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A community intervention trial was conducted to assess the feasibility of APF gel as a caries-preventive agent in a high-risk group of school children in Bangalore City. The study was conducted in two schools, randomly selected from a list of schools catering to underprivileged children. These schools were randomly allocated into experimental and control groups. Children aged 9-16 years having three or more incipient or cavitated primary or secondary carious lesions were enrolled in the study. In the experimental group, APF gel was applied and oral health education was provided to both groups at baseline and 6 months. Follow-up examination was performed at 6 and 12 months and the caries status was recorded by an investigator who was blinded to the allocation of intervention. There was no statistically significant difference in DMFT and DMFS values, but a significant difference was seen in incipient carious lesions between the experimental and control groups at 6 and 12 months. These results suggest that biannual APF gel application is an effective preventive measure in reversing incipient carious lesions. Source


Habbu S.G.,Dr Hsrsm Dental College And Hospital Maharashtra | Krishnappa P.,MS Ramaiah Dental College and Hospital
International Dental Journal | Year: 2015

Background So that resources and manpower are allocated in a way of most benefit to the population, systematic review of available evidence on the effectiveness of programmes and interventions is required. Objectives To assess the quality of evidence presented in studies carried out to investigate the effectiveness of oral health education in children. Methods The MEDLINE (PubMed) bibliographic database was searched for English-language articles published from 2005 to 2011. Fifty-five articles were identified by the literature search, and the relevance of each article was determined by examining the title and the abstract. Sixteen original research studies met the inclusion criteria. These articles were read in full and scored independently by two reviewers, with scoring based on predetermined criteria. Articles scoring less than 10 were excluded from the study. For each paper that achieved a validity score of more than 10 (n = 11), data concerning the objectives of the intervention, the types and numbers of participants and the outcomes were extracted from the article. Considering the absence of homogeneity among the articles (as a result of variation in the age of subjects, type of intervention and outcome measures) quantitative analysis was not conducted. The publications were grouped based on their outcome measures: (i) plaque and gingival health; (ii) caries incidence; (iii) knowledge, attitude and oral health-related behaviour; and (iv) toothbrushing skills. Results The results of this analysis suggest that further efforts are required to synthesise, systematically, current information about dental health education, along with the maintenance of rigorous scientific standards in research. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation. Source


Bijle M.N.A.,Dr DY Patil Dental College and Hospital | Patil S.,MS Ramaiah Dental College and Hospital
Indian Journal of Dental Research | Year: 2013

Background: Patent policies have proved to be extremely important for several countries to develop. India has achieved its global status since 2005; a critical analysis of the patents at IPO will help us to identify the potential, available for patents with Indian Dental Fraternity. Aim: The aim of this study is to critically analyze and review Indian Patents in the field of Dentistry from 2005-2009 for evaluation of status of Indian Patents in Dentistry. Materials and Methods: A total of 110 patents were scrutinized from 2005-2009 available by IPO on www.patentoffice.nic.in. Following which a preliminary data were collected from individual patents and recorded in a record sheet. Statistical Analysis: The data collected were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 software and were subjected to ANOVA test. Results: All patents scrutinized were applied for dental materials (100%). Company applicants (70%) were the maximum followed by the individual applicants (27.2%). A total of 87.3% of patents had enrolled for International Application. Priority country had maximum favor with USA (39.2%) followed by Europe (36.1%). Single inventors (44.5%) were the maximum followed by two inventors (22.7%). Europe (37.3%) had the maximum first inventor, followed by United States of America (30%) and India (10.9%). Individual inventors were maximum in Europe (38.8%) followed by USA (20.4%) and India (16.3%). Conclusion: Contribution from Indian Nationals as inventors for patents in the field of Dentistry is limited, thus reducing the pace of progress and development. Indian inventors in the field of Dentistry have to go a long way to compete with the fellow mates of developed countries like USA and Europe. Continuing Dental Education programs on Intellectual property rights should be conducted on regular basis especially for Dentist's involved in research. Source


Venkatesiah S.S.,MS Ramaiah Dental College and Hospital | Kale A.D.,KLE University | Hallikeremath S.R.,KLE University | Kotrashetti V.S.,KLE University
Indian Journal of Dental Research | Year: 2013

Introduction: Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease that clinically and histologically resembles lichenoid lesions, although the latter has a different etiology. Though criteria have been suggested for differentiating oral lichen planus from lichenoid lesions, confusion still prevails. Aims: To study the cellular and nuclear volumetric features in the epithelium of normal mucosa, lichen planus, and lichenoid lesions to determine variations if any. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was done on 25 histologically diagnosed cases each of oral lichen planus, oral lichenoid lesions, and normal oral mucosa. Cellular and nuclear morphometric measurements were assessed on hematoxylin and eosin sections using image analysis software. Statistical Analysis: Analysis of variance test (ANOVA) and Tukey′s post-hoc test. Results: The basal cells of oral lichen planus showed a significant increase in the mean nuclear and cellular areas, and in nuclear volume; there was a significant decrease in the nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio as compared to normal mucosa. The suprabasal cells showed a significant increase in nuclear and cellular areas, nuclear diameter, and nuclear and cellular volumes as compared to normal mucosa. The basal cells of oral lichenoid lesions showed significant difference in the mean cellular area and the mean nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio as compared to normal mucosa, whereas the suprabasal cells differed significantly from normal mucosa in the mean nuclear area and the nuclear and cellular volumes. Conclusions: Morphometry can differentiate lesions of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions from normal oral mucosa. Thus, morphometry may serve to discriminate between normal and premalignant lichen planus and lichenoid lesions. These lesions might have a high risk for malignant transformation and may behave in a similar manner with respect to malignant transformation. Source


Shetty V.D.,Sinhgad Dental College and Hospital | Bijle M.N.A.,Dr DY Patil Dental College and Hospital | Patil S.,MS Ramaiah Dental College and Hospital
Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice | Year: 2013

Aim: To assess and compare the quality of life and oral health status among institutionalized elderly in Pune. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional, quantitative exploratory study was conducted in persons 60 years of age in an institutionalized elderly home. The GOHAI questionnaire was completed by a single examiner, who interviewed the patients in their local language. The oral examination was carried out according to WHO oral health survey using the DMFT-index, community periodontal index (CPI), periodontal loss of attachment (PLA), prosthetic use, and needs according to criteria established by the WHO by a calibrated examiner. Descriptive analysis was carried out using absolute and relative frequencies of the qualitative variables and means with respective standard deviations for the quantitative variables. The Student's t-test was applied to compare groups. Results: Out of the total 110 individuals interviewed for the study, 64% were males and 36% were females. Individuals with up to 20 missing teeth and individuals with more than 20 missing teeth were 20 and 80% respectively. Based on the prosthetic need, 66% individuals needed replacement of teeth by dentures in one or both arches while 34% did not need any replacement by complete denture. The mean value for physical dimension was 5.40 whereas for psychosocial dimension, pain/discomfort and behavioral dimension were 8.02, 4.58 and 7.32. Conclusion: The quality of life was found to be more favorable in individuals with less than 20 teeth missing. The quality of life among complete denture wearers in both the arches was better as compared to the quality of life among nondenture wearers. Prosthetic replacement by complete denture helps the individuals to maintain better oral health. Clinical significance: The data obtained from the present study may serve as a reference point for comparisons of the magnitude of quality-of-life indicators relating to oral health. Clinical significance: The data obtained from the present study may serve as a reference point for the magnitude of quality-of-life indicators relating to oral health. Source

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