Movement Disorders Unit

Dolores Hidalgo Cuna de la Independencia Nacional, Mexico

Movement Disorders Unit

Dolores Hidalgo Cuna de la Independencia Nacional, Mexico
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Amboni M.,Isituto di Diagnosi e Cura Hermitage Capodimonte | Amboni M.,University of Salerno | Barone P.,University of Salerno | Hausdorff J.M.,Movement Disorders Unit | And 2 more authors.
Movement Disorders | Year: 2013

Dementia and gait impairments often coexist in older adults and patients with neurodegenerative disease. Both conditions represent independent risk factors for falls. The relationship between cognitive function and gait has recently received increasing attention. Gait is no longer considered merely automated motor activity but rather an activity that requires executive function and attention as well as judgment of external and internal cues. In this review, we intend to: (1) summarize and synthesize the experimental, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging evidence that supports the role played by cognition in the control of gait; and (2) briefly discuss the implications deriving from the interplay between cognition and gait. In recent years, the dual task paradigm has been widely used as an experimental method to explore the interplay between gait and cognition. Several neuropsychological investigations have also demonstrated that walking relies on the use of several cognitive domains, including executive-attentional function, visuospatial abilities, and even memory resources. A number of morphological and functional neuroimaging studies have offered additional evidence supporting the relationship between gait and cognitive resources. Based on the findings from 3 lines of studies, it appears that a growing body of evidence indicates a pivotal role of cognition in gait control and fall prevention. The interplay between higher-order neural function and gait has a number of clinical implications, ranging from integrated assessment tools to possible innovative lines of interventions, including cognitive therapy for falls prevention on one hand and walking program for reducing dementia risk on the other. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.


Giladi N.,Movement Disorders Unit | Giladi N.,Tel Aviv University | Horak F.B.,Oregon Health And Science University | Hausdorff J.M.,Movement Disorders Unit | And 2 more authors.
Movement Disorders | Year: 2013

The increased awareness of the importance of gait and postural control to quality of life and functional independence has led many research groups to study the pathophysiology, epidemiology, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of these motor functions. In recognition of the increased awareness of the significance of this topic, the Movement Disorders journal is devoting this entire issue to gait and postural control. Leading research groups provide critical reviews of the current knowledge and propose future directions for this evolving field. The intensive work in this area throughout the world has created an urgent need for a unified language. Because gait and postural disturbances are so common, the clinical classification should be clear, straightforward, and simple to use. As an introduction to this special issue, we propose a new clinically based classification scheme that is organized according to the dominant observed disturbance, while taking into account the results of a basic neurological exam. The proposed classification differentiates between continuous and episodic gait disturbances because this subdivision has important ramifications from the functional, prognostic, and mechanistic perspectives. We anticipate that research into gait and postural control will continue to flourish over the next decade as the search for new ways of promoting mobility and independence aims to keep up with the exponentially growing population of aging older adults. Hopefully, this new classification scheme and the articles focusing on gait and postural control in this special issue of the Movement Disorders journal will help to facilitate future investigations in this exciting, rapidly growing area. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.


Montero-Odasso M.,University of Western Ontario | Verghese J.,Yeshiva University | Beauchet O.,University of Angers | Hausdorff J.M.,Movement Disorders Unit | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society | Year: 2012

Until recently, clinicians and researchers have performed gait assessments and cognitive assessments separately when evaluating older adults, but increasing evidence from clinical practice, epidemiological studies, and clinical trials shows that gait and cognition are interrelated in older adults. Quantifiable alterations in gait in older adults are associated with falls, dementia, and disability. At the same time, emerging evidence indicates that early disturbances in cognitive processes such as attention, executive function, and working memory are associated with slower gait and gait instability during single- and dual-task testing and that these cognitive disturbances assist in the prediction of future mobility loss, falls, and progression to dementia. This article reviews the importance of the interrelationship between gait and cognition in aging and presents evidence that gait assessments can provide a window into the understanding of cognitive function and dysfunction and fall risk in older people in clinical practice. To this end, the benefits of dual-task gait assessments (e.g., walking while performing an attention-demanding task) as a marker of fall risk are summarized. A potential complementary approach for reducing the risk of falls by improving certain aspects of cognition through nonpharmacological and pharmacological treatments is also presented. Untangling the relationship between early gait disturbances and early cognitive changes may be helpful in identifying older adults at risk of experiencing mobility decline, falls, and progression to dementia. © 2012, The American Geriatrics Society.


