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Parthiban J.,Tagore Dental college and Hospital | Srinivasan I.,Mr Ambedkar Dental College And Hospital
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2014

Over the past two decades, there has been an explosion of interest in Autism Disorder (AD). Knowledge and awareness on the condition has grown exponentially at all levels among the general public, parents, health professionals, the research community and more recently, at parliamentary level. The world has begun to recognize the scope of this problem and act internationally and locally to improve the lives of the growing number of individuals and families affected by this devastating disorder. This article reviews the dental literature since 1969 and it summarizes characteristics of patients with AD, oral health status and dental management of patients with AD.


PubMed | MR Ambedkar Dental College and Hospital, DA Pandu Memorial RV Dental College and Hospital and Government Dental College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of pharmacy & bioallied sciences | Year: 2015

Odontogenic tumors (OTs) include entities of a hamartomatous nature, such as odontoma, benign neoplasms like an adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT), some benign neoplasms are aggressive as in the case of ameloblastoma. The AOT is a rare odontogenic tumor constituting only 3% of all the OT and very often misdiagnosed as an odontogenic cyst. We report a case of an intra-osseous type of AOT occurred in a young 16-year-old female located in the anterior maxilla along with the clinical, radiological, histological features, and literature review related to the tumor affecting the patient.


Nair S.,Om Dental Clinic | Faizuddin M.,Mr Ambedkar Dental College And Hospital | Dharmapalan J.,Mr Ambedkar Dental College And Hospital
Autoimmune Diseases | Year: 2014

Periodontal diseases are characterized by localized infections and inflammatory conditions that directly affect teeth supporting structures which are the major cause of tooth loss. Several studies have demonstrated the involvement of autoimmune responses in periodontal disease. Evidences of involvement of immunopathology have been reported in periodontal disease. Bacteria in the dental plaque induce antibody formation. Autoreactive T cells, natural killer cells, ANCA, heat shock proteins, autoantibodies, and genetic factors are reported to have an important role in the autoimmune component of periodontal disease. The present review describes the involvement of autoimmune responses in periodontal diseases and also the mechanisms underlying these responses. This review is an attempt to throw light on the etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease highlighting the autoimmunity aspect of the etiopathogenesis involved in the initiation and progression of the disease. However, further clinical trials are required to strengthen the role of autoimmunity as a cause of periodontal disease. © 2014 Soumya Nair et al.


Verma A.,Maulana Azad Institute of Dental science | Muddaiah P.,Mr Ambedkar Dental College And Hospital | Krishna Murthy A.,Oxford Dental College | Sanga R.,Mr Ambedkar Dental College And Hospital
Public Health | Year: 2015

Objectives: Tobacco use is among the most significant public health issues faced by the world today. It is estimated that approximately 5500 adolescents start using tobacco every day in India, adding to the four million youths aged <15 years who are already regular users. School-based smoking prevention programmes have been shown to increase knowledge about the negative effects of tobacco and prevent tobacco use, but the majority of evidence on effectiveness comes from Western countries. This study investigated the impact of a school-based short-term educational intervention regarding tobacco use on adolescents' knowledge, attitudes, intentions and behaviours (KAIB) in Bangalore, India. Study design: An intervention trial was conducted among 720 adolescents aged 15-16 years in Bangalore, India. Methods: Educational interventions were imparted to all study subjects in a phased manner, along with two interactive sessions held six months apart. The impact of the programme was measured using questionnaires administered before the first intervention (pre-intervention) and after the second intervention (post-intervention). Results: Mean (±standard deviation) pre-intervention KAIB scores of the subjects were 5.9±1.87 (knowledge), 23.6±3.15 (attitude) and 18.9±3.27 (practice), which improved to 7.8±2.01, 26.7±2.43 and 12.3±2.52, respectively, postintervention. The differences in mean KAIB scores were significant (P<0.0001, d. f=1400), suggesting that the intervention had a major positive impact. Conclusion: School-based short-term educational intervention programmes are effective for preventing and reducing tobacco use among Indian adolescents. © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health.


