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Almoosawi S.,MRC Human Nutrition Research | Prynne C.J.,MRC Human Nutrition Research | Hardy R.,MRC Unit for Lifelong Health and Ageing | Stephen A.M.,MRC Human Nutrition Research
International Journal of Obesity | Year: 2013

Background:Diet is a key modifiable factor in the prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome. However, few studies have examined the prospective association between time-of-day of nutrient intake and the metabolic syndrome.Objective:To examine the association between time-of-day and nutrient composition of eating occasions and the long-term development of metabolic syndrome in the Medical Research Council (MRC) National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD; 1946 British birth cohort).Methods:The analysis comprised 1488 survey members who completed at least 3 days of estimated diet records at age 43 years (1989) and for whom data on metabolic syndrome at age 53 years (1999) were available. Dietary records were divided into seven meal slots: breakfast, mid-morning, lunch, mid-afternoon, dinner, late evening and extras. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the criteria of the adult treatment panel (ATPIII8), and was modified to include glycosylated haemoglobin instead of fasting glucose. Associations between time-of-day of nutrient intake at age 43 years and prevalence of metabolic syndrome at age 53 years were assessed using multivariate nutrient density logistic models after adjustment for sex, social class, smoking status, region, alcohol intake and recreational physical activity.Results:There were 390 cases of metabolic syndrome at age 53 years. Substituting 5% of energy from carbohydrate for a similar amount of energy from fat at breakfast (odds ratio=0.93; 95% confidence interval=0.89-0.98; P=0.002) and mid-morning at age 43 years (odds ratio=0.96; 95% confidence interval=0.93-0.99; P=0.011) was associated with lower odds of the metabolic syndrome at age 53 years. Carbohydrate intake at breakfast or mid-morning was particularly protective against abdominal obesity (P≤0.001). Increasing carbohydrate intake at breakfast while simultaneously decreasing fat intake was also negatively related to triacylglycerols (P≤0.001).Conclusions:Increasing carbohydrate intake in the morning while simultaneously reducing fat intake could be protective against long-term development of the metabolic syndrome and its components. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Frayling T.M.,University of Exeter | Ong K.,Institute of Metabolic Science | Ong K.,MRC Unit for Lifelong Health and Ageing
Genome Biology | Year: 2011

Two recent studies of the FTO gene provide more information on how it affects body mass index. © 2011 BioMed Central Ltd.

Power C.,University College London | Kuh D.,MRC Unit for Lifelong Health and Ageing | Morton S.,University of Auckland
Annual Review of Public Health | Year: 2013

Maturation of long-running birth cohort studies has fostered a life course approach to adult health, function, and disease and related to conceptual frameworks. Using broad concepts of human development including physical, cognitive, and emotional function, birth cohorts provide insights into the processes across the life course and between generations that link to adult outcomes. We discuss findings on the determinants and health consequences of lifetime trajectories of body size, cognitive and emotional function, and socioeconomic position. Findings from the studies suggest that, for some adult health outcomes, explanations will be incomplete unless exposures and processes from across the life course are taken into account. New birth cohort studies are poised to delineate further the nature and timing of life course relationships in contemporary generations of children. © 2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Agency: GTR | Branch: MRC | Program: | Phase: Intramural | Award Amount: 505.42K | Year: 2008

Around one in two men and one in three women suffer a cardiovascular event sometime during life, making cardiovascular disease (CVD) a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Heart failure is of increasing importance because of improvements in the prevention and treatment of acute clinical events such as heart attack. Although clinical disease becomes evidence at older ages, the presence of plaque in the arteries is already present by young adulthood and progresses through life. Hence there is increasing interest in the use of measures of changes taking place before disease as tools to predict future clinical events and target treatment.||The overall aim of this programme is to investigate how exposures over the life course are associated with cardiovascular structure and function and the development of disease. The MRC National Survey of Health and Development, a birth cohort study of men and women born in 1946 and followed up ever since, is collecting a comprehensive set of measures of the structure and function of the heart and arteries. Evaluations of this type will be critical to understanding whether risk factor modification from a much earlier age than is routine in current clinical practice could yield benefits for CVD prevention. |

Agency: GTR | Branch: MRC | Program: | Phase: Intramural | Award Amount: 459.20K | Year: 2008

Physical capability refers to an individual’s capacity to undertake the physical tasks of daily living. Maintaining physical capability and musculoskeletal function as we grow older are important aspects of healthy ageing, enabling people to live independently for longer and with a higher quality of life. Simple tests of physical capability, such as hand grip strength, balancing on one leg, and time taken to rise from a chair several times or to walk a specified distance are summary measures of individual biological ageing. We have shown that better performance scores are related not only to factors in adult life such as physical activity, health status and social and economic circumstances but also to early life experiences such as early growth patterns and developmental milestones. Within a research programme called ‘HALCyon’ (Healthy Ageing Across the Life Course), we are investigating whether we find similar patterns of association across other UK cohort studies. In the next five years, we shall examine the change in physical capability and progression to disability and frailty between midlife and old age, how these changes are related to the health of bones, muscles and joints, and how all these aspects of musculoskeletal ageing are linked to experiences and exposures from across the whole of life.

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