Weiss A.,Movement Disorders Unit | Brozgol M.,Movement Disorders Unit | Dorfman M.,Movement Disorders Unit | Herman T.,Movement Disorders Unit | And 6 more authors.
Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair | Year: 2013

Background. Many approaches are used to evaluate fall risk. While their properties and performance vary, most reflect performance at a specific moment or are based on subjective self-report. Objective. To quantify fall risk in the home setting using an accelerometer. Methods. Seventy-one community-living older adults were studied. In the laboratory, fall risk was assessed using performance-based tests of mobility (eg, Timed Up and Go) and usual walking abilities were quantified. Subsequently, subjects wore a triaxial accelerometer on their lower back for 3 consecutive days. Acceleration-derived measures were extracted from segments that reflected ambulation. These included total activity duration, number of steps taken, and the amplitude and width at the dominant frequency in the power spectral density, that is, parameters reflecting step-to-step variability. Afterwards, self-report of falls was collected for 6 months to explore the predictive value. Results. Based on a history of 2 or more falls, subjects were classified as fallers or nonfallers. The number of steps during the 3 days was similar (P =.42) in the fallers (7842.1 ± 6135.6) and nonfallers (9055.3 ± 6444.7). Compared with the nonfallers, step-to-step consistency was lower in the fallers in the vertical axis (amplitude fallers, 0.58 ± 0.22 psd; nonfallers, 0.71 ± 0.18 psd; P =.008); in the mediolateral axis, step-to-step consistency was higher in the fallers (P =.014). The 3-day measures improved the identification of past and future falls status (P <.005), compared to performance-based tests. Conclusions. Accelerometer-derived measures based on 3-day recordings are useful for evaluating fall risk as older adults perform daily living activities in their everyday home environment. © The Author(s) 2013.


Cardoso F.,Movement Disorders Unit
Parkinsonism and Related Disorders | Year: 2014

The aim of this article is to review movement disorders in children. They are common but have etiology and phenomenology different than in adults. Tics are the most common phenomena although in most instances they are mild and have a favorable long-term prognosis. Dystonia is the second most common phenomena but when present it is usually genetic or idiopathic and causes meaningful disability. Sydenham's chorea is the most common cause of chorea in children worldwide. Systemic lupus erythematosus is a much rarer cause of chorea but it is always to be ruled out given the lack of a specific diagnostic marker for Sydenham's chorea. Tremor, usually caused by drugs or essential tremor, is regarded as rather uncommon in children. Arguably, most pediatric patients with tremor do not seek medical attention because of the lack of disability. Stereotypies are relatively uncommon but their recognition is clinically relevant since they are usually associated with severe conditions such as autism and Rett syndrome. Parkinsonism is quite rare in children and either results from encephalitis or is a side effect of medications. Wilson's disease must be ruled out in all children with movement disorders. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Mirelman A.,Movement Disorders Unit | Mirelman A.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Maidan I.,Movement Disorders Unit | Maidan I.,RiVERS Laboratory | Deutsch J.E.,RiVERS Laboratory
Movement Disorders | Year: 2013