Tayab T.,MR Ambedkar Dental College and Hospital | Rai K.,AB Shetty Dental College | Kumari A.V.,Sri Ramachandra Dental College and Hospital
European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry | Year: 2012

Aim: The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the physicochemical properties of saliva, such as salivary flow rate, volume, pH and buffer capacity and the levels of salivary sodium, potassium, calcium and phosphate ions in caries-free and caries-active children. Materials and methods: The present study included 100 healthy children aged 7-12 years belonging to a rural population from Thiruvallur district (in Chennai, India), who were divided into Group I caries-free and Group I caries-active children, of 50 children each. Unstimulated saliva was collected by draining method and flow rate and volume were determined. The samples were then analysed for pH and buffering capacity using a manual pH meter. Sodium, potassium, and calcium concentration were analysed by Flame Photometer. Phosphates were analysed by Fiske and Subbarow's colorimetric method. Data were then statistically analysed using the Student's t-test (unpaired). Results: The results revealed that when all these parameters were compared among the caries-free and caries-active children, the flow rate, volume, pH and buffering capacity were slightly reduced in the caries-active group and this was statistically significant, whereas the calcium, potassium and sodium concentrations were increased in the caries-free group in a statistically significant manner. Conclusion: Within the limitation of this study, we can conclude that alterations in the physicochemical properties of saliva such as increased salivary flow rate, volume, calcium, sodium and potassium concentrations play a major role in the development of resistance to caries.


Karbach J.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | Ebenezer S.,Mr Ambedkar Dental College And Hospital | Warnke P.H.,Griffith University | Behrens E.,University of Kiel | Al-Nawas B.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz
Clinical Laboratory | Year: 2015

Background: The aim of the study was to examine the in vitro antibacterial activity of different oils in comparison to antiseptics against oral microorganisms. Methods: The antimicrobial effect of tea tree oil (TTO), eucalyptus oil (EO), lemon grass oil (LGO), and a eucalyptus-based oil mixture (MXT) were tested in comparison to Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), povidone-iodine (BTA), and octenidine dihydrochloride (OCT). Oral bacterial strains and Candida species using the agar diffusion test were used for the antimicrobial study. Results: All tested oils showed antimicrobial potency against the tested biological indicators. In comparison of all tested substances the largest effective zones were measured for LGO, followed from MXT and CHX. TTO and EO were less effective against the tested micro-organisms followed from BTA. Conclusions: The results of this study show that some essential oils have better antimicrobial properties than standard oral antiseptics. In a follow-up step, the ideal concentrations, the composition of essential oils, and the mode of application will be evaluated. The antibacterial efficacy of essential oils might be promising for use in clinical and oral hygiene applications. The cost reduction and availability particularly in rural areas with easy access to the originating plants might be advantageous factors to be considered.


PubMed | MR Ambedkar Dental College and Hospital, St Gregorios Dental College and Mar Baselios Dental College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of international oral health : JIOH | Year: 2015

Today, we are in a world of innovations, and there are various diagnostics aids that help to take a decision regarding treatment in a well-planned way. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been a vital tool for imaging diagnostic tool in orthodontics. This article reviews case reports during orthodontic treatment and importance of CBCT during the treatment evaluation.


PubMed | MR Ambedkar Dental College and Hospital and MR Ambedkar Dental College & Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of international oral health : JIOH | Year: 2015

