News Article | February 22, 2017
The report "Exhaust Systems Market by After Treatment Device (DOC, DPF, LNT, SCR & GPF), Fuel Type, Component (Manifold, Downpipe, Catalytic Converter, Muffler, Tailpipe, Sensor), and Region, Aftermarket by Component & after Treatment Device - Global Forecast to 2021", published by MarketsandMarkets. The Exhaust Systems Market is primarily driven by the adoption of newer and stringent emission regulations from different regulatory bodies at a global level. The market is projected to grow at a CAGR of 8.45%, to reach USD 59.02 Billion by 2021. Browse 96 market data Tables and 72 Figures spread through 202 Pages and in-depth TOC on "Exhaust Systems Market" Early buyers will receive 10% customization on this report. "Catalytic Converters and Exhaust manifolds holds the largest share in Exhaust Systems Market by components" Catalytic converter and exhaust manifolds accounted to have the largest market for components. The growth can be attributed to the increased production of passenger cars and commercial vehicles around the world. The exhaust system manufacturers have been continuously investing heavily in R&D activities for the development of technologically advanced products in order to comply with the new guidelines. As a result, the global market for exhaust systems components is projected to accelerate significantly. Also, the increasing vehicle production across the globe will also trigger the growth of components market. "Gasoline Particulate Filters (GPF) is the fastest growing segment of the market after treatment devices for exhaust systems" The introduction of gasoline direct injection (GDI) technology in passenger cars has been started from a while. The gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines emits more particulate matter (PM) content than Multi-Port Fuel Injection (MPI) engines. In order to meet the emission limits defined by European and U.S. regulatory bodies, the implementation of GPF devices becomes necessary in order to control the particulate matter (PM) level from the vehicles. For instance, the Euro 6 norms has been introduced to limit the particulate matter level from gasoline engines. Hence, the latest emission regulations requires lower gasoline emissions which will further fuel the market for GPF devices. The Asia-Pacific region has emerged as the leader in global vehicle production with the production growth of around 17% in past 5 years, and also becomes the leader in automotive exhaust systems manufacturing. China has been the world's largest automobile market in recent years. According to Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs Automobiles (OICA), China accounted almost 27% of global vehicle production in 2015. This could be owed mainly to the major automotive OEMs setting up their manufacturing plants in China. . In addition to that, the growing economies of countries like India and Indonesia are reasons that this region is able to maintain its leadership position in the market across globe. The Exhaust Systems Market is dominated by a few global players such as Faurecia (France), Tenneco Inc. (U.S.), Eberspächer (Germany), Futaba Industrial Co. Ltd. (Japan), Sango Co. Ltd (Japan), Benteler International AG (Austria), Friedrich Boysen GmbH & Co. KG (Germany), Yutaka Giken Co., Ltd. (Japan), Sejong Industrial Co., Ltd. (South Korea), and Bosal (Belgium). Catalytic Converter Market by Vehicle Type & Type (TWC, SCR, DOC, LNC, & LNT), Material (Platinum, Palladium, Rhodium & Others), & by Region (North America, Europe, Asia-Oceania, & ROW) - Global Trends and Forecast to 2019 Exhaust Sensor Market for Automotive by Sensor Type (Exhaust Temperature & Pressure, O2, NOx, Particulate Matter, Engine Coolant Temperature, & MAP/MAF Sensor), Fuel Type (Gasoline & Diesel), Vehicle Type, & by Region - Industry Trends & Forecast to 2020 MarketsandMarkets is the largest market research firm worldwide in terms of annually published premium market research reports. Serving 1700 global fortune enterprises with more than 1200 premium studies in a year, M&M is catering to a multitude of clients across 8 different industrial verticals. We specialize in consulting assignments and business research across high growth markets, cutting edge technologies and newer applications. Our 850 fulltime analyst and SMEs at MarketsandMarkets are tracking global high growth markets following the "Growth Engagement Model - GEM". The GEM aims at proactive collaboration with the clients to identify new opportunities, identify most important customers, write "Attack, avoid and defend" strategies, identify sources of incremental revenues for both the company and its competitors. M&M's flagship competitive intelligence and market research platform, "RT" connects over 200,000 markets and entire value chains for deeper understanding of the unmet insights along with market sizing and forecasts of niche markets. The new included chapters on Methodology and Benchmarking presented with high quality analytical infographics in our reports gives complete visibility of how the numbers have been arrived and defend the accuracy of the numbers. We at MarketsandMarkets are inspired to help our clients grow by providing apt business insight with our huge market intelligence repository. 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News Article | February 22, 2017
All animal procedures adhered to the laws governing animal experimentation issued by the German Government. For all experiments, we used 3- to 12-week-old C57Bl/6 (n = 3), Chattm2(cre)Lowl (n = 34; ChAT:Cre, JAX 006410, The Jackson Laboratory), and Tg(Pcp2-cre)1Amc (n = 5; Pcp2, JAX 006207) mice of either sex. The transgenic lines were cross-bred with the Cre-dependent red fluorescence reporter line Gt(ROSA)26Sortm9(CAG-tdTomato)Hze (Ai9tdTomato, JAX 007905) for a subset of experiments. Owing to the explanatory nature of our study, we did not use randomization and blinding. No statistical methods were used to predetermine sample size. Animals were housed under a standard 12-h day–night rhythm. For recordings, animals were dark-adapted for ≥ 1 h, then anaesthetized with isoflurane (Baxter) and killed by cervical dislocation. The eyes were removed and hemisected in carboxygenated (95% O , 5% CO ) artificial cerebral spinal fluid (ACSF) solution containing (in mM): 125 NaCl, 2.5 KCl, 2 CaCl , 1 MgCl , 1.25 NaH PO , 26 NaHCO , 20 glucose, and 0.5 l-glutamine (pH 7.4). Then, the tissue was moved to the recording chamber of the microscope, where it was continuously perfused with carboxygenated ACSF at ~37 °C. The ACSF contained ~0.1 μM sulforhodamine-101 (SR101, Invitrogen) to reveal blood vessels and any damaged cells in the red fluorescence channel. All procedures were carried out under very dim red (>650 nm) light. A volume of 1 μl of the