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Fort Portal, Uganda

The Mountains of the Moon University , is a private, non-profit university in Uganda. It is named after the Rwenzori Mountains, also known as the Mountains of the Moon. Wikipedia.

Rubaihayo J.,Makerere University | Rubaihayo J.,Mountains of the Moon University | Tumwesigye N.M.,Makerere University | Konde-Lule J.,Makerere University
BMC Infectious Diseases

Background: After more than a decade of establishing and expanding access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), empirical evidence on its impact on trends of opportunistic infections (OIs) associated with the deadly human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in resource poor settings is scarce. The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of HAART coverage on trends of five most common OIs in Uganda. Methods: Observational data from January 2002 to December 2013 for 5972 HIV positive individuals attending the AIDS Support Organisation (TASO) HIV/AIDS care programme in Uganda were extracted and analysed. Trends were analysed using autoregressive moving average time series and mixed effects linear regression models adjusting for all available potential confounders. Results: A total of 204,871 monthly medical reports were retrieved and analysed. Majority of the participants were female (73%) with a median age of 32 years (inter-quartile range 26-39). Overall, significant decreasing mean annual prevalence trends were observed for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, herpes zoster, genital ulcer and oral candidiasis (p < 0.05, X2 trend). Non-significant declining mean annual prevalence trend was observed for cryptococcal meningitis (p = 0.181, X2 trend). The largest impact of HAART was observed in Oral candidiasis and TB whose average annual prevalence reduced by 61% and 43% respectively following the introduction of HAART. Monthly series for TB, Herpes zoster and genital ulcers differed significantly by age and clinic but only genital ulcer series differed significantly by sex (p < 0.05, kruskal wallis). After controlling for the effects of age, sex and clinic (fixed) and monthly clustering (random effect) in a mixed effects linear regression model, all the five OIs showed a significant monthly change in prevalence (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Overall, prevalence of most OIs declined especially after the introduction of HAART. However significant variations exist in the trends of different OIs in different geographical areas in Uganda. It is therefore important that site specific factors are properly identified to enable the development of targeted interventions. © Rubaihayo et al.; licensee Biomed Central. Source

Namukobe J.,Makerere University | Kiremire B.T.,Makerere University | Byamukama R.,Makerere University | Kasenene J.M.,Mountains of the Moon University | And 5 more authors.

Neoboutonia macrocalyx is used by people in south western Uganda around Kibale National Park in the treatment of malaria. Phytochemical investigation on the leaves of this plant led to the isolation of nine cycloartane triterpenes (1-9) and one phenanthrene; 7-methoxy-2,8 dimethyl-9,10-dihydrophenantherene-3,6 diol (10) along with three known compounds which included 22-de-O-acetyl-26- deoxyneoboutomellerone (11), mellerin B (12) and 6-hydroxystigmast-4-en-3-one (13). The chemical structures of the compounds were established mainly through a combination of spectroscopic techniques. The isolated compounds were evaluated for antiplasmodial activity against the chloroquine-resistant FcB1/Colombia strain of Plasmodium falciparum and for cytotoxicity against the KB (nasopharyngeal epidermoid carcinoma) and MRC-5 (human diploid embryonic lung) cells. Seven out of 13 compounds exhibited good antiplasmodial activity with IC50 of ≤5 μg/ml with two compounds exhibiting low cytotoxicity and five compounds having significant cytotoxicity. © 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source

Ronald L.,Ghent University | Ronald L.,Mountains of the Moon University | Van Stappen G.,Ghent University | Van Hoa N.,Can Tho University | Sorgeloos P.,Ghent University
Aquaculture Research

