period from April 2007 to August 2008. They had been systematically assessed for psychiatric symptoms and symptom severity using the Comprehensive Psychopathology Rating Scale (CPRS), Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), and Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF). To evaluate short-term outcome, all assessments were conducted within a week of admission and were repeated at six weeks. Results: Women with postpartum-onset mania had higher scores on the HDRS, indicating more depressive symptoms. The score on the anxiety factor of the HDRS was also higher in the postpartum group. Based on CPRS ratings, perplexity, muscle tension, worrying, inner tension, lability of mood, lassitude, and disorientation were more common in the postpartum group, while typical manic symptoms were more common in the nonpostpartum group. Duration of hospital stay and short-term outcome were, however, similar in the two groups. Conclusions: Symptoms of depression and anxiety are more common and more severe in mania of postpartum onset and typical manic symptoms are fewer. However, six-week outcomes appear similar to those of nonpostpartum mania. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Dsouza N.D.R.,Mangalore University | Murthy N.S.,Ms Ramaiah Medical College | Aras R.Y.,Mangalore University
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2013

Projection of cancer incidence is essential for planning cancer control actions, health care and allocation of resources. Here we project the cancer burden at the National and State level to understand the magnitude of cancer problem for the various calendar years from 2011 to 2026 at 5-yearly intervals. The age, sex and site-wise cancer incidence data along with populations covered by the registries were obtained from the report of National Cancer Registry Programme published by Indian Council of Medical Research for the period 2001-2004. Pooled age sex specific cancer incidence rates were obtained by taking weighted averages of these seventeen registries with respective registry populations as weights. The pooled incidence rates were assumed to represent the country's incidence rates. Populations of the country according to age and sex exposed to the risk of development of cancer in different calendar years were obtained from the report of Registrar General of India providing population projections for the country for the years from 2001 to 2026. Population forecasts were combined with the pooled incidence rates to estimate the projected number of cancer cases by age, sex and site of cancer at various 5-yearly periods Viz. 2011, 2016, 2021 and 2026. The projections were carried out for the various leading sites as well as for 'all sites' of cancer. In India, in 2011, nearly 1,193,000 new cancer cases were estimated; a higher load among females (603,500) than males (589,800) was noted. It is estimated that the total number of new cases in males will increased from 0.589 million in 2011 to 0.934 million by the year 2026. In females the new cases of cancer increased from 0.603 to 0.935 million. Three top most occurring cancers namely those of tobacco related cancers in both sexes, breast and cervical cancers in women account for over 50 to 60 percent of all cancers. When adjustments for increasing tobacco habits and increasing trends in many cancers are made, the estimates may further increase. The leading sites of cancers in males are lung, oesophagus, larynx, mouth, tongue and in females breast and cervix uteri. The main factors contributing to high burden of cancer over the years are increase in the population size as well as increase in proportion of elderly population, urbanization, and globalization. The cancer incidence results show an urgent need for strengthening and augmenting the existing diagnostic/treatment facilities, which are inadequate even to tackle the present load.

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