viral construct (AAV9.hSyn.iGluSnFR.WPRE.SV40 or AAV9.CAG.Flex.iGluSnFR.WPRE.SV40 (AAV9.iGluSnFR) or AAV9.Syn.Flex.GCaMP6f.WPRE.SV40, Penn Vector Core) was injected into the vitreous humour of 3- to 8-week-old mice anaesthetized with 10% ketamine (Bela-Pharm GmbH & Co. KG) and 2% xylazine (Rompun, Bayer Vital GmbH) in 0.9% NaCl (Fresenius). For the injections, we used a micromanipulator (World Precision Instruments) and a Hamilton injection system (syringe: 7634-01, needles: 207434, point style 3, length 51 mm, Hamilton Messtechnik GmbH). Owing to the fixed angle of the injection needle (15°), the virus was applied to the ventronasal retina. Imaging experiments were performed 3–4 weeks after injection. Sharp electrodes were pulled on a P-1000 micropipette puller (Sutter Instruments) with resistances >100 MΩ. Single cells in the inner nuclear layer were dye-filled with 10 mM Alexa Fluor 555 (Life Technologies) in a 200 mM potassium gluconate (Sigma-Aldrich) solution using the buzz function (50-ms pulse) of the MultiClamp 700B software (Molecular Devices). Pipettes were carefully retracted as soon as the cell began to fill. Approximately 20 min were allowed for the dye to diffuse throughout the cell before imaging started. After recording, an image stack was acquired to document the cell’s morphology, which was then traced semi-automatically using the Simple Neurite Tracer plugin implemented in Fiji (https://imagej.net/Simple_Neurite_Tracer). All drugs were bath applied for at least 10 min before recordings. The following drug concentrations were used (in μM): 10 gabazine (Tocris Bioscience)50, 75 TPMPA (Tocris Bioscience)50, 50 l-AP4 (l-(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid, Tocris Bioscience) and 0.5 strychnine (Sigma-Aldrich)51. Drug solutions were carboxygenated and warmed to ~37 °C before application. Pharmacological experiments were exclusively performed in the On and Off ChAT-immunoreactive bands, which are labelled in red fluorescence in ChAT:Cre × Ai9tdTomato crossbred animals. We used a MOM-type two-photon microscope (designed by W. Denk, MPI, Heidelberg; purchased from Sutter Instruments/Science Products). The design and procedures have been described previously52. In brief, the system was equipped with a mode-locked Ti:Sapphire laser (MaiTai-HP DeepSee, Newport Spectra-Physics), two fluorescence detection channels for iGluSnFR or GCaMP6f (HQ 510/84, AHF/Chroma) and SR101/tdTomato (HQ 630/60, AHF), and a water immersion objective (W Plan-Apochromat 20×/1.0 DIC M27, Zeiss). The laser was tuned to 927 nm for imaging iGluSnFR, GCaMP6f or SR101, and to 1,000 nm for imaging tdTomato. For image acquisition, we used custom-made software (ScanM by M. Müller and T.E.) running under IGOR Pro 6.3 for Windows (Wavemetrics), taking time-lapsed 64 × 16 pixel image scans (at 31.25 Hz) for glutamate and 32 × 32 pixel image scans (at 15.625 Hz) for calcium imaging. For visualizing morphology, 512 × 512 pixel images were acquired. For light stimulation, we focused a DLP projector (K11, Acer) through the objective, fitted with band-pass-filtered light-emitting diodes (LEDs) (green, 578 BP 10; and blue, HC 405 BP 10, AHF/Croma) to match the spectral sensitivity of mouse M- and S-opsins. LEDs were synchronized with the microscope’s scan retrace. Stimulator intensity (as photoisomerization rate, 103 P* per s per cone) was calibrated as described previously52 to range from 0.6 and 0.7 (black image) to 18.8 and 20.3 for M- and S-opsins, respectively. Owing to technical limitations, intensity modulations were weakly rectified below 20% brightness. An additional, steady illumination component of ~104 P* per s per cone was present during the recordings because of two-photon excitation of photopigments (for detailed discussion, see refs 52 and 53). The light stimulus was centred before every experiment, such that its centre corresponded to the centre of the recording field. For all experiments, the tissue was kept at a constant mean stimulator intensity level for at least 15 s after the laser scanning started and before light stimuli were presented. Because the stimulus was projected though the objective lens, the stimulus projection plane shifted when focusing at different IPL levels. We therefore quantified the resulting blur of the stimulus at the level of photoreceptor outer segments. We found that a vertical shift of the imaging plane by 50 μm blurred the image only slightly (2% change in pixel width), indicating that different IPL levels (total IPL thickness = 41.6 ± 4.8 μm, mean ± s.d., n = 20 scans) can be imaged without substantial change in stimulus quality. Four types of light stimuli were used (Fig. 1): (i) full-field (600 × 800 μm) and (ii) local (100 μm in diameter) chirp stimuli consisting of a bright step and two sinusoidal intensity modulations, one with increasing frequency (0.5–8 Hz) and one with increasing contrast; (iii) 1-Hz light flashes (500 μm in diameter, 50% duty cycle); and (iv) binary dense noise (20 × 15 matrix of 20 × 20 μm pixels; each pixel displayed an independent, balanced random sequence at 5 Hz for 5 min) for space–time receptive field mapping. In a subset of experiments, we used three additional stimuli: (v) a ring noise stimulus (10 annuli with increasing diameter, each annulus 25 μm wide), with each ring’s intensity determined independently by a balanced 68-s random sequence at 60 Hz repeated four times; (vi) a surround chirp stimulus (annulus; full-field chirp sparing the central 100 μm corresponding to the local chirp); and (vii) a spot noise stimulus (100 or 500 μm in diameter; intensity modulation like ring noise) flickering at 60 Hz. For all drug experiments, we showed in addition: (viii) a stimulus consisting of alternating 2-s full-field and local light flashes (500 and 100 μm in diameter, respectively). All stimuli were achromatic, with matched photo-isomerization rates for mouse M- and S-opsins. For each scan field, we used the relative positions of the inner (ganglion cell layer) and outer (inner nuclear layer) blood vessel plexus to estimate IPL depth. To relate these blood vessel plexi to the ChAT bands, we performed separate experiments in ChAT:Cre × Ai9tdTomato mice. High-resolution stacks throughout the inner retina were recorded in the ventronasal retina. The stacks were then first corrected for warping of the IPL using custom-written scripts in IGOR Pro. In brief, a raster of markers (7 × 7) was projected in the x–y plane of the stack and for each marker the z positions of the On ChAT band were manually determined. The point raster was used to calculate a smoothed surface, which provided a z offset correction for each pixel beam in the stack. For each corrected stack, the z profiles of tdTomato and SR101 labelling were extracted by manually drawing ROIs in regions where only