MRI Global

Kansas City, MO, United States

MRI Global

Kansas City, MO, United States
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Osheroff M.R.,Osheroff Consulting Services LLC | Kobs D.J.,Battelle | Buccellato M.,Battelle | Croutch C.R.,MRI Global | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Toxicology | Year: 2013

Studies were conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats, New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits, and rhesus monkeys to characterize the toxicity of 1,1′-methylenebis[4-[(hydroxyimino)methyl]-pyridinium] dimethanesulfonate (MMB4 DMS) following intramuscular administration. Rats received MMB4 DMS once daily for 7 days at 100, 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg/d; rabbits received a range of dose levels in 3 separate 7-day studies from 3 to 800 mg/kg/d and in a single-dose study from 50 to 200 mg/kg; and monkeys received MMB4 DMS at 150 to 600 mg/kg/d. Mortality was noted in rats and rabbits administered ≥200 mg/kg. All monkeys survived until scheduled termination. Adverse clinical observations were noted in the rats at ≥400 mg/kg/d and in rabbits administered ≥200 mg/kg; no adverse findings were noted in the monkeys. Clinical pathology changes were noted in the rabbit related to cardiac and renal function. In the rabbit and monkey, elevations in myoglobin, alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase, platelets, creatine kinase, and coagulation factors were related to local inflammation at the intramuscular administration site. Light microscopic examination at the injection sites revealed acute skeletal muscle necrosis in vehicle control and treated groups. Target tissues in the rabbit studies were identified as kidney, heart, and lungs at ≥100 mg/kg/d. All changes noted in all the species demonstrated partial to complete recovery comparable to control values or to a clinically irrelevant level of effect. The NZW rabbit was the most sensitive species, and the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) was determined as 50 mg/kg/d; the NOAEL in the rat was 100 mg/kg/d; and the NOAEL in rhesus monkeys was >600 mg/kg/d. © 2013, SAGE Publications. All rights reserved.


Doynov P.,MRI Global | Tankasala S.P.,Intelligrated Systems
2016 IEEE Symposium on Technologies for Homeland Security, HST 2016 | Year: 2016

Defocus and motion blur are common distortions in ocular biometric image collections. This is especially prevalent for image acquisition in less constrained environment. An accurate estimation of the degradation parameters can be used for image quality assessment and for degradation restoration. Computationally fast methods are applicable for real-Time image quality evaluation and feedback during the acquisition process. ISO/IEC 29794-6 (SC 37 N4302) specifies the computational method for sharpness as a focus-quality metric. The method for motion blur calculation is not defined. In this paper we report the performance of fast, non-referenced sharpness and motion blur estimation algorithms with application in Ocular biometrics. This paper reviews current techniques for blur estimation and reports the comparable accuracy of the proposed methods for multiple degrees of degradation. © 2016 IEEE.


Blackburn J.K.,University of Florida | Hadfield T.L.,MRI Global | Curtis A.J.,Kent State University | Hugh-Jones M.E.,Louisiana State University
Annals of the Association of American Geographers | Year: 2014

White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, anthrax epizootics have been frequently documented in Texas over the last two decades. Once outbreaks begin, there is evidence for the potential role of hematophagous flies as vectors for the disease. Hypotheses on the role of biting flies in the transmission of anthrax date back more than a century. Both laboratory experiments and field studies have provided evidence of a biting fly transmission pathway. In particular, several studies have implicated biting flies during severe wildlife outbreaks in North America. Despite these implications, there is a lack of spatial analysis relating flies and anthrax. Here we report on the spatial patterns of anthrax in white-tailed deer on a well-studied ranch with a documented anthrax history. These patterns were evaluated against the spatiotemporal patterns of biting flies during the anthrax risk period. Unbaited fly traps were used to collect flies across the study ranch from June through August 2005. Kernel density analysis confirmed biting fly hotspots concentrated in the areas with highest densities of deer carcasses. The average nearest neighbor index confirmed that deer carcasses were spatially clustered and density estimates suggest that these are in proximity to areas supporting high fly populations. Dual kernel density analysis of carcasses and deer population identified a large dry riverine habitat as a high anthrax risk. Fly catch rates across the period identified a similar pattern to the anthrax risk surface. The high overlap between areas of sustained high fly catch rates and anthrax cases does suggest a relationship warranting future research. © 2014 © 2014 by Association of American Geographers.