The effect of carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio manipulation in feed supplements on Artemia production and water quality was investigated in solar salt ponds in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. It was assumed that development of bacterial bioflocs through C/N manipulation would improve Artemia production and water quality as demonstrated in freshwater and marine aquaculture. Twelve ponds were used for three treatments and the control, in triplicates. Green water (GW) was supplied to all ponds, with the standard Vietnamese procedure of supplying GW and chicken manure (CM) as the control (C/N 1.8). Treatment ponds were supplemented with tapioca (TAP) as carbon source, combined with either CM, pig manure (PM) or rice bran (RB), with C/N ratios of 7.4, 10.5 or 20.1 respectively. After 6 weeks of culture, no single treatment supported both improved water quality and enhanced Artemia production. Overall, improved water quality was observed at C/N 20.1 and higher Artemia production at C/N 7.4. Although external field factors could have interfered with the set-up, this is the first study on the effect of C/N manipulation in feed supplements in Artemia pond production systems and provides the basis for development of bacterial bioflocs as a technology to improve water quality and Artemia production. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Namukobe J.,Makerere University | Kiremire B.T.,Makerere University | Byamukama R.,Makerere University | Kasenene J.M.,Mountains of the Moon University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

Ethnopharmacological relevance: The plant Neoboutonia macrocalyx has been reported in traditional medicine to be used in the treatment of malaria. Aim of the study: To study the in vitro antiplasmodial activity of compounds from the stem bark of Neoboutonia macrocalyx. Materials and methods: Compounds were extracted and purified from stem bark of Neoboutonia macrocalyx and their structure identified and confirmed by spectroscopic methods. The crude ethyl acetate extract, aqueous extract and the isolated compounds were evaluated for antiplasmodial activity against the chloroquine sensitive Sierra Leone I (D6) and chloroquine-resistant Indochina I (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Results: Chemical investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of Neoboutonia macrocalyx bark resulted in the identification of one new diterpenoid; neoboutomacroin (1) in addition to the four known compounds which included, a phenanthrene; 3,6-dihyroxy-1,7-dimethyl-9-methoxyphenanthrene (2), a sterol; 3-O-Acetyloleuritolic acid (3) and two diterpenoids; simplexin (4) and montanin (5). Compounds 1 and 5 displayed good antiplasmodial activity of IC50 values less than 10 μg/mL against both strains. However, all the compounds tested displayed high cytotoxic activity against MRC5 cell line with IC50 less than 10 μM. Conclusions: Despite an indirect in vitro antiplasmodial activity of some compounds isolated from the stem bark of Neoboutonia macrocalyx, the identification of these bioactive compounds indicates that they may play a role in the pharmacological properties of this plant. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Rubaihayo J.,Mountains of the Moon University | Akib S.,Kampala International University | Abaasa A.,Uganda Virus Research Institute UVRI
Infectious Disease Reports

In Uganda, previous studies have shown a tremendous decline in HIV prevalence over the past two decades due to changes in sexual behavior with a greater awareness of the risks involved. However, studies in Fort-Portal municipality, a rural town in Western Uganda, continued to show a persistent high HIV prevalence despite the various interventions in place. We conducted a study to establish the current magnitude of HIV prevalence and the factors associated with HIV prevalence in this community. This cross-sectional study was conducted between July and November 2008. Participants were residents of Fort-Portal municipality aged 15-49 years. A population-based HIV sero-survey and a clinical review of prevention of mother to child HIV transmission (PMTCT) and voluntary counseling and HIV Testing (VCT) records were used to collect quantitative data. An inteviewer administered structured questionnaire was used to collect qualitative data on social deographics, risk behaviour and community perceptions. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews provided supplementary data on community perceptions. Logistic regression was used in the analysis. The overall HIV prevalence in the general population was 16.1% [95% CI; 12.5-20.6]. Prevalence was lower among women (14.5%; 95% CI; 10.0-19.7) but not significantly different from that among men (18.7%; 95% CI; 12.5-26.3) (χ2=0.76, P=0.38). Having more than 2 sexual partners increased the odds of HIV by almost 2.5 times. None or low education and age over 35 years were independently associated with HIV prevalence (P<0.05). Most participants attributed the high HIV prevalence to promiscuity/multiple sexual partners (32.5%), followed by prostitution (13.6%), alcoholism (10.1%), carelessness (10.1%), poverty (9.7%), ignorance (9.5%)), rape (4.7%), drug abuse (3.6%) and others (malice/malevolence, laziness, etc.) (6.2%). Although there was a slight decline compared to previous reports, the results from this study confirm that HIV prevalence is still high in this community. In order to prevent new infections, the factors mentioned above need to be addressed, and we recommend that education aimed at changing individual behavior should be intensified in this community. © J. Rubaihayo et al., 2010. Source

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