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Kansas City, MO, United States

Court C.D.,MRIGlobal | Court C.D.,Regional Research Institute
Ecological Economics | Year: 2012

Amid changing attitudes about the environment and emerging sustainability concerns in the late 1960s and 1970s, countries around the world began regulating multiple aspects of solid and hazardous wastes. Initial regulations and those occurring since all share the broader goal of curbing waste generation, especially that of hazardous wastes; but with few signs of progress. Using an input-output accounting framework that focuses on the domestic economy, data on the economy and hazardous waste generation are combined to provide a more complete picture of hazardous waste generation in the United States. The framework developed in this paper can be used to inform decisionmakers of the current state of the "hazardous waste economy" and can also be extended to account for other types of environmental factors. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Cowherd Jr. C.,MRIGlobal
Proceedings of the Air and Waste Management Association's Annual Conference and Exhibition, AWMA | Year: 2012

Across the nation, open sources account for the majority of directly emitted PM10, and for emissions of gases, e.g., NH3, biogenic species, and other pollutants of regulatory concern. The use of vehicle-mounted continuous pollutant concentration monitors for mapping at "ground level" the locations and lateral structures of plumes crossing roadways downwind of emission release points was studied. One of the key ad vantages of this approach is the much lower cost of implementation in comparison with other monitoring strategies. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 105th AWMA Annual Conference and Exhibition (San Antonio, TX 6/19-22/2012).

Horn J.,MRIGlobal
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2015

Concerns of infectious disease outbreaks have recently reached the forefront of global security issues and resulted in new engagements among foreign science advisors, host country scientists, and officials. There are lessons to be learned from the numerous organizations working in global regions of endemic disease who are building capacity to survey pathogens and prevent and contain epidemics. Working with foreign scientists, health professionals, and administrators can be challenging; building partnerships based on respect and mutual trust is key to achieve effective change. Engendering ownership, working towards mutual success, paying close attention to cultural norms and the local regulatory climate, close collaboration with other stakeholders, and imaginative problem solving all contribute to mission success. © 2015 Horn.

Cowherd C.,MRIGlobal | Countess R.,Countess Environmental
Proceedings of the Air and Waste Management Association's Annual Conference and Exhibition, AWMA | Year: 2013

A discussion covers technical and regulatory challenges involved in addressing fugitive sources in terms of emission quantification, transport modeling and impact assessment, with emphasis on measurement and modeling of emissions from upstream oil and gas production, industrial flares, and fugitive dust sources. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 106th AWMA Annual Conference and Exhibition (Chicago, IL 6/25-28/2013).

Joseph L.B.,Rutgers University | Gerecke D.R.,Rutgers University | Heck D.E.,New York Medical College | Black A.T.,Rutgers University | And 6 more authors.
Experimental and Molecular Pathology | Year: 2011

Sulfur mustard (SM, bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide) is a bifunctional alkylating agent that causes dermal inflammation, edema and blistering. To investigate the pathogenesis of SM-induced injury, we used a vapor cup model which provides an occlusive environment in which SM is in constant contact with the skin. The dorsal skin of SKH-1 hairless mice was exposed to saturated SM vapor or air control. Histopathological changes, inflammatory markers and DNA damage were analyzed 1-14. days later. After 1. day, SM caused epidermal thinning, stratum corneum shedding, basal cell karyolysis, hemorrhage and macrophage and neutrophil accumulation in the dermis. Cleaved caspase-3 and phosphorylated histone 2A.X (phospho-H2A.X), markers of apoptosis and DNA damage, respectively, were increased whereas proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was down-regulated after SM exposure. By 3. days, epithelial cell hypertrophy, edema, parakeratosis and loss of epidermal structures were noted. Enzymes generating pro-inflammatory mediators including myeloperoxidase and cyclooxygenase-2 were upregulated. After 7. days, keratin-10, a differentiation marker, was evident in the stratum corneum. This was associated with an underlying eschar, as neoepidermis began to migrate at the wound edges. Trichrome staining revealed increased collagen deposition in the dermis. PCNA expression in the epidermis was correlated with hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis, and parakeratosis. By 14. days, there was epidermal regeneration with extensive hyperplasia, and reduced expression of cleaved caspase-3, cyclooxygenase-2 and phospho-H2A.X. These findings are consistent with the pathophysiology of SM-induced skin injury in humans suggesting that the hairless mouse can be used to investigate the dermatoxicity of vesicants and the potential efficacy of countermeasures. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

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