It is beyond doubt that finishing and polishing of a composite restoration enhance its esthetics and, is also essential for the health of the periodontium. A variety of instruments are commonly used for finishing and polishing tooth-colored restorative materials Thus, it is important to understand which type of surface finishing treatments would significantly affect the staining and surface irregularities of the composite resin restoration. Still one of the properties of the composite resins that have to pass the test of time is its color stability. In modern day dentistry, a large emphasis is laid over esthetics. Hence, it is important to understand the various agents capable of adversely affecting the esthetics of a restoration due to its staining capacity. Thus, the aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of surface polishing, oral beverages and food colorants on the color stability and surface roughness of nanocomposite resins.90 Disks of nanocomposites resin (Filtek Z350 XT) measuring 8 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness were fabricated using a custom made silicon mold. Pre-polishing surface roughness (Ra1) of all the 90 samples were measured using a Surface Profilometer. The nano-composite disks were then randomly divided into 3 groups with 30 samples in each group. Group I:The samples were not subjected to any polishing procedures. Group II: Sof-Lex group: Samples subjected to polishing using different grits of Sof-Lex disks. Group III: Diamond polishing paste group: Samples were subjected with a polishing paste consisting of diamond particles. Following polishing procedures, the surface roughness of all samples were measured again to obtain change in surface roughness due to polishing procedures (Ra2), pre immersion spectrophotometric value (E1) was also recorded for baseline color of the samples. The samples were then divided into subgroups (A, B, C, D, E), by including every first sample in Subgroup A, second in Subgroup B, third in Subgroup C, fourth in Subgroup D, and fifth in Subgroup E. Each was immersed in the respective test solution for 10 min, twice a day for 30 days. Group A - Tea, Group B - Coffee, Group C - Cola, Group D - Turmeric, Group E - Control (artificial saliva). Post immersion profilometric value was recorded to evaluate roughness bought about by the solutions (Ra3) and spectrophotometric value was recorded to evaluate the color change in samples (E2). Results were statistically analyzed using ANOVA.Higher mean roughness (Ra2-Ra1) value was recorded in Sof-Lex, followed by Diamond polishing paste and Control group. Comparison of surface roughness caused due to beverages and food colorant solution showed subgroup C (Coca Cola) increased surface roughness in all groups (Group I, II, III). Subgroup D (Turmeric) had the highest discoloration potential (P < 0001) in all groups, followed by coffee, tea, coca-cola and artificial saliva. Sof-Lex polishing System showed most color stability.Polishing procedures significantly roughen the surface of the restoration compared to the unpolished Mylar controls. One-step polishing system (diamond polishing paste) produces a smoother surface compared to a multi-step system (Sof-Lex polishing disks). Turmeric solution caused maximum staining of the samples, to a visually perceptible level.


PubMed | Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz and MR Ambedkar Dental College and Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The journal of contemporary dental practice | Year: 2016

Fixed orthodontic appliances (FOAs) may cause a temporary deterioration of oral hygiene with corresponding gingival inflammatory changes. Optimal oral hygiene and dietary changes are essential in order to avoid periodontal inflammation. The present study investigates to what extent the recommendations made by the orthodontist are followed by young patients.A total of 67 adolescent patients with FOA were examined and interviewed. The control group consisted of 70 patients of the same age who had not undergone any orthodontic treatment. A specific questionnaire (assessing dietary habits, oral hygiene measures) was used and comprehensive oral findings along with oral hygiene status were evaluated.The analysis of the data showed that despite intensive oral hygiene and dietary advice in the patients with FOA, there was no change in diet or oral hygiene habits. There were significantly higher signs of gingival inflammation and amount of dental plaque in FOA patients. Nutritional recommendations and oral hygiene measures for young people with FOA were not adequately enforced.The findings indicate that frequent recalls should be scheduled with repeated reinforcement of oral hygiene and dietary modifications in FOA patients.


PubMed | Mr Ambedkar Dental College And Hospital
Type: | Journal: Journal of periodontal research | Year: 2016

The balance between host proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory immune responses is a key determinant for the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. This study aimed to explore the possibility of an association between lipoxin A4 and interleukin-12 in chronic periodontitis.Forty-five patients with chronic periodontitis and 45 periodontally healthy patients were included in this case-control study. Plaque index, calculus index, gingival index, sulcus bleeding index, full-mouth probing depth and clinical attachment loss were recorded. Gingival crevicular fluid samples were collected and analysed for interleukin-12 and lipoxin A4 using ELISA.The mean concentration of lipoxin A4 was lower in the periodontitis group compared with the periodontally healthy group. There was a negative correlation between interleukin-12 and lipoxin A4 in both groups. There was a negative correlation between clinical attachment loss and lipoxin A4, and a positive correlation between clinical attachment loss and interleukin-12. However, the correlations were statistically insignificant.The mean interleukin-12 concentration was significantly higher in gingival crevicular fluid from patients with periodontitis than in that from with healthy patients, and the mean lipoxin A4 concentration was lower in patients with periodontitis than in healthy patients. Lipoxin A4 possibly has an inhibitory effect on interleukin-12.

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