Blackburn J.K.,University of Florida | Odugbo M.O.,National Veterinary Research Institute | Van Ert M.,University of Florida | O'Shea B.,MRI Global | And 5 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2015

Zoonoses, diseases affecting both humans and animals, can exert tremendous pressures on human and veterinary health systems, particularly in resource limited countries. Anthrax is one such zoonosis of concern and is a disease requiring greater public health attention in Nigeria. Here we describe the genetic diversity of Bacillus anthracis in Nigeria and compare it to Chad, Cameroon and a broader global dataset based on the multiple locus variable number tandem repeat (MLVA-25) genetic typing system. Nigerian B. anthracis isolates had identical MLVA genotypes and could only be resolved by measuring highly mutable single nucleotide repeats (SNRs). The Nigerian MLVA genotype was identical or highly genetically similar to those in the neighboring countries, confirming the strains belong to this unique West African lineage. Interestingly, sequence data from a Nigerian isolate shares the anthrose deficient genotypes previously described for strains in this region, which may be associated with vaccine evasion. Strains in this study were isolated over six decades, indicating a high level of temporal strain stability regionally. Ecological niche models were used to predict the geographic distribution of the pathogen for all three countries. We describe a west-east habitat corridor through northern Nigeria extending into Chad and Cameroon. Ecological niche models and genetic results show B. anthracis to be ecologically established in Nigeria. These findings expand our understanding of the global B. anthracis population structure and can guide regional anthrax surveillance and control planning. © 2015 Blackburn et al.


PubMed | MRI Global, University of Florida, Louisiana State University, National Veterinary Research Institute and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PLoS neglected tropical diseases | Year: 2015

Zoonoses, diseases affecting both humans and animals, can exert tremendous pressures on human and veterinary health systems, particularly in resource limited countries. Anthrax is one such zoonosis of concern and is a disease requiring greater public health attention in Nigeria. Here we describe the genetic diversity of Bacillus anthracis in Nigeria and compare it to Chad, Cameroon and a broader global dataset based on the multiple locus variable number tandem repeat (MLVA-25) genetic typing system. Nigerian B. anthracis isolates had identical MLVA genotypes and could only be resolved by measuring highly mutable single nucleotide repeats (SNRs). The Nigerian MLVA genotype was identical or highly genetically similar to those in the neighboring countries, confirming the strains belong to this unique West African lineage. Interestingly, sequence data from a Nigerian isolate shares the anthrose deficient genotypes previously described for strains in this region, which may be associated with vaccine evasion. Strains in this study were isolated over six decades, indicating a high level of temporal strain stability regionally. Ecological niche models were used to predict the geographic distribution of the pathogen for all three countries. We describe a west-east habitat corridor through northern Nigeria extending into Chad and Cameroon. Ecological niche models and genetic results show B. anthracis to be ecologically established in Nigeria. These findings expand our understanding of the global B. anthracis population structure and can guide regional anthrax surveillance and control planning.


Madsen C.,George Mason University | Hooper I.,George Mason University | Lundberg L.,George Mason University | Shafagati N.,George Mason University | And 10 more authors.
Antiviral Research | Year: 2014

Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is classified as a Category B Select Agent and potential bioterror weapon for its severe disease course in humans and equines and its potential for aerosol transmission. There are no current FDA licensed vaccines or specific therapies against VEEV, making identification of potential therapeutic targets a priority. With this aim, our research focuses on the interactions of VEEV with host microRNA (miRNA) machinery. miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that act as master regulators of gene expression by downregulating or degrading messenger RNA, thus suppressing production of the resultant proteins. Recent publications implicate miRNA interactions in the pathogenesis of various viral diseases. To test the importance of miRNA processing for VEEV replication, cells deficient in Ago2, an important component of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), and cells treated with known Ago2 inhibitors, notably acriflavine (ACF), were utilized. Both conditions caused decreased viral replication and capsid expression. ACF treatment promoted increased survival of neuronal cells over a non-treated, infected control and reduced viral titers of fully virulent VEEV as well as Eastern and Western Equine Encephalitis Viruses and West Nile Virus, but not Vesicular Stomatitis Virus. ACF treatment of VEEV TC-83 infected mice resulted in increased in vivo survival, but did not affect survival or viral loads when mice were challenged with fully virulent VEEV TrD. These results suggest that inhibition of Ago2 results in decreased replication of encephalitic alphaviruses in vitro and this pathway may be an avenue to explore for future therapeutic development. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Arthur F.H.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Campbell J.F.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Ducatte G.R.,MRI Global
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2014

A series of laboratory studies was conducted to assess the effect of droplet size on efficacy of pyrethrin aerosol against adults of Tribolium confusum Jacqueline DuVal, the confused flour beetle. A vertical flow aerosol exposure chamber that generated a standardized particle size diameter was used for these trials. In the first experiments, adults were exposed in the chamber for 2.5-45 min to aerosol dispensed at a volumetric median particle size diameter (VMD) of 16 μm, and then held in the arenas in which they were exposed or transferred to new arenas with or without a flour food source. All adults were initially knocked down when removed from the chamber. Recovery from knockdown decreased as exposure interval increased, but the presence of a food source enhanced recovery at the lower exposure intervals. In the second experiment, the aerosol was applied at a VMD of 2 μm and adults were exposed for between 5 and 75 min. Knockdown of adults was ≤10% when adults were removed from the chamber regardless of exposure time and afterward there was essentially complete recovery of adults. In the third and final experiment, the same 2-μm VMD particle size and exposure times were used, but the concentration of aerosol was increased by ≈4× compared with the previous experiment. In this test, initial knockdown was greater at the higher exposure intervals, but by 3 and 4 d posttreatment, recovery was again essentially 100%. This is the first published test assessing the efficacy of specific aerosol particle sizes on a stored product insect. Results indicate that particle size was a more important factor in conferring toxicity than the actual concentration or number of aerosol particles. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.