blood vessel plexi or the ChAT bands were visible. The two profiles were then matched such that 0 corresponded to the inner vessel peak and 1 corresponded to the outer vessel peak. We averaged the profiles of n = 9 stacks from three mice and determined the IPL depth of the On and Off ChAT bands to be 0.48 ± 0.011 and 0.77 ± 0.014 AU (mean ± s.d.), respectively. The s.d. corresponds to an error of 0.45 and 0.63 μm for the On and Off ChAT bands, respectively. In the following, recording depths relative to blood vessel plexi were transformed into IPL depths relative to ChAT bands for all scan fields (Fig. 1b), with 0 corresponding to the On ChAT band and 1 corresponding to the Off ChAT band. Data analysis was performed using Matlab 2014b/2015a (Mathworks Inc.) and IGOR Pro. Data were organized in a custom written schema using the DataJoint for Matlab framework (github.com/datajoint/datajoint-matlab)54. Regions-of-interest (ROIs) were defined automatically by a custom correlation-based algorithm in IGOR Pro. First, the activity stack in response to the dense noise stimulus (64 × 16 × 10,000 pixels) was de-trended by high-pass filtering the trace of each individual pixel above ~0.1 Hz. For the 100 best-responding pixels in each recording field (highest s.d. over time), the trace of each pixel was correlated with the trace of every other pixel in the field. Then, the correlation coefficient (ρ) was plotted against the distance between the two pixels and the average across ROIs was computed (Extended Data Fig. 1a). A scan field-specific correlation threshold (ρ ) was determined by fitting an exponential between the smallest distance and 5 μm (Extended Data Fig. 1b). ρ was defined as the correlation coefficient at λ, where λ is the exponential decay constant (space constant; Extended Data Fig. 1b). Next, we grouped neighbouring pixels with ρ > ρ into one ROI (Extended Data Fig. 1c–e). To match ROI sizes with the sizes of BC axon terminals, we restricted ROI diameters (estimated as effective diameter of area-equivalent circle) to range between 0.75 and 4 μm (Extended Data Fig. 1b, g). For validation, the number of ROIs covering single axon terminals was quantified manually for n = 31 terminals from n = 5 GCaMP6-expressing BCs (Extended Data Figs 1g, 2a–c). The glutamate (or calcium) traces for each ROI were extracted (as ΔF/F) using the image analysis toolbox SARFIA for IGOR Pro55 and resampled at 500 Hz. A stimulus time marker embedded in the recorded data served to align the traces relative to the visual stimulus with 2 ms precision. For this, the timing for each ROI was corrected for sub-frame time-offsets related to the scanning. Stimulus-aligned traces for each ROI were imported into Matlab for further analysis. For the chirp and step stimuli, we down-sampled to 64 Hz for further processing, subtracted the baseline (median of first 20–64 samples), computed the median activity r(t) across stimulus repetitions (5 repetitions for chirp, >30 repetitions for step) and normalized it such that . For dye-injected BCs, axon terminals were labelled manually using the image analysis toolbox SARFIA for IGOR Pro. Then, ROIs were estimated as described above and assigned to the reconstructed cell, if at least two pixels overlapped with the cell´s axon terminals. We mapped the receptive field from the dense noise stimulus and the response kernel to the ring noise stimulus by computing the glutamate/calcium transient-triggered average. To this end, we used Matlab’s findpeaks function to detect the times t at which transients occurred. We set the minimum peak height to 1 s.d., where the s.d. was robustly estimated using: We then computed the glutamate/calcium transient-triggered average stimulus, weighting each sample by the steepness of the transient: Here, is the stimulus, τ is the time lag and M is the number of glutamate/calcium events. For the receptive field from the dense noise stimulus, we smoothed this raw receptive field estimate using a 3 × 3-pixel Gaussian window for each time lag separately and used singular value decomposition (SVD) to extract temporal and spatial receptive field kernels. To extract the receptive field’s position and scale, we fitted it with a 2D Gaussian function using Matlab’s lsqcurvefit. Receptive field quality (Qi ) was measured as one minus the fraction of residual variance not explained by the Gaussian fit , Response quality index. To measure how well a cell responded to a stimulus (local and full-field chirp, flashes), we computed the signal-to-noise ratio where C is the T by R response matrix (time samples by stimulus repetitions), while and denote the mean and variance across the indicated dimension, respectively2. For further analysis, we used only cells that responded well to the local chirp stimulus (Qi > 0.3) and resulted in good receptive fields (Qi > 0.2). Polarity index. To distinguish between On and Off BCs, we calculated the polarity index (POi) from the step response to local and full-field chirp, respectively, as where b = 2 s (62 samples). For cells responding solely during the On-phase of a step of light POi = 1, while for cells only responding during the step’s Off-phase POi = −1. Opposite polarity index. The number of opposite polarity events (OPi) was estimated from individual trials of local and full-field chirp step responses (first 6 s) using IGOR Pro’s FindPeak function. Specifically, we counted the number of events that occurred during the first 2 s after the step onset and offset for Off and On BCs, respectively. For each trial the total number of events was divided by the number of stimulus trials. If OPi = 1, there was on average one opposite polarity event per trial. High frequency index. The high frequency index (HFi) was used to quantify spiking (compare with ref. 28) and was calculated from responses to individual trials of the local and full-field chirps. For the first 6 s of each trial, the frequency spectrum was calculated by fast Fourier transform (FFT) and spectra were averaged across trials for individual ROIs. Then, HFi = log(F /F ), where F and F are the mean power between 0.5–1 Hz and 2–16 Hz, respectively. Response transience index. The step response (first 6 s) of local and full-field chirps was used to calculate the response transience (RTi). Traces were up-sampled to 500 Hz and the response transience was calculated as where α = 400 ms is the read-out time following the peak response t . For a transient cell with complete decay back to baseline RTi = 1, whereas for a sustained cell with no decay RTi = 0. Response plateau index. Local and full-field chirp responses were up-sampled to 500 Hz and the plateau index (RPi) was determined as: with the read-out time α = 2 s. A cell showing a sustained plateau has an RPi = 1, while for a transient cell RPi = 0. Tonic release index. Local