Rāhuri, India
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Gawade D.B.,MPKV | Perane R.R.,MPKV | Deokar C.D.,MPKV
Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology | Year: 2017

Enzymes play crucial role in successful host-pathogen interactions and degradation of the cell wall. The cellulolytic, hemicellulolytic, pectolytic and proteolytic enzymes produced by plant pathogens are capable of degrading major polymeric components of the host cell wall. A number of pathogenic fungi have been reported to produce cellulases, but relatively a small quantum of plant pathogens are able to degrade insoluble cellulose even after it has been physically or chemically modified to make it more susceptible to enzyme action. Present study revealed Rhizoctonia bataticola as major cause of soybean root rot. Result of the R. bataticola, 20 isolates collected from various regions of Maharashtra, seven isolates were moderate virulent and thirteen isolates highly virulent. These isolates showed wide variability in per cent root rot infection of soybean ranged from 48.00 to 69.33%. Highest extracellular enzyme activity was found in respect of cellulase (Rb-33), pectinase (Rb-33), lipase (Rb-10), protease (Rb-32) and amylase (Rb-36). The per cent root rot infection was found to be highly significant and positively correlated with the enzyme viz., cellulase, pectinase and protease. The entire 20 test isolates exhibited production of extracellular enzymes under both plate culture and plant sample assay methods. Maximum enzyme activity profile from R. bataticola infected root tissues was found in respect of cellulolytic (Rb-1), polygalacturonase (Rb-32) and pectin methylesterase (Rb-32) enzyme. There was low enzyme activity even the isolates were more virulent and vice versa. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Chavan U.D.,Mahatma Phule Agricultural University | Pawar U.B.,MPKV | Pawar G.H.,Sorghum Improvement Project
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2015

The present investigation was carried out to develop a technology for preparation of mixed toffee from guava and strawberry pulp and to study the changes in chemical composition and sensory properties of toffee during storage at ambient temperature as well as refrigerated condition. Preliminary experiments were conducted to find out optimum levels of guava and strawberry pulp. The toffees prepared were wrapped in metallic coated polythene wrapper, packed in 200 gauge polythene bags and stored at ambient (27 ± 2 oC) as well as refrigerated (5 ± 2 oC) condition for 90 days. The stored samples were drawn periodically at 30 days interval for organoleptic and chemical analysis. Preliminary studies were carried out to standardize the optimum levels of guava and strawberry pulp. Among various combinations of guava and strawberry pulp, 70 : 30 w/w (guava : strawberry) ratios toffee was found better than other combinations in respect to organoleptic properties and nutritional quality. The yield of fresh toffee was higher (868 g/kg of pulp) in toffee prepared from 100 % guava (control). The chemical composition indicated that the fresh toffees contained on an average moisture 8.73 %, TSS 83.21 oBrix, titrable acidity 0.3 %, total sugars 73.1 % and ascorbic acid 64.1 mg/100 g. The mean score of fresh toffees for colour and appearance was 8.29, texture 8.02, flavour 8.22, taste 8.32 and overall acceptability 8.16 on 9 point Hedonic scale. The cost of fresh toffee was Rs. 282/kg which was prepared from 70 : 30 guava and strawberry pulp level. The storage studies indicated that the TSS and total sugars increased with the advancement of storage period, while moisture content, ascorbic acid and acidity decreased. The rates of increase or decrease were relatively higher at ambient temperature than refrigerated temperature. The sensory quality of toffees also decreased at faster rate during 90 days storage period at ambient condition than the refrigerated condition. The toffee prepared from 70: 30 guava and strawberry pulp was found superior over other combinations in respect of organoleptic properties throughout storage period. However, toffees were found to be acceptable even after 90 days storage at ambient as well as refrigerated conditions. © 2015, Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India).

