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Madrid, Spain

Cardoso F.,Movement Disorders Unit
Parkinsonism and Related Disorders | Year: 2014

The aim of this article is to review movement disorders in children. They are common but have etiology and phenomenology different than in adults. Tics are the most common phenomena although in most instances they are mild and have a favorable long-term prognosis. Dystonia is the second most common phenomena but when present it is usually genetic or idiopathic and causes meaningful disability. Sydenham's chorea is the most common cause of chorea in children worldwide. Systemic lupus erythematosus is a much rarer cause of chorea but it is always to be ruled out given the lack of a specific diagnostic marker for Sydenham's chorea. Tremor, usually caused by drugs or essential tremor, is regarded as rather uncommon in children. Arguably, most pediatric patients with tremor do not seek medical attention because of the lack of disability. Stereotypies are relatively uncommon but their recognition is clinically relevant since they are usually associated with severe conditions such as autism and Rett syndrome. Parkinsonism is quite rare in children and either results from encephalitis or is a side effect of medications. Wilson's disease must be ruled out in all children with movement disorders. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

AlDakheel A.,University of Western Ontario | Kalia L.V.,University of Western Ontario | Lang A.E.,Movement Disorders Unit
Neurotherapeutics | Year: 2014

Parkinson disease is an inexorably progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Multiple attempts have been made to establish therapies for Parkinson disease which provide neuroprotection or disease modification-two related, but not identical, concepts. However, to date, none of these attempts have succeeded. Many challenges exist in this field of research, including a complex multisystem disorder that includes dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic features; poorly understood and clearly multifaceted disease pathogenic mechanisms; a lack of reliable animal models; an absence of effective biomarkers of disease state, progression, and target engagement; and the confounding effects of potent symptomatic therapy. In this article, we will review previous, ongoing, and potential future trials designed to alter the progressive course of the disease from the perspective of the targeted underlying pathogenic mechanisms. © 2013 The American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics, Inc.

Valldeoriola F.,Movement Disorders Unit
Journal of medical economics | Year: 2013

To perform a comparative long-term analysis of the associated healthcare costs for the therapeutic options in advanced Parkinson's Disease (PD): deep brain stimulation (DBS), continuous duodenal levodopa-carbidopa infusion (CDLCI), and continuous subcutaneous apomorphine infusion (CSAI). Resource use associated with the pre-treatment period, procedure, and follow-up was assessed for the three therapies from the perspective of the Spanish national healthcare system. Resources consumption was measured with a Healthcare Resources Questionnaire (at nine advanced PD centres). Unit costs (Euro-Spain 2010) were applied to measure resource use to obtain the average total cost for each therapy over 5 years. Mean cumulative 5-year cost per patient was significantly lower with DBS (€88,014) vs CSAI (€141,393) and CDLCI (€233,986) (p < 0.0001). DBS was associated with the lowest cumulative costs from year 2, with a yearly average cost of €17,603 vs €46,797 for CDLCI (p = 0.001) and €28,279 for CSAI (p = 0.008). For every patient treated annually with CDLCI, two could be treated with DBS (or €29,194 could be saved) and for every patient treated with CSAI, €10,676 could be saved with DBS. The initial DBS investment (32.2% of the total 5-year costs) was offset by decreases in anti-Parkinsonian drugs and follow-up costs. CDLCI and CSAI required constant drug use (i.e., levodopa and carbidopa for CDLCI, apomorphine for CSAI), representing ∼95% of their total 5-year cost. Limitations: All costs were based on a questionnaire, not on actual clinical data. The study is not a cost-effectiveness analysis as there is a lack of comparable outcomes data. An expert panel was used due to the complexity and variability in the treatment of advanced PD. The sample size was relatively small. Overall, DBS requires less use of health resources than CDLCI or CSAI in advanced PD patients, mostly pharmacological. The initial DBS investment was offset at year 2 by reductions in the ongoing consumption of anti-Parkinsonian medication. For every patient treated annually with CDLCI or CSAI, substantial cost savings could be made with DBS.

Martinez-Martin P.,Carlos III Institute of Health | Kurtis M.M.,Movement Disorders Unit
Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders | Year: 2012

In the past three decades, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has become an outcome variable in Parkinson's disease clinical trials. This review considers the measuring tools that have been developed, suitability of data reporting, complexity of outcome interpretation, and clinical application to provide evidence regarding available therapeutic interventions to date. In the introduction, different terms regarding quality of life are clearly defined. The methodology section offers an overview of generic, disease specific, and recommended HRQoL scales in Parkinson's disease and the most important psychometric attributes a scale should meet. The interpretation of HRQoL outcomes is complex and not intuitive. Thus, appropriate reporting of data is crucial in order to calculate relative change, a result that facilitates understanding to what extent an intervention is beneficial. The concept of minimally important change/difference is explained as well as the different approaches to its calculation (anchor-based and distribution-based methods). In the results section, a brief overview of the impact on HRQoL of currently available treatments in Parkinson's disease is provided. Special emphasis is given to data assessment, highlighting reports that helped understanding of the clinical significance of the intervention and therefore aided in making therapeutic decisions. The discussion section emphasizes the need for more clinical trials with HRQoL as a primary outcome and standardized reporting in order to further our understanding of the complexity of treatment effects and make evidence-based clinical decisions regarding HRQoL in patients with Parkinson's disease. © The Author(s), 2012.

Kurtis M.M.,Movement Disorders Unit
Journal of Neural Transmission | Year: 2012

In the past decade, many advances have been made regarding clinical characteristics, neurophysiology, imaging, pathology and genetics of essential tremor, the most common of movement disorders. The first part of this article summarizes available data in these fields, with emphasis on recent reports. In the discussion, the reported data supporting the view that essential tremor is a neurodegenerative disease is critically reviewed and this hypothesis is challenged. Finally, an alternative pathophysiological explanation based on the generation of central oscillating pacemakers is put forth. This hypothesis allows for different causes of essential tremor and therefore explains the existing heterogeneity of clinical manifestations and therapeutic response. © Springer-Verlag 2012.

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