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Wissing J.M.,University of Osnabrück | Kallenrode M.-B.,University of Osnabrück | Kieser J.,MPI Meteorology | Schmidt H.,MPI Meteorology | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics | Year: 2011

Ionization of the atmosphere due to precipitating solar energetic particles as well as magnetospheric particles is a major source of thermospheric electron density. In this paper we evaluate numerical simulations of the 3-D spatial and temporal electron densities produced by these particle populations through a comparison with incoherent scatter radar observations. The 3-D precipitation patterns are determined with the Atmospheric Ionization Module Osnabrück (AIMOS). We use a version of the general circulation and chemistry model Hamburg Model of the Neutral and Ionized Atmosphere (HAMMONIA) enhanced by ion chemistry to calculate the impact of particle ionization on the electron density. These modeled data are compared to radar observations from European Incoherent Scatter Svalbard and Troms as well as the incoherent scatter radar stations at Millstone Hill and Sondrestrom. Particle precipitation is severely affected by geomagnetic disturbance and latitude. Therefore, different locations (inside the polar cap and at auroral latitudes) and geomagnetic conditions are included in the comparison. The main results of the paper can be summarized as follows: (1) as expected, particle forcing will significantly improve modeled electron density in comparison to results of the radar measurements; (2) in particular nighttime comparisons of the electron density are affected; here the particle forcing will account for a boost of 2 to 3 orders of magnitude. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

Tuinenburg O.A.,Wageningen University | Hutjes R.W.A.,Wageningen University | Stacke T.,MPI Meteorology | Wiltshire A.,UK Met Office | Lucas-Picher P.,University of Quebec at Montréal
Journal of Hydrometeorology | Year: 2014

The effect of large-scale irrigation in India on the moisture budget of the atmosphere was investigated using three regional climate models and one global climate model, all of which performed an irrigated run and a natural run without irrigation. Using a common irrigation map, year-round irrigation was represented by adding water to the soil moisture to keep it at 90% of the maximum soil moisture storage capacity, regardless of water availability. For two focus regions, the seasonal cycle of irrigation matched that of the reference dataset, but irrigation application varied between the models by up to 0.8mmday-1. Because of the irrigation, evaporation increased in all models, but precipitation decreased because of a strong decrease in atmospheric moisture convergence. A moisture tracking scheme was used to track individual evaporated moisture parcels through the atmosphere to determine where these lead to precipitation. Up to 35% of the evaporation moisture from the Ganges basin is recycling within the river basin. However, because of a decreased moisture convergence into the river basin, the total amount of precipitation in the Ganges basin decreases. Although a significant fraction of the evaporation moisture recycles within the river basin, the changes in large-scale wind patterns due to irrigation shift the precipitation from the eastern parts of India and Nepal to the northern and western parts of India and Pakistan. In these areas where precipitation increases, the relative precipitation increase is larger than the relative decrease in the areas where precipitation decreases. It is concluded 1) that the direct effects of irrigation on precipitation are small and are not uniform across the models; 2) that a fraction of up to 35% of any marginal evaporation increase (for example, due to irrigation) will recycle within the river basin; and 3) that when irrigation is applied on a large scale, the dominant effect will be a change in large-scale atmospheric flow that decreases precipitation in eastern India and increases it in western and northern India. © 2014 American Meteorological Society.

Offermann D.,University of Wuppertal | Goussev O.,German Aerospace Center | Kalicinsky C.,University of Wuppertal | Koppmann R.,University of Wuppertal | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics | Year: 2015

SABER temperature measurements from 2002 to 2012 are analyzed from 18 to 110 km altitude in Middle Europe. Data are complemented by radiosonde measurements in the altitude range from 0 to 30 km. Low frequency oscillations with periods of about 2.4-2.2 yr, 3.4 yr, and 5.5 yr are seen in either data set. Surprising vertical structures in amplitudes and phases are observed with alternating minima and maxima of amplitudes, steep phase changes (180°) at the altitudes of the minima, and constant phase values in between. HAMMONIA CCM simulations driven by boundary conditions for the years 1996-2006 are analyzed for corresponding features, and very similar structures are found. Data from another CCM, the CESM-WACCM model, are also analyzed and show comparable results. Similar oscillation periods have been reported in the literature for the ocean. A possible forcing of the atmospheric oscillations from below was therefore tested with a special HAMMONIA run. Here, climatological boundary conditions were used, i.e. the boundaries in all eleven years were the same. Surprisingly also in this data set the same atmospheric oscillations are obtained. We therefore conclude that the oscillations are intrinsically forced, self-sustained in the atmosphere. The oscillations turned out to be quite robust as they are still found in a HAMMONIA run with strongly reduced vertical resolution. Here only the form of the vertical amplitude and phase profile of the 2.2 yr feature is lost but the oscillation itself is still there, and the two other oscillations are essentially unchanged. Similar oscillations are seen in the earth surface temperatures. Global Land Ocean Temperature Index data (GLOTI) reaching back to 1880 show such oscillations during all that time. The oscillations are also seen in parameters other than atmospheric temperature. They are found in surface data such as the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAO) and in zonal winds in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. The oscillations found are tentatively discussed in terms (of synchronization) of self-sustained non-linear oscillators, as many of their properties resemble such oscillators described in the literature. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

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