Pujari K.H.,Pg Institute Of Post Harvest Management | Rane D.A.,MPKV
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2015

In the present investigation the percent cell content, cell wall content, cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin and silica content in the seeds of pomegranate during the anthesis to ripening of fruits were carried out. The percent cell content decreased up to 75 days after anthesis and therefore, it increases up to harvesting. The reverse pattern was observed in percent cell wall, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin content. The values showed an increasing trend up to 75 days and therefore, they were decreased up to harvesting. The ratio of percent lignin to percent cell wall content increased steadily up to 120 days and then slightly declined at harvesting stage. The percent cellulose and hemicelluloses to the percent wall content ratio on the other hand decreased continuously, but at harvesting stage it increases slightly. The ratio of percent silica to percent cell wall content showed not much increase during growth of the pomegranate seed.

Pujari K.H.,Pg Institute Of Post Harvest Management | Rane D.A.,MPKV
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2015

Maharashtra is a leading state in pomegranate cultivation and Ahmednagar district is the main pomegranate pocket of Maharashtra. The 'Muskat' cultivar of pomegranate is famous in this region. However, orchards in this region are sprung up through seedling selection and that is why there is considerable heterozygosity in the mellowness of seeds. To find out any anatomical difference existing in these seedling progenies, the present investigation was carried out. The anatomical study revealed that there was not much difference in the structure and in the radial length of the mesotesta and the sarcotesta of the soft and hard seeds of pomegranate fruit except in the thickening of the cell wall of the mesotesta. In soft seeds, thick walled sclerotic cells were observed near the tegmen only, while in the hard seeds the cells of entire mesotesta with the exception of a few cell near the sarcotesta were thickened.

Pujari K.H.,Pg Institute Of Post Harvest Management | Rane D.A.,MPKV
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2015

The presents study on histo-chemical test revealed that only lignin content increased in the mestotesta. Percent lignin to percent wall content ratio showed a continuous increasing trend and slightly declined at fruit ripening stage. There was near about perfect positive correlation (+0.94) between the ratio of percent ligning to the percent wall content and the seed hardness. Further investigation on seed hardness indicates that seed hardness of pomegranate seed increased as the seed developed and at 120 days had the highest hardness (5.56 kg/cm3) and at full ripening it declined slightly (4.48 kg/cm3). Hard seeded types had highest values (6.74 kg/cm3) followed by semi-hard (4.50 kg/cm3) and lowest (3.41 kg/cm3) in soft seeded type.

Garudkar A.S.,Indian Institute of Technology Bombay | Rastogi A.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Bombay | Eldho T.I.,Indian Institute of Technology Bombay | Gorantiwar S.D.,MPKV
Water Resources Management | Year: 2011

A number of models with conventional optimization techniques have been developed for optimization of reservoir water release policies. However these models are not able to consider the heterogeneity in the command area of the reservoir appropriately, due to non linear nature of the processes involved. The optimization model based on genetic algorithm (GA) can deal with the non linearity due to its inherent ability to consider complex simulation model as evaluation function for optimization. GA based models available in literature generally minimize the water deficits and do not optimize the total net benefits through optimal reservoir release policies. The present study focuses on optimum releases from the reservoir considering heterogeneity of the command area and responses of the command area to the releases instead of minimizing only the reservoir storage volumes. An optimization model has been developed for the reservoir releases based on elitist GA approach considering the heterogeneity of the command area. The developed model was applied to Waghad irrigation project in upper Godavari basin of Maharashtra, India. The results showed that 19% increase in the total net benefits could be possible by adopting the proposed water release policy over the present practice keeping same distribution of area under different crops. The model presented in this study can also optimize the crop area under irrigation. It is found that irrigated area can be increased to 50% of ICA (Irrigable Command Area) from the existing 23% with resulting addition to total net benefits by 31%. The effect of adopting the proposed irrigation schedule and increased irrigation areas would be to increase the net benefits to existing farmers. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Kadam S.A.,MPKV | Gorantiwar S.D.,MPKV
Journal of Agrometeorology | Year: 2014

