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Ilha de Moçambique, Mozambique

Padrao P.,University of Porto | Damasceno A.,Eduardo Mondlane University | Silva-Matos C.,Mozambique Ministry of Health | Prista A.,University Pedagogica | Lunet N.,University of Porto
Preventive Medicine | Year: 2012

Objective: To assess the socio-demographic determinants of physical activity, by intensity and domain, across urban and rural areas in Mozambican adults. Method: A national representative sample (n=3323) of subjects aged 25-64. years was evaluated in 2005 following the World Health Organization (WHO) Stepwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance (STEPS), which includes the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. We computed prevalences, and age- and education-adjusted prevalence ratios (PR), with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Results: Most of the Mozambicans reported a high physical activity level, according to the WHO criteria (urban women: 83.2%, 95%CI 77.4, 89.0; rural women: 93.2%, 95%CI 89.0, 97.3; urban men: 78.9%, 95%CI 74.7, 83.1; rural men: 91.6%, 95%CI 85.5, 97.6). The prevalences of <75. min/week of vigorous activities were higher in urban settings (women: PR=2.21; men: PR=2.28) and increased with education, regardless of place of residence (PR ranging between 1.75 and 5.72 for more vs. less educated subjects). Work activities were the most important contributor to the overall physical activity, followed by transport. Conclusion: Most of the Mozambicans reported to be physically active. Vigorous activities were less common in urban areas and among the more educated subjects, depicting an ongoing shift to more sedentary behaviours in this setting. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Padrao P.,University of Porto | Laszczynska O.,University of Porto | Silva-Matos C.,Mozambique Ministry of Health | Damasceno A.,Eduardo Mondlane University | Lunet N.,University of Porto
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2012

Monitoring food consumption and its determinants over time is essential for defining and implementing health promotion strategies, but surveillance is scarce in Africa. The present study aimed to describe fruit and vegetable consumption in Mozambique according to socio-demographic characteristics and place of residence (urban/rural). A national representative sample (n 3323) of subjects aged 25-64 years was evaluated in 2005 following the WHO Stepwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance, which included an assessment of usual fruit and vegetable consumption (frequency and quantity). Crude prevalence and age-, education-and family income-adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) with 95% CI were computed. Less than 5% of the subjects reported an intake of five or more daily servings of fruits/vegetables. Both fruits and vegetables were more often consumed by women and in rural settings. In urban areas, the prevalence of fruit intake (≥ 2 servings/d) increased with education (≥ 6 years v. < 1 year: women, adjusted PR = 3•11, 95% CI 1•27, 7•58; men, adjusted PR = 3•63, 95% CI 1•22, 10•81), but not with income. Conversely, vegetable consumption (≥ 2 servings/d) was less frequent in more educated urban men (≥ 6 years v. < 1 year: adjusted PR = 0•30, 95% CI 0•10, 0•94) and more affluent rural women (≥ $801 US dollars (USD) v. $0-64: adjusted PR = 0•32, 95% CI 0•13, 0•81). The very low intake of these foods in this setting supports the need for fruit and vegetable promotion programmes that target the whole population, despite the different socio-demographic determinants of fruit and vegetable intake. © 2011 The Authors.

Padrao P.,University of Porto | Damasceno A.,Eduardo Mondlane University | Silva-Matos C.,Mozambique Ministry of Health | Laszczynska O.,University of Porto | And 3 more authors.
Drug and Alcohol Dependence | Year: 2011