chirp frequency and contrast responses were up-sampled to 500 Hz and the baseline (response to 50% contrast step) was subtracted. Then, the glutamate traces were separated into responses above (r ) and below (r ) baseline and the tonic release index (TRi) was determined as: For a cell with no tonic release TRi = 0, whereas for a cell with maximal tonic release TRi = 1. Response delay. The response delay (t ) was defined as the time from stimulus onset/offset until response onset and was calculated from the up-sampled local chirp step response. Response onset (t ) and delay (t ) were defined as and , respectively. We used sparse principal component analysis, as implemented in the SpaSM toolbox by K. Sjöstrang et al. (http://www2.imm.dtu.dk/projects/spasm/), to extract sparse response features from the mean responses across trials to the full-field (12 features) and local chirp (6 features), and the step stimulus (6 features) (as described in ref. 2; see Extended Data Fig. 4b). Before clustering, we standardized each feature separately across the population of cells. BC-terminal volume profiles were obtained from electron microscopic reconstructions of the inner retina6, 10. To isolate synaptic terminals, we removed those parts of the volume profiles that probably corresponded to axons. We estimated the median axon density for each type from the upper 0.06 units of the IPL and subtracted twice that estimate from the profiles, clipping at zero. Profiles were smoothed with a Gaussian kernel (s.d. = 0.14 units IPL depth) to account for jitter in depth measurements of two-photon data. For the GluMI cell, we assumed the average profile of CBC types 1 and 2. We used a modified mixture of Gaussian model56 to incorporate the prior knowledge from the anatomical BC profiles. For each ROI i with IPL depth , we define a prior over anatomical types c as Where IPL(d,c) is the IPL terminal density profile as a function of depth and anatomical cell type. For example, all ROIs of a scan field taken at an IPL depth of 1.7 were likely to be sorted into clusters for CBC types 1 and 2, while a scan field taken at a depth of 0 received a bias for CBC types 5–7 (Extended Data Fig. 4a). The parameters of the mixture of Gaussian model are estimated as usual, with the exception of estimating the posterior over clusters. Here, the mixing coefficients are replaced by the prior over anatomical types, resulting in a modified update formula for the posterior: All other updates remain the same as for the standard mixture of Gaussians algorithm57. We constrained the covariance matrix for each component to be diagonal, resulting in 48 parameters per component (24 for the mean, 24 for the variances). We further regularized the covariance matrix by adding a constant (10−5) to the diagonal. The clustering was based on a subset (~83%) of the data (the first 11,101 recorded cells). The remaining ROIs were then automatically allocated to the established clustering (n = 2,210 ROIs). For each pair of clusters, we computed the direction in feature space that optimally separated the clusters , where are the cluster means in feature space and is the pooled covariance matrix. We projected all data on this axis and standardized the projected data according to cluster 1 (that is, subtracted the projected mean of cluster 1 and divided by its s.d.). We computed d′ as a measure of the separation between the clusters: , where are the means of the two clusters in the projected, normalized space. We also performed a more constrained clustering in which we divided the IPL into five portions without overlap based on stratification profiles. We then clustered each zone independently using a standard mixture of Gaussian approach and a cluster number determined by the number of BC types expected in each portion. The correlation between the cluster means of our clustering and the more constrained clustering was 0.97 for the full-field chirp traces, indicating high agreement. Field entropy. Field entropy (S ) was used as a measure of cluster heterogeneity within single recording fields and was defined as , where i is the number of clusters in one recording field and p corresponds to the number of ROIs assigned to the ith cluster. S = 0 if all ROIs of one recording field are assigned to one cluster and S increases if ROIs are equally distributed across multiple clusters. In general, high field-entropy indicates high cluster heterogeneity within a single field. Analysis of response diversity. To investigate the similarity of local and full-field chirp responses across clusters (Fig. 3), we determined the linear correlation coefficient between any two cluster pairs. The analysis was performed on cluster means. For every cluster, correlation coefficients were averaged across clusters with the same and opposite response polarity, respectively. We used principal component analysis (using Matlab’s pca function) to obtain a 2D embedding of the mean cluster responses. The principal component analysis was computed on all 14 local and 14 full-field cluster means. If not stated otherwise, the non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for statistical testing. Pharmacology. To analyse drug-induced effects on BC clusters (Fig. 4, Extended Data Figs 7, 8), response traces and receptive fields of ROIs in one recording field belonging to the same cluster were averaged if there were at least 5 ROIs assigned to this cluster. Spatial receptive fields were aligned relative to the pixel with the highest s.d. before averaging. Centre-surround properties. To estimate the signal-to-noise ratio of ring maps of single ROIs, we extracted temporal centre and surround kernels and normalized the respective kernel to the s.d. of its baseline (first 50 samples). For further analysis, we included only ROIs with |Peak | > 12 s.d. and |Peak | > 7 s.d. Ring maps of individual ROIs were then aligned relative to its peak centre activation and averaged across ROIs assigned to one cluster. To isolate the BC surround, the centre rings (first two rings) were cut and the surround time and space components were extracted by singular value decomposition (SVD). The surround space component was then extrapolated across the centre by fitting a Gaussian and an extrapolated surround map was generated. To isolate the BC centre, the estimated surround map was subtracted from the average map and centre time and space components were extracted by SVD. The estimated centre and surround maps were summed to obtain a complete description of the centre–surround structure of BC receptive fields. Across clusters, the estimated centre–surround maps captured 92.5 ± 1.9% of the variance of the original map. Owing to the low signal-to-noise ratio, the temporal centre–surround properties of individual ROIs were extracted as described above using