A growing number of studies have focused on evaluating the spectral indices in terms of their sensitivity to vegetation biophysical parameters like leaf area index. In this context, different hyperspectral ratios and normalized difference vegetation indices were computed for sorghum based on groundbased spectral data obtained in 350-2500 nm wave length region over the crop growth period of sorghum. The analysis of the hyperspectral data was carried out to compare the performance of vegetation indices (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index [NDVI], Renormalized Difference Vegetation Index [RDVI], Modified Simple Ratio [MSR], Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index [SAVI], Modified Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index [MSAVI], and Modified Chlorophyll Absorption Ratio Index [MCARI]) by linearly relating to LAI separately for growth and decline phases. The regression coefficient values were found in the range of 0.79 to 0.87 for growth phase and 0.89 to 0.98 for decline phase. The most significant relationship of LAI was found with MSAVI when growth (R2of 0.87) and decline (R2of 0.98) phases were analyzed separately. © 2014, Association of Agrometeorologists. All rights reserved.

Mahajan S.T.,M.P.K.V | Naik R.M.,M.P.K.V | Dalvi U.S.,M.P.K.V
Sugar Tech | Year: 2013

Sugarcane belonging to the genus Saccharum grown both in tropical and subtropical region is an important commercial crop. Modern sugarcane genotypes are derived largely from intercrossing of first mobilized hybrids and their progenies. A pot culture experiment was conducted to assess the effect of salt stress on sugarcane genotypes. Ten sugarcane genotypes viz, Co-94012, CoC-671, Co-740, CoM-0265, Co-86032, Co-9012, CoC-08026, CoM-08086, CoM-08011 and MS-08002, cultivated in three varying soil conditions viz., normal, saline and sodic soils were evaluated for the effect of salt stress on parameters such as proline, glycine betaine, soluble protein contents, nitrate reductase activity and pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase activity. The analysis showed that the increased accumulation of proline, glycine betaine, soluble protein and increased activity of pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase activity in sodic soil can be used as biochemical markers to screen the promising genotypes for salt tolerance in sugarcane. © 2013 Society for Sugar Research & Promotion.

Anushree P.U.,MPKV | Naik R.M.,MPKV | Satbhai R.D.,MPKV
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection | Year: 2016

The control and infected leaf samples of blast resistant and susceptible rice genotypes were evaluated for activities of defence-related enzymes viz., total phenol content, chitinase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), β-glycosidase, antioxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase. The level of total phenol content and the activity profile of chitinase, PAL and β-glycosidase significantly increased in both blast-resistant and susceptible rice genotypes with comparatively higher level induction Tetep, NLR-20104 and Swarnadhan the blast-resistant genotypes. The antioxidative enzymes were comparatively higher in the leaf samples of blast-resistant genotypes recording highest increase in NLR-20104 and KJT-5. The constitutive levels of total phenols and activity of defence-related and antioxidative enzymes in the control leaf samples differed among the genotypes and were even higher in the two blast susceptible genotypes (EK-70 and Chimansal). However, the level of induction as evident from the activity profile differences between control and infected leaf samples suggests higher level of induction was more which is indicative of the induced defence response. The genotype recording maximum induction of defence-related and antioxidative enzymes activity could be useful criteria in screening for blast resistant genotype in rice. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

Wale S.D.,MPKV | Chandele A.G.,MPKV
Pestology | Year: 2010

Bioefficacy and phytotoxicity studies of Spiromesifen 240 SC (Oberon 240 SC) were conducted at instructional farm, PGI, MPKV, Rahuri. In bioefficacy study, Spiromesifen 240 SC @ 90, 120, 150 g.a.i/ha, Acephate 75 SP @ 375 g.a.i/ha and Dicofol 18.5 EC @ 185 g.a.i./ha were tested against whiteflies and mites on tomato. The dose of Spiromesifen 240 SC in range (120-150 g.a.i/ha) was found most effective for the control of Whiteflies and mites as well as obtaining highest marketable yield. Spiromesifen 240 SC @ 150, 300 and 600 g.a.i/ha tested for phytotoxicity. Spiromesifen 240 SC at this dose did not produce any phytotoxicity symptoms on tomato crop.

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