Max Rubner Institute MRI

Detmold, Germany

Max Rubner Institute MRI

Detmold, Germany

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Aladedunye F.,Max Rubner Institute MRI | Przybylski R.,University of Lethbridge | Matthaus B.,Max Rubner Institute MRI
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2017

Although much study has been done assessing activity of antioxidants at ambient and accelerated storage temperatures, the results cannot correctly depict their performance under frying conditions. Due to the stringent conditions imposed, most conventional antioxidative compounds failed under frying conditions, suggesting the need for a continuous modification to improve their effectiveness. Although syntheses and performance evaluation of over a hundred (semi)synthetic antioxidants have been reported in literature, only a small fraction have been specifically designed and/or evaluated under frying conditions. Here, the performance under frying conditions of major natural and synthetic antioxidants is reviewed. The recent trend in the designing of antioxidants for frying applications is also reviewed with the view of stimulating further study in this direction. © 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Aladedunye F.,Max Rubner Institute MRI | Przybylski R.,University of Lethbridge
Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

The influence of linoleic acid content and tocopherol isomeric composition on the frying performance of high oleic sunflower oil was evaluated during a 14-day restaurant style frying operation. At equal linoleic acid content, no significant difference was observed between high oleic sunflower oil containing only atocopherol and the sample containing a mixture of α-, γ-, and δ-isomers as measured by the amount of total polar components, oligomers, anisidine value, and free fatty acids. On the contrary, at similar tocopherol isomeric composition, high oleic sunflower oil containing lower amount of linoleic acid showed superior frying stability compared to the sample with a higher content of linoleic acid, suggesting that the frying performance of high oleic sunflower oil is dictated primarily by the level of linoleic acid, with the tocopherol isomeric composition of the oil having no significant influence. In all oil samples, the loss of γ-tocopherol was higher than the corresponding loss of α-tocopherol. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Aladedunye F.,Max Rubner Institute MRI | Przybylski R.,University of Lethbridge
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

Recently, we reported the synthesis of a series of dihydrocaffeic acid amides and evaluated their performance as antioxidants for frying applications using a model frying. In the present study, the possibility of a synergy between the amide, N-propyl-N-benzyl-3-(3,4 dihydroxyphenyl)propanamide (DCA) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) was explored in a 6-day actual frying operation. As measured by the amount of polar components (TPC), anisidine value (AnV), changes in fatty acid composition, residual tocopherol and hydroxynonenal (HNE), canola oil containing the formulated antioxidant was twice as stable compared to the regular unfortified oil. At the end of the frying period, the amount of HNE detected in regular canola oil and the fortified sample was at 5.7 and 2.5 μg/g, respectively. Thus, the mixture containing phosphatidylcholine and dihydrocaffeic acid amide is a promising antioxidant for frying application. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Aladedunye F.,Max Rubner Institute MRI | Przybylski R.,University of Lethbridge
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology | Year: 2014

The frying performance of rapeseed, soybean, and sunflower oils with modified fatty acid composition, and palm olein (PALMO) was compared during a rotational frying operation. The frying was conducted at 185±5°C for 6 days where French fries, battered chicken, and fish sticks were fried in succession. At the end of the frying period, high-oleic rapeseed and sunflower oils exhibited a significantly higher frying stability than PALMO and other modified oils, based on total polar components (TPC), polymers, and non-volatile carbonyl compounds formation (anisidine value (AV)). The rate of TPC formation was 2.9, 2.9, 3.2, 3.2, and 3.4% per frying day for high-oleic low-linolenic rapeseed (HOLLRAP), high-oleic sunflower (HOSUN), mid-oleic sunflower (MOSUN), low-linolenic soybean (LLSOY), and PALMO, respectively. Although the contents of free fatty acids (FFA) in the used oils were significantly below the regulatory discard level, in PALMO formation of these compounds was 1.7 times higher compared to the modified oils. Color component formation and tocopherol degradation were also observed to be the highest in palm olein. A 15-member consumer panel awarded HOLLRAP and HOSUN the highest overall sensory acceptance scores, while for LLSOY and PALMO the lowest. Practical applications: Although several frying oils are available in today's market, only a few of them can deliver satisfactory performance during extended frying operation. Thus, the search for the ideal frying oils/fats is an ongoing task. The present study assessed frying performance in the quest for the appropriate frying oils/fats in order to deliver healthy fried products with optimized nutritional qualities. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Pohlmann M.,Max Rubner Institute MRI | Hitzel A.,Max Rubner Institute MRI | Schwagele F.,Max Rubner Institute MRI | Speer K.,TU Dresden | Jira W.,Max Rubner Institute MRI
Meat Science | Year: 2012

The contents of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and phenolic substances in Frankfurter-type sausages were investigated depending on hot smoking conditions (glow smoke). For the 24 smoking experiments (performed in duplicates) three different smoke densities and ventilator velocities as well as wood chips with five different moisture contents were tested. During the smoking process, concentrations of O2, CO2 and CO, humidity and temperature in the smoking chamber as well as smoke generation temperature were determined. The chemical analysis included the contents of the 15+1 EU priority PAH and the phenolic substances guaiacol, 4-methylguaiacol, syringol, eugenol and trans-isoeugenol. The smoking conditions had a significant influence on smoke generation temperature, organoleptic properties and the formation of PAH and phenolic substances. The PAH contents increased with smoke density and ventilator velocity. No correlation between the contents of PAH and phenols was observed. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Hitzel A.,Max Rubner Institute MRI | Pohlmann M.,Max Rubner Institute MRI | Schwagele F.,Max Rubner Institute MRI | Speer K.,TU Dresden | Jira W.,Max Rubner Institute MRI
Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

