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Gelsenkirchen, Germany

Muhlenweg M.,Institute For Radiologie | Schaefers G.,MR Computer GmbH | Trattnig S.,Medical University of Vienna
Radiologe | Year: 2015

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the most powerful and at the same time gentlest clinical imaging techniques at the present time; however, the enormous physical complexity as well as simple inattentiveness (projectile effect) implicate a significant risk potential and place high demands on the MR operator to ensure a safe workflow. A sound knowledge of the potential MR interactions is the foundation for a safe and profitable operation for all parties. The first part of this article deals with the three most important sources of physical interaction, i.e. static magnetic field, gradient and high-frequency (HF) fields. The paper discusses the differences between each type of field with respect to the impact on human beings, the interactions with magnetic and electrically conducting objects/implants and the relevant safety standards. Each section is followed by simple rules of thumb to minimize potentially unwanted physical MRI interactions. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Acikel V.,Bilkent University | Acikel V.,National Magnetic Resonance Research Center | Uslubas A.,MR Computer GmbH | Atalar E.,Bilkent University | Atalar E.,National Magnetic Resonance Research Center
Medical Physics | Year: 2015

Purpose: The authors purpose is to model the case of an implantable pulse generator (IPG) and the electrode of an active implantable medical device using lumped circuit elements in order to analyze their effect on radio frequency induced tissue heating problem during a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination. Methods: In this study, IPG case and electrode are modeled with a voltage source and impedance. Values of these parameters are found using the modified transmission line method (MoTLiM) and the method of moments (MoM) simulations. Once the parameter values of an electrode/IPG case model are determined, they can be connected to any lead, and tip heating can be analyzed. To validate these models, both MoM simulations and MR experiments were used. The induced currents on the leads with the IPG case or electrode connections were solved using the proposed models and the MoTLiM. These results were compared with the MoM simulations. In addition, an electrode was connected to a lead via an inductor. The dissipated power on the electrode was calculated using the MoTLiM by changing the inductance and the results were compared with the specific absorption rate results that were obtained using MoM. Then, MRI experiments were conducted to test the IPG case and the electrode models. To test the IPG case, a bare lead was connected to the case and placed inside a uniform phantom. During a MRI scan, the temperature rise at the lead was measured by changing the lead length. The power at the lead tip for the same scenario was also calculated using the IPG case model and MoTLiM. Then, an electrode was connected to a lead via an inductor and placed inside a uniform phantom. During a MRI scan, the temperature rise at the electrode was measured by changing the inductance and compared with the dissipated power on the electrode resistance. Results: The induced currents on leads with the IPG case or electrode connection were solved for using the combination of the MoTLiM and the proposed lumped circuit models. These results were compared with those from the MoM simulations. The mean square error was less than 9%. During the MRI experiments, when the IPG case was introduced, the resonance lengths were calculated to have an error less than 13%. Also the change in tip temperature rise at resonance lengths was predicted with less than 4% error. For the electrode experiments, the value of the matching impedance was predicted with an error less than 1%. Conclusions: Electrical models for the IPG case and electrode are suggested, and the method is proposed to determine the parameter values. The concept of matching of the electrode to the lead is clarified using the defined electrode impedance and the lead Thevenin impedance. The effect of the IPG case and electrode on tip heating can be predicted using the proposed theory. With these models, understanding the tissue heating due to the implants becomes easier. Also, these models are beneficial for implant safety testers and designers. Using these models, worst case conditions can be determined and the corresponding implant test experiments can be planned. © 2015 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

Kraff O.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Wrede K.H.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Schoemberg T.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Dammann P.,University of Duisburg - Essen | And 5 more authors.
Medical Physics | Year: 2013