the centre and surround space kernels obtained from the respective cluster average. The 1D Gaussian fits of centre and surround space activation were used to calculate centre and surround ratios (CSRs) for various stimulus sizes. Specifically, the CSR was defined as where S corresponds to the stimulus radius and ranged from 10 to 500 μm, with a step size dx of 1 μm. Time kernels for different stimulus sizes were generated by linearly mixing centre and surround time kernels, weighted by the respective CSR. BC spectra. The temporal spectra of BC clusters were calculated by Fourier transform of the time kernels estimated for a local (100 μm in diameter) and full-field (500 μm in diameter) light stimulus (see centre–surround properties). Owing to the lower SNR of time kernels estimated for the full-field stimulus, kernels were cut 100 ms before and at the time point of response, still capturing 86.7 ± 14.7% of the variance of the original kernel. The centre of mass (Centroid) was used to characterize spectra of different stimulus sizes and was determined as where x(n) corresponds to the magnitude and f(n) represents the centre frequency of the nth bin. Surround chirp and spot noise data. To investigate the effects of surround-only activation and stimulus size on temporal encoding properties across BC clusters, response traces and estimated kernels of ROIs in one recording field belonging to the same cluster were averaged if there were at least five ROIs assigned to this cluster. The spectra for kernels estimated from local and full-field spot noise stimuli were calculated as described above. Time kernel correlation. To analyse the similarity of temporal kernels estimated for a specific stimulus size (Fig. 5i, j), we computed the linear correlation coefficient of each kernel pair from clusters with the same response polarity. We then calculated the average correlation coefficient for every cluster (Fig. 5i) and across all cluster averages (Fig. 5j). Data (original data and clustering results) as well as Matlab code are available from http://www.retinal-functomics.org.
News Article | February 16, 2017
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For more information, contact Claire Yoder, Vice President of Resource Development and Member Engagement, by phone at (843) 361-3040 or e-mail at Claire@NorthMyrtleBeachChamber.com * Product or service names mentioned herein may be the trademarks of their respective owners. About the North Myrtle Beach Chamber of Commerce, Convention and Visitors Bureau The North Myrtle Beach Chamber of Commerce, Convention and Visitors Bureau (CVB), an accredited five-star Chamber/CVB founded in 1999, continues to lead by example as an exemplary local business advocate and supporter, as well as a champion of North Myrtle Beach as a top travel destination within the Southeast. Since its founding, the Chamber/CVB has been whole-heartedly committed to advancing the welfare and prosperity of North Myrtle Beach while achieving a thriving, diverse and sustainable economy. 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News Article | February 21, 2017
NORTH BILLERICA, Mass. & CHALFONT ST GILES, United Kingdom--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Lantheus Medical Imaging, Inc. (“LMI”), a subsidiary of Lantheus Holdings, Inc. (“Lantheus”) (NASDAQ: LNTH), and GE Healthcare (NYSE:GE), today announced the signing of a term sheet relating to the continued Phase III development and worldwide commercialization of flurpiridaz F 18, an investigational positron emission tomography (PET) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) agent that may improve the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). Under the proposed transaction, GE Healthcare would fund the second Phase III flurpiridaz F 18 clinical study, worldwide regulatory approvals and its worldwide launch and commercialization, with LMI collaborating in both development and commercialization through a joint steering committee. LMI would also maintain the option to co-promote the agent in the U.S. GE Healthcare’s development plan would focus on obtaining regulatory approval in the U.S., Japan, Europe and Canada. Mary Anne Heino, President and CEO of Lantheus commented, “We are excited about the prospect of GE Healthcare being our global partner to complete the development of flurpiridaz F 18 and bring this next generation agent to market, as they touch every level of the PET diagnostic delivery continuum and share our commitment to serving the nuclear medicine community. The collaboration would enable us to participate in the long-term economic success of flurpiridaz F 18. LMI will also continue to advance our other pipeline assets and pursue additional near-term business development opportunities to drive growth.” Emmanuel Ligner, General Manager, Core Imaging, GE Healthcare, said: “Pursuing this agreement with LMI will further strengthen our nuclear medicine portfolio and demonstrates our commitment to cardiovascular PET imaging. It is a key focus of our strategy to increase the number of tools at the disposal of clinicians around the world diagnosing and treating patients with cardiovascular disease.” Under the proposed transaction, LMI would receive a USD 5 million upfront cash payment and, if successful, up to USD 60 million in regulatory and sales milestones payments, plus tiered double-digit royalties on U.S. sales and mid-single-digit royalties on sales outside of the U.S. LMI also would receive an option to co-promote in the U.S. Subject to satisfactory due diligence and necessary approvals, the parties anticipate entering into a definitive agreement for the proposed transaction in the second quarter of 2017. However, there is no assurance that the parties will enter into a definitive agreement on these terms or at all. About Flurpiridaz F 18 and Coronary Artery Disease Flurpiridaz F 18, a fluorine 18-labeled agent that binds to mitochondrial complex 1 (MC-1)1, was designed to be a novel PET imaging agent that may better evaluate patients with known or suspected CAD, which is the most common form of heart disease2, affecting an estimated 15.5 million Americans 20 years of age or older3. CAD is the leading cause of death in the United States for both men and women2. Each year more than 400,000 Americans die from CAD2. In the first phase 3 study, flurpiridaz F 18 demonstrated improved CAD detection and reduced radiation exposure over standard single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In subgroup analyses, the risk-benefit profile of flurpiridaz F 18 PET imaging appeared to be favorable in women, obese patients and patients with multi-vessel disease. It is important to note that, with a 110 minute half-life, flurpiridaz F 18 can be used in conjunction with treadmill exercise, which is not feasible