This study aimed to describe alcohol consumption in Mozambique, discriminating binge drinking behaviour and the weekday variation in drinking patterns, and to quantify the association between socio-demographic characteristics and alcohol intake.A representative sample of 3265 Mozambicans aged 25-64 years was evaluated in 2005 following the World Health Organization Stepwise approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance (STEPS). The consumption of any type of alcoholic beverage, during life and in the previous year, was recorded. Current drinkers were also asked about the number of standard drinks consumed in each day of the previous week.The overall prevalence of current dinking was 28.9% [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 22.6-35.2] in women and 57.7% (95% CI: 49.8-65.7) in men. Forty percent of the current drinkers reported to have had at least one binge drinking occasion in the previous week. The prevalence of current drinking increased with age and education among women and with income among men. No consistent pattern was observed in binge drinking by education in both genders and by annual income among men, but it was significantly less frequent among the more affluent women. Both drinking and binge drinking peaked at the weekend.Knowing the drinking patterns in Mozambique enables the planning of interventions according to the local needs. Future surveys should also include non-adult populations as risk factors for chronic diseases occurs as early as childhood and adolescence, and are associated with increased risk of disease later in life. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Padrao P.,University of Porto | Silva-Matos C.,Mozambique Ministry of Health | Damasceno A.,Eduardo Mondlane University | Lunet N.,University of Porto
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health | Year: 2011

Background: Smoking, alcohol consumption and unhealthy diet are known to cluster, but evidence from developing countries at the early phases of the tobacco epidemics and with markedly different cultures, lifestyles and forms of tobacco use is scarce. The objective of this study was to quantify the association between tobacco consumption (manufactured cigarettes, hand-rolled cigarettes and smokeless tobacco) and alcohol, fruit and vegetable intake in Mozambique according to place of residence (urban/rural). Methods: A representative sample of 12 902 Mozambicans aged 25-64 years was evaluated in a national household survey conducted in 2003 using a structured questionnaire. Age- and education-adjusted ORs were computed to estimate the association between tobacco consumption and alcohol, fruit and vegetable intake. Results: Tobacco use and overall alcohol drinking were positively associated, regardless of type of tobacco consumed, but smoking of hand-rolled cigarettes and consumption of smokeless tobacco was negatively associated with beer drinking. Smokers of manufactured cigarettes had a less frequent intake of fruit, but smokeless tobacco consumption and hand-rolled cigarette smoking were not inversely related with intake of fruit or vegetables. This pattern was relatively consistent across genders and urban/rural areas, with the observed differences likely to be explained either by random variation or heterogeneity in tobacco consumption patterns across genders or places of residence. Conclusion: Strong associations between tobacco consumption and the intake of alcoholic beverages, vegetable and fruit intake are found, but not consistently for all forms of tobacco use.

Gomes A.,University of Porto | Damasceno A.,Eduardo Mondlane University | Azevedo A.,University of Porto | Prista A.,University Pedagogica | And 3 more authors.
Obesity Reviews | Year: 2010

In 2005 we evaluated a nationally representative sample of the Mozambican adult population (n = 2913; 25-64 years old) following the STEPwise approach to chronic disease risk factor surveillance to estimate urban-rural differences in overweight and obesity and waist circumferences. The prevalences of obesity and overweight were, respectively, 6.8% (95% CI: 5.1-8.6) and 11.8% (95% CI: 8.4-15.4) among women, and 2.3% (95% CI: 1.1-3.6) and 9.4% (95% CI: 5.7-13.1) among men. Overweight/obesity was more frequent in urban settings (age-, income- and education-adjusted prevalence ratios; women, 2.76, 95% CI: 1.82-4.18; men, 1.76, 95% CI: 0.80-3.85). The average waist circumference in Mozambique was 75.2 cm (95% CI: 74.3-76.0) in women, significantly higher in urban than rural areas (age-, income- and education-adjusted β = 3.6 cm, 95% CI: 1.6-5.5) and 76.1 cm (95% CI: 75.0-77.3) in men, with no urban-rural differences (adjusted β = 1.3 cm, 95% CI: -0.9 to 3.5). Our results show urban-rural differences, as expected in a country under epidemiological transition, with urban areas presenting a higher prevalence of overweight/obesity, but age- and education-specific estimates suggesting a trend towards smaller divergences. The development and implementation of strategies to manage the foreseeable obesity-related healthcare demands are needed. © 2010 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

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