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Marburg an der Lahn, Germany

Dippel S.,Justus Liebig University | Dippel S.,University of Gottingen | Oberhofer G.,Justus Liebig University | Kahnt J.,MPI for Terrestrial Microbiology | And 8 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2014

Chemoreception is based on the senses of smell and taste that are crucial for animals to find new food sources, shelter, and mates. The initial step in olfaction involves the translocation of odorants from the periphery through the aqueous lymph of the olfactory sensilla to the odorant receptors most likely by chemosensory proteins (CSPs) or odorant binding proteins (OBPs). Results: To better understand the roles of CSPs and OBPs in a coleopteran pest species, the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae), we performed transcriptome analyses of male and female antennae, heads, mouthparts, legs, and bodies, which revealed that all 20 CSPs and 49 of the 50 previously annotated OBPs are transcribed. Only six of the 20 CSP are significantly transcriptionally enriched in the main chemosensory tissues (antenna and/or mouthparts), whereas of the OBPs all eight members of the antenna binding proteins II (ABPII) subgroup, 18 of the 20 classic OBP subgroup, the C + OBP, and only five of the 21 C-OBPs show increased chemosensory tissue expression. By MALDI-TOF-TOF MS protein fingerprinting, we confirmed three CSPs, four ABPIIs, three classic OBPs, and four C-OBPs in the antennae. Conclusions: Most of the classic OBPs and all ABPIIs are likely involved in chemoreception. A few are also present in other tissues such as odoriferous glands and testes and may be involved in release or transfer of chemical signals. The majority of the CSPs as well as the C-OBPs are not enriched in antennae or mouthparts, suggesting a more general role in the transport of hydrophobic molecules. © Dippel et al.; licensee BioMed Central. Source


Briegel A.,California Institute of Technology | Beeby M.,California Institute of Technology | Beeby M.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | Thanbichler M.,MPI for Terrestrial Microbiology | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Microbiology | Year: 2011

Bacterial chemoreceptors cluster into exquisitively sensitive, tunable, highly ordered, polar arrays. While these arrays serve as paradigms of cell signalling in general, it remains unclear what conformational changes transduce signals from the periplasmic tips, where attractants and repellents bind, to the cytoplasmic signalling domains. Conflicting reports support and contest the hypothesis that activation causes large changes in the packing arrangement of the arrays, up to and including their complete disassembly. Using electron cryotomography, here we show that in Caulobacter crescentus, chemoreceptor arrays in cells grown in different media and immediately after exposure to the attractant galactose all exhibit the same 12nm hexagonal packing arrangement, array size and other structural parameters. ΔcheB and ΔcheR mutants mimicking attractant- or repellent-bound states prior to adaptation also show the same lattice structure. We conclude that signal transduction and amplification must be accomplished through only small, nanoscale conformational changes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source


Heimel K.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Scherer M.,MPI for Terrestrial Microbiology | Scherer M.,Qiagen | Vranes M.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | And 8 more authors.
PLoS Pathogens | Year: 2010

In the phytopathogenic basidiomycete Ustilago maydis, sexual and pathogenic development are tightly connected and controlled by the heterodimeric bE/bW transcription factor complex encoded by the b-mating type locus. The formation of the active bE/bW heterodimer leads to the formation of filaments, induces a G2 cell cycle arrest, and triggers pathogenicity. Here, we identify a set of 345 bE/bW responsive genes which show altered expression during these developmental changes; several of these genes are associated with cell cycle coordination, morphogenesis and pathogenicity. 90% of the genes that show altered expression upon bE/bW-activation require the zinc finger transcription factor Rbf1, one of the few factors directly regulated by the bE/bW heterodimer. Rbf1 is a novel master regulator in a multilayered network of transcription factors that facilitates the complex regulatory traits of sexual and pathogenic development. © 2010 Heimel et al. Source


Herzog A.,University of Marburg | Voss B.,University of Heidelberg | Keilberg D.,MPI for Terrestrial Microbiology | Hot E.,MPI for Terrestrial Microbiology | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology | Year: 2013

The extraction of fluorescence intensity profiles of single cells from image data is a common challenge in cell biology. The manual segmentation of cells, the extraction of cell orientation and finally the extraction of intensity profiles are time-consuming tasks. This article proposes a routine for the segmentation of single rod-shaped cells (i.e. without neighboring cells in a distance of the cell length) from image data combined with an extraction of intensity distributions along the longitudinal cell axis under the aggravated conditions of (i) a low spatial resolution and (ii) lacking information on the imaging system i.e. the point spread function and signal-to-noise ratio. The algorithm named cipsa transfers a new approach from particle streak velocimetry to cell classification interpreting the rod-shaped as streak-like structures. An automatic reduction of systematic errors such as photobleaching and defocusing is included to guarantee robustness of the proposed approach under the described conditions and to the convenience of end-users unfamiliar with image processing. Performance of the algorithm has been tested on image sequences with high noise level produced by an overlay of different error sources. The developed algorithm provides a user-friendly, stand-alone procedure. © 2013 Imperial College Press. Source

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