with other currently available PET tracers for MPI. About PET and MPI PET imaging or a PET scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging procedure4 that provides information about the function and metabolism of the body’s organs, unlike computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which primarily show anatomy and structure5. MPI is a non-invasive test that utilizes a small amount of radioactive material (radiopharmaceutical) injected into the body to depict the distribution of blood flow to the heart. MPI is used to identify areas of reduced blood flow to the heart muscle. The test is typically conducted under both rest and stress conditions, after which physicians examine and compare the two scans and predict whether the patient has significant coronary artery disease6. Although SPECT is most commonly used for MPI7, PET imaging has gained considerable support and use in the field of cardiovascular imaging, as it offers many advantages to SPECT, including higher spatial and contrast resolution, resulting in higher image quality and improved diagnostic accuracy, accurate attenuation correction and risk stratification8. About Lantheus Holdings, Inc. and Lantheus Medical Imaging, Inc. Lantheus Holdings, Inc. is the parent company of Lantheus Medical Imaging, Inc., a global leader in the development, manufacture and commercialization of innovative diagnostic imaging agents and products. LMI provides a broad portfolio of products, which are primarily used for the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. LMI’s key products include the echocardiography contrast agent DEFINITY® Vial for (Perflutren Lipid Microsphere) Injectable Suspension; TechneLite® (Technetium Tc99m Generator), a technetium-based generator that provides the essential medical isotope used in nuclear medicine procedures; and Xenon (Xenon Xe 133 Gas), an inhaled radiopharmaceutical imaging agent used to evaluate pulmonary function and for imaging the lungs. LMI is headquartered in North Billerica, Massachusetts with offices in Puerto Rico and Canada. For more information, visit www.lantheus.com. About GE Healthcare GE Healthcare provides transformational medical technologies and services to meet the demand for increased access, enhanced quality and more affordable healthcare around the world. GE (NYSE: GE) works on things that matter - great people and technologies taking on tough challenges. From medical imaging, software & IT, patient monitoring and diagnostics to drug discovery, biopharmaceutical manufacturing technologies and performance improvement solutions, GE Healthcare helps medical professionals deliver great healthcare to their patients. For more information about GE Healthcare, visit www.gehealthcare.com. Safe Harbor for Forward-Looking and Cautionary Statements This press release contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, including with regard to the finalization and execution of a definitive agreement relating to completion of the development of, and expected value of, the flurpiridaz F 18 program. Such forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties that may be described from time to time in our filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on the forward-looking statements contained herein, which speak only as of the date hereof. The Company undertakes no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future developments or otherwise, except as may be required by law. 1 Yalamanchili, P, Wexler, E, Hayes, M, Yu, M, MD, Bozek J, Radeke, H, Azure, M, Purohit, A, Casebier, DS, and Robinson, SP. Mechanism of uptake and retention of 18F BMS-747158-02 in cardiomyocytes: A novel PET myocardial imaging agent. Journal Nuclear Cardiology 2007 Nov-Dec;14(6):782-8. 2 National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Coronary Artery Disease: Who Is At Risk. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/Cad/CAD_WhoIsAtRisk.html. Accessed January 2017. 3 Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics. 2016 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2016;133:e38-e360. 8 Heller, G, Calnon, D and Dorbala, S. Recent Advances in Cardiac PET and PET/CT Myocardial Perfusion Imaging. J Nucl Cardiol 2009; 16:962-9.
News Article | February 24, 2017
Today, February 24th, 2017, Medical Prognosis Institute A/S held an Extraordinary Shareholders' Meeting to re-establish a previously granted warrant program. A summary of the resolutions follows below. All resolutions were passed with the required majority. Further information regarding the guidelines approved by the Extraordinary Shareholders' Meeting can be found in the notice to convene extraordinary general meeting regarding Grant of warrants to members of the board of directors and members of the executive management on February 7th, 2017, and in the complete proposals for the Extraordinary Shareholders' Meeting. Grant of warrants to members of the board of directors and members of the executive management of the Company under the warrant terms contained in appendix 3 and 4 to the articles of association. The grant of warrants were approved unanimously by all votes represented at the general meeting. This information is information that Medical Prognosis Institute A/S is obliged to make public pursuant to the EU Market Abuse Regulation. The information was submitted for publication, through the agency of the contact person set out above, on February 24th 2017. About MPI's multiple biomarker called Drug Response Predictor - DRP(TM) MPI's DRP(TM) is a tool for developing tumor-derived genetic signatures to predict which cancer patients are high likely to respond to a given anti-cancer product. The DRP(TM) has been tested in 37 trials, where 29 trials showed that drug-specific DRP(TM) Biomarkers could predict which patients responded well to the treatment. The DRP(TM) platform has amongst others been externally validated and published in collaboration with leading statisticians at the MD Anderson Cancer Center. The DRP(TM) method can be used to design the Clinical Development Plan, i.e. to select which indications are relevant for a given anti-cancer drug. In addition to this, the individual genetic patterns of patients can be analyzed as part of a screening procedure for a clinical trial to ensure inclusion of patients with a high likelihood of response to the drug. DRP(TM) builds on comparison between sensitive and resistant human cancer cell lines, including genomic information from cell lines combined with clinical tumor biology and clinical correlates in a systems biology network. The DRP(TM) is a Big Data tool based on messenger RNA. The DRP(TM) platform can be used in all cancer types, and has been patented for more than 70 anti-cancer drugs in the US. About MPI Medical Prognosis Institute is a publicly traded