Torbic D.,MRI Global | Campbell J.,Batelle Memorial Institute | Amjadi R.,s Turner Fairbank Highway Research Center
Public Roads | Year: 2015

The U.S. Department of Transportation launched the Rural Safety Initiative in 2008 as a comprehensive way to help State and local leaders raise awareness of highway safety issues and implement solutions in rural areas more quickly. As part of this initiative, the Federal Highway Administration launched the Rural Safety Innovation Program in February 2008 as a onetime opportunity for rural communities to compete for project funding to address safety problems. The program encouraged rural communities to develop creative, locally crafted solutions to their roadway safety problems, document their efforts and outcomes, and share the results with other communities across the country. The Arkansas State Highway and Transportation Department, for example, installed cable median barriers on various rural sections of several interstate highways to reduce the number and severity of crashes related to crossing over the median. The Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT) received funding through the Rural Safety Innovation Program to implement two types of safety improvements along rural State highways. The first was installation of centerline rumble strips. The second was restoration of a clear zone, which included removing roadside objects, regrading side slopes, and installing cable barriers along about 5 miles (8 kilometers) of roadway. In 2005, the Missouri Department of Transportation (MoDOT) began its Smooth Roads Initiative, which included improvements to many thousands of miles of the State's most heavily traveled roadways. To help manage the many construction projects, MoDOT used 40 portable changeable message signs to share information with motorists traveling along three rural highways, including rural interstates.


Tankasala S.P.,Computer Science and Electrical Engineering | Doynov P.,MRI Global
2015 IEEE International Symposium on Technologies for Homeland Security, HST 2015 | Year: 2015

In this paper, we present the results of a study on utilization of Conjunctival vasculature pattern as a biometric modality for personal identification. The visible red blood vessel patterns on the sclera of the eye is gaining acceptance as a biometric modality due to its proven uniqueness and easy accessibility for imaging in the visible spectrum. After acquisition, the images of Conjunctival vascular patterns are enhanced using the difference of Gaussian (DoG). The feature extraction is performed using a multi-scale, multi-directional shear operator (Shearlet transform). Linear discriminant analysis (LDA), neural networks (NN) and pairwise distance metrics were used for classification. In the study, images of 50 subjects are acquired with a DSLR camera at different gazes and multiple distances (CIBIT-I dataset). Additionally, the performance of the proposed algorithms is tested using different gaze images acquired from 35 subjects using an iPhone (CIBIT-II dataset). ROC AUC analysis is used to test the classification performance. Areas under the curve (AUC) and equal error rates (EER) are reported for all acquisition scenarios and different processing algorithms. The best EER value of 0.29% is obtained for a CIBIT-I dataset using NN and a 2.44% EER value for a CIBIT-II dataset using LDA. © 2015 IEEE.


PubMed | MRI Global and Manhattan College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of economic entomology | Year: 2015

A series of laboratory studies was conducted to assess the effect of droplet size on efficacy of pyrethrin aerosol against adults of Tribolium confusum Jacqueline DuVal, the confused flour beetle. A vertical flow aerosol exposure chamber that generated a standardized particle size diameter was used for these trials. In the first experiments, adults were exposed in the chamber for 2.5-45 min to aerosol dispensed at a volumetric median particle size diameter (VMD) of 16 m, and then held in the arenas in which they were exposed or transferred to new arenas with or without a flour food source. All adults were initially knocked down when removed from the chamber. Recovery from knockdown decreased as exposure interval increased, but the presence of a food source enhanced recovery at the lower exposure intervals. In the second experiment, the aerosol was applied at a VMD of 2 m and adults were exposed for between 5 and 75 min. Knockdown of adults was 10% when adults were removed from the chamber regardless of exposure time and afterward there was essentially complete recovery of adults. In the third and final experiment, the same 2-m VMD particle size and exposure times were used, but the concentration of aerosol was increased by 4 compared with the previous experiment. In this test, initial knockdown was greater at the higher exposure intervals, but by 3 and 4 d posttreatment, recovery was again essentially 100%. This is the first published test assessing the efficacy of specific aerosol particle sizes on a stored product insect. Results indicate that particle size was a more important factor in conferring toxicity than the actual concentration or number of aerosol particles.

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