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Cui Y.,German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence | Schuon S.,Stylight GmbH | Thrun S.,Stanford University | Stricker D.,German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence | Theobalt C.,MPI Informatik
IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence | Year: 2013

We describe a method for 3D object scanning by aligning depth scans that were taken from around an object with a Time-of-Flight (ToF) camera. These ToF cameras can measure depth scans at video rate. Due to comparably simple technology, they bear potential for economical production in big volumes. Our easy-to-use, cost-effective scanning solution, which is based on such a sensor, could make 3D scanning technology more accessible to everyday users. The algorithmic challenge we face is that the sensor's level of random noise is substantial and there is a nontrivial systematic bias. In this paper, we show the surprising result that 3D scans of reasonable quality can also be obtained with a sensor of such low data quality. Established filtering and scan alignment techniques from the literature fail to achieve this goal. In contrast, our algorithm is based on a new combination of a 3D superresolution method with a probabilistic scan alignment approach that explicitly takes into account the sensor's noise characteristics. © 1979-2012 IEEE.

Havran V.,Czech Technical University | Filip J.,Czech Institute of Information Theory And Automation | Myszkowski K.,MPI Informatik
Computer Graphics Forum | Year: 2010

The Bidirectional Texture Function (BTF) is becoming widely used for accurate representation of real-world material appearance. In this paper a novel BTF compression model is proposed. The model resamples input BTF data into a parametrization, allowing decomposition of individual view and illumination dependent texels into a set of multi-dimensional conditional probability density functions. These functions are compressed in turn using a novel multi-level vector quantization algorithm. The result of this algorithm is a set of index and scale code-books for individual dimensions. BTF reconstruction from the model is then based on fast chained indexing into the nested stored code-books. In the proposed model, luminance and chromaticity are treated separately to achieve further compression. The proposed model achieves low distortion and compression ratios 1:233-1:2040, depending on BTF sample variability. These results compare well with several other BTF compression methods with predefined compression ratios, usually smaller than 1:200. We carried out a psychophysical experiment comparing our method with LPCA method. BTF synthesis from the model was implemented on a standard GPU, yielded interactive framerates. The proposed method allows the fast importance sampling required by eye-path tracing algorithms in image synthesis. © 2009 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Weinkauf T.,MPI Informatik | Hege H.-C.,Zuse Institute Berlin | Theisel H.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg
Computer Graphics Forum | Year: 2012

We present the first general scheme to describe all four types of characteristic curves of flow fields - stream, path, streak, and time lines - as tangent curves of a derived vector field. Thus, all these lines can be obtained by a simple integration of an autonomous ODE system. Our approach draws on the principal ideas of the recently introduced tangent curve description of streak lines. We provide the first description of time lines as tangent curves of a derived vector field, which could previously only be constructed in a geometric manner. Furthermore, our scheme gives rise to new types of curves. In particular, we introduce advected stream lines as a parameter-free variant of the time line metaphor. With our novel mathematical description of characteristic curves, a large number of feature extraction and analysis tools becomes available for all types of characteristic curves, which were previously only available for stream and path lines. We will highlight some of these possible applications including the computation of time line curvature fields and the extraction of cores of swirling advected stream lines. © 2012 The Author(s).

Jacobson A.,ETH Zurich | Weinkauf T.,MPI Informatik | Sorkine O.,ETH Zurich
Computer Graphics Forum | Year: 2012

Functions that optimize Laplacian-based energies have become popular in geometry processing, e.g. for shape deformation, smoothing, multiscale kernel construction and interpolation. Minimizers of Dirichlet energies, or solutions of Laplace equations, are harmonic functions that enjoy the maximum principle, ensuring no spurious local extrema in the interior of the solved domain occur. However, these functions are only C0 at the constrained points, which often causes smoothness problems. For this reason, many applications optimize higher-order Laplacian energies such as biharmonic or triharmonic. Their minimizers exhibit increasing orders of continuity but lose the maximum principle and show oscillations. In this work, we identify characteristic artifacts caused by spurious local extrema, and provide a framework for minimizing quadratic energies on manifolds while constraining the solution to obey the maximum principle in the solved region. Our framework allows the user to specify locations and values of desired local maxima and minima, while preventing any other local extrema. We demonstrate our method on the smoothness energies corresponding to popular polyharmonic functions and show its usefulness for fast handle-based shape deformation, controllable color diffusion, and topologically-constrained data smoothing. © 2012 The Author(s).

Schultz T.,MPI Informatik | Theisel H.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg | Seidel H.-P.,MPI Informatik
IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics | Year: 2010

Crease surfaces are two-dimensional manifolds along which a scalar field assumes a local maximum (ridge) or a local minimum (valley) in a constrained space. Unlike isosurfaces, they are able to capture extremal structures in the data. Creases have a long tradition in image processing and computer vision, and have recently become a popular tool for visualization. When extracting crease surfaces, degeneracies of the Hessian (i.e., lines along which two eigenvalues are equal) have so far been ignored. We show that these loci, however, have two important consequences for the topology of crease surfaces: First, creases are bounded not only by a side constraint on eigenvalue sign, but also by Hessian degeneracies. Second, crease surfaces are not, in general, orientable. We describe an efficient algorithm for the extraction of crease surfaces which takes these insights into account and demonstrate that it produces more accurate results than previous approaches. Finally, we show that diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) stream surfaces, which were previously used for the analysis of planar regions in diffusion tensor MRI data, are mathematically ill-defined. As an example application of our method, creases in a measure of planarity are presented as a viable substitute. © 2010 IEEE.

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