international company specialized in improving cancer patients lives by developing Personalized Medicine using its unique DRP(TM) technology. MPI's exceptional opportunity to personalize cancer treatment - begins with Breast Cancer moving on to Multiple Myeloma and Prostate Cancer as the first steps. MPI's DRP(TM) tool has shown its ability to separate patients who benefit and who do not benefit from a specific cancer treatment. This has been shown in as many as 29 out of 37 trials, and covers more than 80 anti-cancer treatments in a wide range of cancer indications. MPI has built a significant large database with over 1,000 screened breast cancer patients and is building up a database in Multiple Myeloma to be followed by Prostate cancer in collaboration with oncologists and hematologists throughout Denmark. For further information, please contact: CEO, Peter Buhl Jensen, Adjunct Professor, MD, Ph.D. Ulla Hald Buhl, IR & Communication E-mail: email@example.com E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Telephone: +45 21 60 89 22 Telephone +45 21 70 10 49
News Article | March 2, 2017
Brella Productions starts its fourth year of sponsoring Meeting Professionals International Chicago Area Chapter (MPI-CAC) events with NEXT’17, the organization’s networking, education, experience, and technology conference. The day-long symposium for meeting planners, event producers, and marketing professionals will include educational breakout sessions and an opening keynote address from Kelly Leonard. Leonard is the Executive Director of The Second City Works and former Associate Producer of The Second City. NEXT’17 will serve as the beginning of some exciting firsts for both MPI-CAC and Brella. For the first time, MPI-CAC will be presenting NEXT’17 in partnership with the International Live Events Association (ILEA). ILEA is a global association that represents creative event professionals, and will contribute innovative ideation and new educational experiences to ILEA members and NEXT attendees. Brella will co-produce the NEXT’17 conference with AV Chicago. Brella will deliver the creative support, including the conference’s overall look and feel, as well as presentation templates for the breakouts and keynote sessions. AV Chicago will provide the AV gear and technological support. Andrew Brode, President of AV Chicago, and Brella’s Event Operations Manager, Cary Williams, are both MPI-CAC gala committee members. “We’re delighted to be partnering with MPI-CAC and AV Chicago,” stated Williams. “MPI-CAC is an amazing association for meeting planners and suppliers. By having events such as NEXT’17, MPI-CAC continues to hold up the standard for education and planning strategies in the event industry. I’m excited to showcase Brella’s design and event departments to all of the MPI members, while helping this influential conference run more smoothly.” MPI-CAC’s NEXT’17 will take place at the Holiday Inn in Merchandise Mart, downtown Chicago.
News Article | February 22, 2017
ATLANTA--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Stibo Systems, the global leader in multidomain Master Data Management (MDM) solutions, today announced that it has been named a Top Ten Best in Class Provider for Product Information Management (PIM) in Consumer Goods Technology (CGT) Magazine 2017 Readers’ Choice Award. Determined by consumer goods influencers and business-decision makers, this is the fourth time Stibo Systems has been recognized by CGT for its innovative technology and its ability to help manufacturers drive their digital transformation. Omnichannel consumer expectations and industry regulations are forcing manufacturers to manage data in an entirely new way. The ability to consistently publish accurate product information, labeling data and digital assets is proving vital to maintaining brand consistency and consumer transparency. Simply having clean and centralized data is not enough as CG companies must accomplish this while maintaining compliance regarding sourcing, ingredients, labeling and packaging, as well as accountability in the event of a product recall. Using Stibo Systems’ Master Data Management solution STEP, CG manufacturers can improve profitability, performance and more effectively manage your global brands. “In these modern times, you can’t run a successful, competitive consumer goods business without forging a solid foundation in technology. And you can’t build that foundation without enlisting help from reliable technology and service partners,” said Ali Orr of CGT. “From ERP to Retail Execution and every function in between, CGT’s 17th annual Readers’ Choice Survey shines a spotlight on the industry’s preferred solution and service providers. The resulting Top Providers lists in 15 mission-critical categories can serve as a valuable investment guide for your company’s future business and IT decisions.” Each year, CGT Magazine surveys some of the most progressive business leaders and consumer good professionals across businesses to identify their most valued solution and service providers across a number of categories. The Readers’ Choice winners are those organizations with the best overall scores for the solutions and/or services they offer to consumer goods organizations. “Being recognized as a 2017 CGT Readers’ Choice winner is especially rewarding because the best overall scores are determined by responses from hundreds of executives and employees who work with these tools daily,” said Todd Callen, EVP of North America, Stibo Systems. “Publishing data and digital assets across online and offline channels is now a necessity for proper omnichannel brand management, but having clean and centralized data is not enough. STEP helps CG companies accomplish this by creating a single repository for all critical data, ensuring synchronization of proper systems across the organization while applying end-to-end process discipline to ensure traceability for compliance.” Tweet this: “News @StiboSystems named best in class #PIM provider in @CGTMagazine annual Reader’s Choice Award. #MPI #MDM #masterdatamanagement #productinformationmanagement” About Stibo Systems Stibo Systems is the global leader in multidomain Master Data Management (MDM) solutions. Industry leaders rely on Stibo Systems to provide cross-channel consistency by linking product and customer data, suppliers and other organizational assets. This enables businesses to make more effective decisions, improve sales and build shareholder value. During the last 30 years, Stibo Systems has helped hundreds of companies to develop a trusted source of operational information. A privately held subsidiary of the Stibo A/S group, which was originally founded in 1794, Stibo Systems’ corporate headquarters is located in Aarhus, Denmark. For more information, visit www.stibosystems.com.
