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Roshan A.,University of Cambridge | Jones P.H.,MRC Cancer Cell Unit
Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology | Year: 2012

In all tissues the balance of cell proliferation and differentiation needs to be tuned to match the varying requirements of embryonic development and adult life. This is well illustrated by the interfollicular epidermis (IFE), which undergoes expansion and remodeling in utero, significant post natal growth and is then maintained in homeostasis. In addition to sustaining a high daily turnover of cells, the epidermis is able to re-populate areas of tissue damage due to common environmental stresses such as wounding. Here recent insights into proliferating cell behavior in IFE and how this changes through development and into adulthood are discussed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Doupe D.P.,University of Cambridge | Jones P.H.,MRC Cancer Cell Unit
BioEssays | Year: 2013

It has recently been shown that stem and progenitor cells undergo population self-renewal to maintain epithelial homeostasis. The fate of individual cells is stochastic but the production of proliferating and differentiating cells is balanced across the population. This new paradigm, originating in mouse epidermis and since extended to mouse oesophagus and mouse and Drosophila intestine, is in contrast to the long held model of epithelial maintenance by exclusively asymmetric division of stem cells. Recent lineage tracing studies have now shown that wound responses vary between tissues, and that a stem cell reserve is not essential as cycling progenitors and even differentiating cells contribute to regeneration. © 2013 WILEY Periodicals, Inc. Source


Spechler S.J.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Fitzgerald R.C.,MRC Cancer Cell Unit | Prasad G.A.,Rochester College | Wang K.K.,Rochester College
Gastroenterology | Year: 2010

This report is an adjunct to the American Gastroenterological Association Institute's medical position statement and technical review on the management of Barrett's esophagus, which will be published in the near future. Those documents will consider a number of broad questions on the diagnosis, clinical features, and management of patients with Barrett's esophagus, and the reader is referred to the technical review for an in-depth discussion of those topics. In this report, we review historical, molecular, and endoscopic therapeutic aspects of Barrett's esophagus that are of interest to clinicians and researchers. © 2010 AGA Institute. Source


Alcolea M.P.,MRC Cancer Cell Unit | Jones P.H.,MRC Cancer Cell Unit
Nature Reviews Cancer | Year: 2013

For tumours to develop, mutations must disrupt tissue homeostasis in favour of deregulated proliferation. Genetic lineage tracing has uncovered the behaviour of proliferating cells that underpins the maintenance of epithelial tissues and the barriers that are broken in neoplastic transformation. In this Review, we focus on new insights revealed by quantifying the behaviour of normal, preneoplastic and tumour cells in epithelia in transgenic mice and consider their potential importance in humans.© 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source


Fels Elliott D.R.,University of Cambridge | Fitzgerald R.C.,MRC Cancer Cell Unit
Current Opinion in Gastroenterology | Year: 2013

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is a clinical need for biomarkers that can improve diagnostic accuracy and risk stratification of esophageal lesions. Here we review the current literature and highlight the most important, recent advancements in biomarkers as a supplement to histopathology for management of patients with Barrett's esophagus. RECENT FINDINGS: A prospective cohort study in Northern Ireland shows that a small panel of biomarkers (low-grade dysplasia, abnormal DNA ploidy and Aspergillus oryzae lectin) can identify patients at high risk for developing high-grade dysplasia or cancer. Recent research in molecular imaging shows promise for molecular probes in endoscopy, using fluorescently labeled peptides or lectins to identify dysplastic areas of Barrett's epithelium. Based on the current literature, p53 immunostaining is starting to be adopted by some centers as an adjunct to histopathology diagnosis for dysplasia. SUMMARY: The evidence base for the use of biomarkers is increasing and it appears that panels may have superior diagnostic and predictive power over single, candidate biomarkers. Prior to clinical implementation, biomarkers must overcome significant barriers including the need for large-scale prospective validation trials, and the limited ability of clinical laboratories to process and analyze complex biomarker assays. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams &Wilkins. Source

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