UVRI MRC Uganda Research Unit on AIDS

Entebbe, Uganda

UVRI MRC Uganda Research Unit on AIDS

Entebbe, Uganda
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Carr D.F.,University of Liverpool | Bourgeois S.,Queen Mary, University of London | Chaponda M.,University of Liverpool | Chaponda M.,University of Malawi | And 23 more authors.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2017

Background: The antiretroviral nevirapine is associated with hypersensitivity reactions in 6%-10% of patients, including hepatotoxicity, maculopapular exanthema, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Objectives: To undertake a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genetic predisposing factors for the different clinical phenotypes associated with nevirapine hypersensitivity. Methods: A GWAS was undertaken in a discovery cohort of 151 nevirapine-hypersensitive and 182 tolerant, HIV-infected Malawian adults. Replication of signals was determined in a cohort of 116 cases and 68 controls obtained from Malawi, Uganda and Mozambique. Interaction with ERAP genes was determined in patients positive for HLA-C*04:01. In silico docking studies were also performed for HLA-C*04:01. Results: Fifteen SNPs demonstrated nominal significance (P<1×10-5) with one or more of the hypersensitivity phenotypes. The most promising signal was seen in SJS/TEN, where rs5010528 (HLA-C locus) approached genome-wide significance (P<8.5×10-8) and was below HLA-wide significance (P<2.5×10-4) in the meta-analysis of discovery and replication cohorts [OR 4.84 (95% CI 2.71-8.61)]. rs5010528 is a strong proxy for HLA-C*04:01 carriage: in silico docking showed that two residues (33 and 123) in the B pocket were the most likely nevirapine interactors. There was no interaction between HLA-C*04:01 and ERAP1, but there is a potential protective effect with ERAP2 [P=0.019, OR 0.43 (95% CI 0.21-0.87)]. Conclusions: HLA-C*04:01 predisposes to nevirapine-induced SJS/TEN in sub-Saharan Africans, but not to other hypersensitivity phenotypes. This is likely to be mediated via binding to the B pocket of the HLA-C peptide. Whether this risk is modulated by ERAP2 variants requires further study. © The Author 2016.


Carr D.F.,University of Liverpool | Chaponda M.,University of Liverpool | Chaponda M.,University of Malawi | Castro E.M.C.,University of Liverpool | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2014

Background: Nevirapine, an NNRTI used in HIV treatment, can cause hypersensitivity reactions in 6%-10% of patients. In the most serious cases (1.3%) this can manifest as Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) or toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Methods: DNA samples were obtained and analysed from a total of 209 adult patients with nevirapine hypersensitivity (57 from a prospective cohort and 152 routine clinic patients) and compared with 463 control patients on nevirapine without any hypersensitivity. The case group included 70 patients with SJS/TEN. All individuals were genotyped for two SNPs in the CYP2B6 gene [c.516G>T (CYP2B6*9) and c.983T>C (CYP2B6*18)] using the TaqMan real-time genotyping platform. The replication cohort comprised 29 controls and 55 nevirapine hypersensitive patients, including 8 SJS/TEN cases. Results: An association between the CYP2B6 c.983T>C polymorphism and nevirapine-induced SJS/TEN was observed. In the SJS/TEN group, 30% of individuals possessed at least one c.983T>C versus 16% in the tolerant group [P = 0.006; OR (95% CI) 2.24 (1.27-3.94)]. This association was not significant in the replication cohort [P = 0.075; OR (95% CI) 4.33 (0.80-23.57)]. Combined analysis resulted in an OR of 2.52 (95% CI 1.48-4.20; P = 0.0005) for the association of c.983T>C with SJS/TEN. No association was observed for c.983T>C with other hypersensitivity phenotypes and for CYP2B6 c.516G>T with any hypersensitivity phenotypes. Conclusions: Our data show an association between the c.983T>C polymorphism and nevirapine-induced SJS/TEN. CYP2B6 c.983T>C has a frequency of 5%-10% in a variety of African populations, but is not observed in Caucasians, thus representing an ethnic-specific predisposing factor. © The Author 2014.


PubMed | UVRI MRC Uganda Research Unit on AIDS, University of Liverpool, Joint Clinical Research Center, University of Malawi and University of Cape Town
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy | Year: 2014

Nevirapine, an NNRTI used in HIV treatment, can cause hypersensitivity reactions in 6%-10% of patients. In the most serious cases (1.3%) this can manifest as Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) or toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN).DNA samples were obtained and analysed from a total of 209 adult patients with nevirapine hypersensitivity (57 from a prospective cohort and 152 routine clinic patients) and compared with 463 control patients on nevirapine without any hypersensitivity. The case group included 70 patients with SJS/TEN. All individuals were genotyped for two SNPs in the CYP2B6 gene [c.516G>T (CYP2B6*9) and c.983T>C (CYP2B6*18)] using the TaqMan real-time genotyping platform. The replication cohort comprised 29 controls and 55 nevirapine hypersensitive patients, including 8 SJS/TEN cases.An association between the CYP2B6 c.983T>C polymorphism and nevirapine-induced SJS/TEN was observed. In the SJS/TEN group, 30% of individuals possessed at least one c.983T>C versus 16% in the tolerant group [P = 0.006; OR (95% CI) 2.24 (1.27-3.94)]. This association was not significant in the replication cohort [P = 0.075; OR (95% CI) 4.33 (0.80-23.57)]. Combined analysis resulted in an OR of 2.52 (95% CI 1.48-4.20; P = 0.0005) for the association of c.983T>C with SJS/TEN. No association was observed for c.983T>C with other hypersensitivity phenotypes and for CYP2B6 c.516G>T with any hypersensitivity phenotypes.Our data show an association between the c.983T>C polymorphism and nevirapine-induced SJS/TEN. CYP2B6 c.983T>C has a frequency of 5%-10% in a variety of African populations, but is not observed in Caucasians, thus representing an ethnic-specific predisposing factor.


PubMed | University of Liverpool, SAEC Consortium Ltd, University of Cape Town, UVRI MRC Uganda Research Unit on AIDS and 5 more.
Type: | Journal: The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy | Year: 2017

The antiretroviral nevirapine is associated with hypersensitivity reactions in 6%-10% of patients, including hepatotoxicity, maculopapular exanthema, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN).To undertake a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genetic predisposing factors for the different clinical phenotypes associated with nevirapine hypersensitivity.A GWAS was undertaken in a discovery cohort of 151 nevirapine-hypersensitive and 182 tolerant, HIV-infected Malawian adults. Replication of signals was determined in a cohort of 116 cases and 68 controls obtained from Malawi, Uganda and Mozambique. Interaction with ERAP genes was determined in patients positive for HLA-C*04:01 In silico docking studies were also performed for HLA-C*04:01 RESULTS: Fifteen SNPs demonstrated nominal significance (P<110HLA-C*04:01 predisposes to nevirapine-induced SJS/TEN in sub-Saharan Africans, but not to other hypersensitivity phenotypes. This is likely to be mediated via binding to the B pocket of the HLA-C peptide. Whether this risk is modulated by ERAP2 variants requires further study.

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