The contents of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (15+1 EU PAH) and phenolic substances (guaiacol, 4-methylguaiacol, syringol, eugenol, and trans-isoeugenol) were investigated in smouldering-smoked Frankfurters and mini-salamis. For the 51 smoking experiments wood chips of oak, poplar, hickory, spruce, fir, alder, beech, and beech with an apple-smoking spice mix, cherry-smoking spice mix, and a mix of juniper berries and bay leaves were tested. The use of poplar and hickory led to a decrease in the PAH contents in the range of 35-55% compared to the commonly used beech wood. Higher PAH contents by using softwood were not observed. The use of the rapidly growing poplar seems to be a reasonable approach for reducing the PAH contents in smoked meat products. Furthermore, the sum contents of the five phenolic substances in sausages smoked with poplar were higher, or only slightly lower, when compared to the use of beech. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Pohlmann M.,Max Rubner Institute MRI | Hitzel A.,Max Rubner Institute MRI | Schwagele F.,Max Rubner Institute MRI | Speer K.,TU Dresden | Jira W.,Max Rubner Institute MRI
Food Control | Year: 2013

The contents of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (15 + 1 EU priority PAH) and phenolic substances (guaiacol, 4-methylguaiacol, syringol, eugenol, and trans-isoeugenol) in smoked Frankfurter-type sausages were investigated depending on the type of casing and back fat content. Three types of casings (collagen casings, cellulose-peelable casings, and sheep casings) were tested in four smoking experiments. Furthermore, Frankfurter-type sausages with four different back fat contents (10%, 20%, 30%, and 39%) were produced and simultaneously smoked in 12 smoking experiments applying different smoking conditions (glow smoke). The type of casing and the back fat content of Frankfurter-type sausages had an influence on the PAH contents. The benzo[a]pyrene contents ranged between 0.08 μg/kg in peeled cellulose cased sausages and 0.81 μg/kg in sheep cased sausages and between 0.28 μg/kg (back fat content: 10%) and 1.37 μg/kg (back fat content: 39%). The sum contents of the five phenolic compounds depended on the type of casing and ranged between 38 mg/kg (collagen cased sausages) and 109 mg/kg (sheep cased sausages), but did not depend on the fat contents of the sausages. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Hollmann J.,Max Rubner Institute MRI | Themeier H.,Max Rubner Institute MRI | Neese U.,Max Rubner Institute MRI | Lindhauer M.G.,Max Rubner Institute MRI
Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

The reliable determination of soluble, insoluble and total dietary fibre in baked goods and cereal flours is an important issue for research, nutritional labelling and marketing. We compared total dietary fibre (TDF) contents of selected cereal based foods determined by AOAC Method 991.43 and the new AOAC Method 2009.01. Fifteen bread and bakery products were included in the study. Our results showed that TDF values of cereal products determined by AOAC Method 2009.01 were always significantly higher than those determined by AOAC Method 991.43. This was explained by the inclusion of low molecular weight soluble fibre fractions and resistant starch fractions in the TDF measurement by AOAC 2009.01. This documents that nutritional labelling of cereal products poses the challenge how to update TDF data in nutrient databases in a reasonable time with an acceptable expenditure. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Aladedunye F.,Max Rubner Institute MRI | Matthaus B.,Max Rubner Institute MRI
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

In the present study, phenolic extracts and fractions from Canadian rowanberry (Sorbus aucuparia) and crabapple (Malus baccata) were screened for antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging activity, and β-carotene bleaching assays. Furthermore, rapeseed oil was supplemented with extracts/fractions and performance was assessed during accelerated storage at 65 °C, under Rancimat at 120 °C, and during frying at 180°C. A number of phenolic fractions showed significantly higher radical scavenging and antioxidant activity in the oil than the synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). At the end of the 7-day storage, the peroxide value was reduced by up to 42% in the presence of extracts. The extent of thermooxidative degradation was significantly lower in oils fortified with the fruit extracts, with fractions from Sorbus species being more effective. Results from the present study suggested that polyphenolic extracts from these fruits can offer effective alternative to synthetic antioxidants during frying and storage of vegetable oils. © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.


Aladedunye F.A.,Max Rubner Institute MRI
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology | Year: 2014

Frying is a very complex process and the applied conditions often overwhelm most endogenous and added antioxidants. Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), and tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) are often added to processed oils to retard oxidative degradation during storage and frying; however, beside their poor performance under frying conditions, consumers' acceptance of synthetic antioxidants remains negative due to their perceived detrimental effect on human health. Consequently, there is a growing interest in the search for effective natural antioxidants for frying applications, notably, from phenolic components of common spices and herbs. The present study provides an overview of the literature on natural antioxidants, sources, and their performance under frying conditions. Practical applications: Sources and performance of natural antioxidants during frying were reviewed. Despite abundance of data on the radical scavenging activity and antioxidant potency of some natural antioxidants under storage conditions, there is still a dearth of information on their activity during frying. This study revealed a number of under-exploited sources of natural antioxidants that could be used to improve the stability of frying oils. Natural antioxidants for frying application. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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