News Article | February 22, 2017
WINNIPEG, MB--(Marketwired - February 22, 2017) - MADD Canada and Manitoba Public Insurance (MPI) are teaming up to educate Manitoba students about the dangers and consequences of impaired driving with a dynamic new educational film. MADD Canada's 2016-2017 School Assembly Program, titled In the Blink of an Eye, is touring schools around the province from February to June. A special screening is being held for students and staff at River East Collegiate in Winnipeg on February 23 to highlight the program and its delivery around the province. Media are welcome to attend the screening and speak with special guests, students and staff. In the Blink of an Eye tells the story of best friends Gabby and Sarah. One night, as the girls prepare to go to a party, they are joined by Sarah's boyfriend Dylan, and his friend Asif. Sarah drinks and smokes pot with Dylan and Asif, while Gabby declines. Dylan, anxious to get to the party, decides to drive rather than wait for a cab. His friends strongly object. A very upset Sarah calls 911 to report Dylan. Even though Gabby, Asif and Sarah all do the right thing, a tragic twist of fate ends a friendship and ruins many lives. The fictional story is followed by the powerful real-life accounts of three victims of impaired driving. Road crashes are the number one cause of death among young people in Canada, and alcohol and/or drugs are involved in more than 50% of those crashes. Every year, MADD Canada produces a new film to educate young people about the risks of impaired driving and empower them to make safe and responsible choices. MPI's support is critical in delivering the sober driving message to thousands of Manitoba students each year. As a Provincial Sponsor of the 2016-2017 School Assembly Program, MPI is directly sponsoring 109 presentations of In the Blink of an Eye at schools throughout the province this year, including 24 in northern Manitoba. For more information, or to check out a clip from In the Blink of an Eye, visit: http://madd.ca/pages/programs/youth-services/school-programs/in-the-blink-of-an-eye/
News Article | February 15, 2017
MPI Label Systems Expands in North East with the Acquisition of Label Gallery, Inc. Sebring, OH, February 14, 2017 --( “We are excited to add Label Gallery, Inc. to the MPI family to strengthen our position in the North East with additional flexo and digital capabilities,” said Randy Kocher, President of MPI Label Systems. “We share the same values of high quality and exceptional customer service, giving our customer what they want, when they want it, and how they want it.” “We are very excited to be part of the MPI family,” added Chris Ulatowski, Owner of Label Gallery, Inc. “Our focus on customer service and our commitment to Printing Problem Solved has always been the driving force behind my team and we see this great tradition of excellence continuing as we move forward as part of the MPI team.” Chris will assume the responsibility of General Manager for MPI Labels of New York / Label Gallery and will continue to offer a complete range of label solutions using the latest flexographic and digital technologies. About MPI Label Systems MPI is one of the largest privately held converters and equipment service providers in the USA focused on strategic acquisitions as part of their overall growth strategy. Headquartered in Sebring, OH, MPI has 11 manufacturing locations in North America with over 500 employees. About Label Gallery, Inc. A leading flexographic and digital packaging printer with a strong presence in the Pharmaceutical, Wine/Spirits, and Food markets with top notch Innovation Leaders and Customer Service Team. Sebring, OH, February 14, 2017 --( PR.com )-- MPI Label Systems is pleased to announce the acquisition of Label Gallery, Inc., a leading flexographic and digital printer in Norwich, NY specializing in the Pharmaceutical, Wine/Spirits, and Food industries. This acquisition complements MPI’s growing national presence as a leading roll label and equipment supplier in North America.“We are excited to add Label Gallery, Inc. to the MPI family to strengthen our position in the North East with additional flexo and digital capabilities,” said Randy Kocher, President of MPI Label Systems. “We share the same values of high quality and exceptional customer service, giving our customer what they want, when they want it, and how they want it.”“We are very excited to be part of the MPI family,” added Chris Ulatowski, Owner of Label Gallery, Inc. “Our focus on customer service and our commitment to Printing Problem Solved has always been the driving force behind my team and we see this great tradition of excellence continuing as we move forward as part of the MPI team.”Chris will assume the responsibility of General Manager for MPI Labels of New York / Label Gallery and will continue to offer a complete range of label solutions using the latest flexographic and digital technologies.About MPI Label SystemsMPI is one of the largest privately held converters and equipment service providers in the USA focused on strategic acquisitions as part of their overall growth strategy. Headquartered in Sebring, OH, MPI has 11 manufacturing locations in North America with over 500 employees.About Label Gallery, Inc.A leading flexographic and digital packaging printer with a strong presence in the Pharmaceutical, Wine/Spirits, and Food markets with top notch Innovation Leaders and Customer Service Team. Click here to view the list of recent Press Releases from MPI Label Systems
News Article | February 24, 2017
SAN FRANCISCO, CA, February 24, 2017-- One group specifically exempted from the harsher new immigration procedures announced Tuesday are those who qualify for DACA (Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals) or "Dreamers," certain people who arrived in the US when they were less than 16 years old and will be under 36 on June 15, 2017.To ensure that legal fees don't deter the million potential Dreamers from filing, top-rated immigration firm ( Pearl Law Group ) and Top 5 Bot tech company ( Visabot ) have just launched a free program on Facebook that lets DACA applicants prepare and file their own cases, using Pearl's templates and logic flows. Users go to the Visabot page on Facebook, where they answer questions that simulate a text conversation. A button at the end produces completed forms and other requisite documents, with instructions on how to file.Pearl's team (Ayna Meredova, Ting Ni and Julie Pearl) spent weeks "robotizing ourselves," said Ni, "Replicating the process the firm undergoes with our pro bono DACA clients."Within the first four years of DACA, only 728,000 of the 1.7 million eligible have obtained DACA status, according to the MPI report here . Some NGOs and legal advisors began warning people last fall to not file initial DACA case, for fear that ICE agents would know where to find them.The new procedures make it safer to file DACA than to try staying under the radar, Pearl opines. "No better alternative for legal status is likely in this administration, so DACA candidates should seriously consider their options and act quickly," said Ting Ni, a Supervising Attorney at Pearl Law Group.Will federal agents come hunt down those who apply? "If this were the intention of the Trump Administration, we believe DACA would not have been exempted from the new deportation procedures announced this week," added Pearl. www.immigrationlaw.com/ )( www.pearllawgroup.com ) Founded in 1995 by Julie Pearl and the former head of the US Immigration Service (INS), Pearl today is one of the nation's largest global immigration practices, winning international acclaim for innovation and results. Pearl also won a SuperLawyers national Pro Bono award, and set aside the prize money to pay the government filing fees of the firm's many pro bono clients. www.visabot.co ): Founded in 2016 by entrepreneurs Artem Goldman and Andrey Zinoviev who launched Legalspace, Visabot is a Facebook Messenger chatbot that helps people to apply easily 24/7 for immigration benefits. Visabot recently released a Visitor Visa extension program that won Product Hunt's Top 5 Bots of 2016. Visabot is a Member of 500 Startups and Boost.vc run by Adam Draper.