Motor imagery (MI) and virtual reality (VR) are two evolving therapeutic approaches that make use of cognitive function to study and enhance movement, in particular, balance and mobility of people with Parkinson's disease (PD). This review examines the literature on the use of VR and MI in the assessment of mobility and as a therapeutic intervention to improve balance and gait in patients with PD. A study was eligible for inclusion if MI or VR were used to assess motor or cognitive function to improve gait, balance, or mobility in patients with PD. Data were extracted on the following categories: participants; study design; intervention (type, duration, and frequency); and outcomes. Intervention studies were evaluated for quality using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale. Sixteen studies were identified; 4 articles used MI and 12 used VR for assessment and treatment of gait impairments in PD. The studies included small samples and were diverse in terms of methodology. Quality of the intervention trials varied from fair for VR to good for MI. The benefits of using MI and VR for assessment and treatment were noted. Encouraging findings on the potential benefits of using MI and VR in PD were found, although further good-quality research is still needed. Questions remain on the optimal use, content of interventions, and generalizability of findings across the different stages of the disease. The possible mechanisms underlying MI and VR and recommendations for future research and therapy are also presented. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.


Yogev-Seligmann G.,Movement Disorders Unit | Yogev-Seligmann G.,Tel Aviv University | Hausdorff J.M.,Movement Disorders Unit | Hausdorff J.M.,Tel Aviv University | And 3 more authors.
Movement Disorders | Year: 2012

Previous studies suggest that strategies such as "posture first" are implicitly employed to regulate safety when healthy adults walk while simultaneously performing another task, whereas "posture second" may be inappropriately applied in the presence of neurological disease. However, recent understandings raise questions about the traditional resource allocation concept during walking while dual tasking. We propose a task prioritization model of walking while dual tasking that integrates motor and cognitive capabilities, focusing on postural reserve, hazard estimation, and other individual intrinsic factors. The proposed prioritization model provides a theoretical foundation for future studies and a framework for the development of interventions designed to reduce the profound negative impacts of dual tasking on gait and fall risk in patients with neurological diseases. © 2012 Movement Disorder Society.


Maetzler W.,University of Tübingen | Maetzler W.,German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases | Hausdorff J.M.,Movement Disorders Unit | Hausdorff J.M.,Tel Aviv University | Hausdorff J.M.,Harvard University
Movement Disorders | Year: 2012

Relatively subtle deterioration of the motor system likely occurs well before the patient meets established motor criteria for a clinical diagnosis of Parkinson's disease; ie, the occurrence of at least 2 of the cardinal motor deficits: bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor, and/or postural instability. Powerful compensatory mechanisms may mask these clinical symptoms and make them difficult to identify and evaluate in the earliest stages of the illness. This review summarizes our current knowledge of motor signs that are thought to occur in the prodromal phase of Parkinson's disease and suggests how motor assessment batteries could be designed to detect these subclinical motor deficits with a high degree of accuracy and sensitivity. © 2012 Movement Disorder Society.


Korczyn A.D.,Tel Aviv University | Gurevich T.,Movement Disorders Unit
Journal of the Neurological Sciences | Year: 2010

The understanding of the biology of Parkinson's disease (PD) has advanced rapidly over the past 3 decades. In particular, the early pathological changes described by Braak et al. and the awareness of extensive and clinically relevant premotor manifestations are of diagnostic and therapeutic importance. We review those manifestations and their contribution to the clarification of the pathophysiologic processes of PD, and discuss the implications for treatment of the disease. © 2009.


Vaugoyeau M.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Azulay J.-P.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Azulay J.-P.,Movement disorders Unit
Journal of the Neurological Sciences | Year: 2010

Clinical findings and experimental studies both in parkinsonian patients and on animal provide evidence that the control of the axial orientation is markedly impaired in Parkinson's disease (stooped posture, Camptocormia, Pisa syndrome). Nevertheless the postural orientation component in Parkinson's disease has been poorly investigated. One study reports that Parkinsonian patients present a major impairment of the postural orientation component in relation with a proprioceptive impairment. On the basis of these results, the visual dependence observed in Parkinsonian patients is re-defined as an adaptive strategy partly compensating for the impaired proprioception. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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