Purpose: The increasing number of clinically oriented MRI studies at 7 T motivates the safety assessment of implants, since many 7 T research sites conservatively exclude all subjects with metallic implants, regardless of type or location. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential RF-induced heating during a 7 T MRI scan using a self-built transmitreceive RF coil in patients with implants used for refixation of the bone flap after craniotomy. Going beyond standard ASTM safety tests, a comprehensive test procedure for safety assessments at 7 T is presented which takes into account the more complex coupling of the electromagnetic field with the human body and the implant as well as polarization effects. Methods: The safety assessment consisted of three main investigations using (1) numerical simulations in simplified models, (2) electric and magnetic field measurements and validation procedures in homogeneous phantoms, and (3) analysis of exposure scenarios in a heterogeneous human body model including thermal simulations. Finally, 7 T in vivo images show the degree of image artifact around the implants. Results: The simulations showed that the field distortions remain localized within the direct vicinity of the implants. A parallel E-field polarization was found to be the most relevant component in creating local SAR deviations, resulting in a 10 increase in 10-g-averaged SAR and 53 in 1-g-averaged SAR. Using a heterogeneous human head model, the implants caused field distortions and SAR elevations in the numerical simulations which were distinctly lower than the maximum local SAR value caused by the RF coil alone. Also, the position of the maximum 10-g-averaged SAR remained unchanged by the presence of the implants. Similarly, the maximum absolute local temperature remained below 39 °C in the thermal simulations. Only minor artifacts from the implants were observed in the in vivo images that would not likely affect the diagnostic image quality in patients. Conclusions: The findings suggested no evidence for noteworthy RF-related heating in humans after craniotomy using the described implants and for the particular RF coil that was used in this study. Here, identical transmit power restrictions apply with or without the implants. For other RF coils, the maximum permissible input power should be reduced by 10 until further simulations may indicate otherwise. © 2013 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

Lu Z.,University of Missouri | Camps-Raga B.,MR Computer GmbH | Islam N.E.,University of Missouri
Physics Research International | Year: 2012

The concept of a single frequency band, single high-refractive-index metamaterial has been extended and applied in the design of dual frequency band, dual high-refractive-index metamaterials in the THz regime. The structure design consists of twenty five unit cells with a surface area of 250 um by 250 um and a thickness of 5 um. Each cell has metallic structures embedded in a polyimide substrate. The return loss (S-parameter) analysis shows two strong electric responses at two frequency ranges, and the extracted constitutive parameters suggested high values of simultaneous dielectric constant and permeability at these frequencies. Results retrieved from the S-parameters also show high refractive index values. A first peak refractive index of 61.83 was observed at a resonant frequency of 0.384 THz, and another peak refractive index of 19.2 was observed at the resonant frequency 1.416 THz. Analysis show that higher refractive index at the second resonance frequency band is achievable through redesign of the structures, and modifications could lead to a single structure with multiple frequency, multiple high-refractive-index metamaterials that can be put to practical use. © 2012 Zan Lu et al.

Muhlenweg M.,Institute For Radiologie | Schaefers G.,MR Computer GmbH | Trattnig S.,Medical University of Vienna
Radiologe | Year: 2015

Many aspects of magnetic resonance (MR) operation are not directly regulated by law but in standards, guidelines and the operating instructions of the MR scanner. The mandatory contents of the operating instructions are regulated in a central standard of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 60601-2-33. In this standard, the application of static magnetic fields in MRI up to 8 Tesla (T) in the clinical routine (first level controlled mode) has recently been approved. Furthermore, the equally necessary CE certification of ultra-high field scanners (7–8 T) in Europe is expected for future devices. The existing installations will not be automatically certified but will retain their experimental status. The current extension of IEC 60601-2-33 introduces a new add-on option, the so-called fixed parameter option (FPO). This option might also be switched on in addition to the established operating modes and defines a fixed device constellation and certain parameters of the energy output of MR scanners designed to simplify the testing of patients with implants in the future. The employment of pregnant workers in an MRI environment is still not generally regulated in Europe. In parts of Germany and Austria pregnant and lactating employees were prohibited from working in the MR control zone (0.5 mT) in 2014. This is based on the mostly unresolved question of the applicability of limits for employees (exposure of extremities to static magnetic fields up to 8 T allowed) or the thresholds for the general population (maximum 400 mT). According to the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR), the discarding of breast milk after i.v. administration of gadolinium-based contrast agents in the case of a breastfeeding woman is only recommended when using contrast agents in the nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) high-risk category. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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