Mount Saint Vincent University
Halifax, Canada

Mount Saint Vincent University, often referred to as The Mount, is a primarily undergraduate public university located in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, and was established in 1873. Mount Saint Vincent offers Undergraduate programs in Arts, Science, Education, and a number of professional programs including Applied Human Nutrition, Business Administration, Child and Youth Study, Public Relations, and Tourism and Hospitality Management. As well, the Mount has 13 graduate degrees in areas including Applied Human Nutrition, School Psychology, Child and Youth Study, Education, Family Studies and Gerontology, Public Relations and Women’s Studies. The Mount's first doctorate program, a PhD in Educational Studies, is a joint-initiative with St. Francis Xavier University and Acadia University. The Mount offer 10 full undergraduate degree programs and four graduate degree programs online.The university attracts many students in part because of its small class sizes, specialty programs, and location. The Mount has Canada Research Chairs in Gender Identity and Social Practices as well as Food Security and Policy Change. This institution is unique nationwide as it has a Chair in learning disabilities, Master of Public Relations program, Bachelor of Science in Communication Studies, and numerous other programs, faculty, and research initiatives. Wikipedia.

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News Article | November 22, 2016

Cubresa Inc., a medical imaging company that develops and markets molecular imaging systems, today announced that their compact SPECT (Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography) scanner was used in a study by Dalhousie University and Mount Saint Vincent University researchers in Halifax, Nova Scotia to help evaluate the diagnostic potential of a new molecular label that could lead to the early detection of Alzheimer’s disease in living patients. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurological condition that causes dementia and for which there is no FDA-approved treatment for the underlying disease. There is a need for a non-invasive way to detect and diagnose the disease in living patients because definitive diagnosis still requires post mortem examination. The study was performed by Dr. Sultan Darvesh and his research group at BIOTIC (Biomedical Translational Imaging Centre) at the Izaak Walton Killam Health Centre in Halifax, and was partially funded by TREVENTIS™ Corporation of which Dr. Darvesh is a scientific co-founder. SPECT imaging provides 3D information with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity for detecting the presence of a particular radiolabeled enzyme, in this case the BChE (butyrylcholinesterase) enzyme. Prior research has shown that elevated BChE expression levels are associated with abnormal ß-amyloid (Aß) plaques in the brains of Alzheimer’s patients. The novel molecular label, TRV6001, was synthesized and determined to bind to BChE with high specificity before being injected into 5XFAD mouse models of Alzheimer’s Disease. TRV6001 is still under development and has not yet been shown to be safe or effective in humans. “SPECT imaging has provided us the first direct in vivo evidence that the TRV6001 label can cross the blood-brain barrier and actually exhibits higher retention in the brains of AD mice (whose BChE level is markedly elevated) than in normal control brains,” said lead author Drew DeBay, Ph.D. candidate at the Department of Medical Neuroscience, Dalhousie University. In addition, the retention in BChE-associated brain structures was shown to closely follow the known histochemical distribution of BChE that has been previously established in AD mouse models. “Up to now there have been many false-positives,” said Dr. Sultan Darvesh, FRCPC, Professor at the Department of Medical Neuroscience, Dalhousie University. “Previous labels were able to bind to Aß plaque–but Aß is also present in cognitively normal people. BChE, which we are detecting, is notably absent in the non-Alzheimer’s brain.” “Alzheimer’s disease affects so many people and causes such pain and suffering for individuals and their families,” said George Abe, CEO of Cubresa. “We’re pleased to know that our SPECT scanner has contributed to a big step towards developing effective treatments and monitoring their effect.” The research was presented this year at the Alzheimer's Association International Conference® (AAIC®), the world's largest forum for the dementia research community, in Toronto, Canada. Detailed caption for associated image: Representative WT (wild-type, left column) and 5XFAD (Alzheimer’s model, right column) brains at the mid-coronal level. Row A: Histochemical staining of BChE, revealing marked elevation of BChE in AD, notably in the cerebral cortex. C = cerebral cortex, H = hippocampus, BG = basal ganglia, Th = thalamus, A = amygdala. Scale bar = 1mm. Row B: CT with co-registered MR at the same level as Row A. Row C: SPECT images acquired at 4 mins post-injection with co-registered CT/MR and ROIs. Marked retention in the cerebral cortex is evident in the 5XFAD brain compared to the WT brain and to a lesser extent in amygdala, hippocampus, basal ganglia and thalamus. Images courtesy of the Darvesh group and BIOTIC. About Cubresa Inc. Cubresa is a medical imaging company that develops and markets nuclear imaging systems that enable researchers at leading universities, hospitals and pharmaceutical companies to non-invasively visualize and measure biochemical processes at the molecular level. Applications for Cubresa’s products include preclinical drug development, disease research in oncology, neurology, and cardiology, as well as clinical diagnostics. Cubresa has operations in Boston, Massachusetts and Winnipeg, Manitoba. Visit for more information. About Dalhousie University Dalhousie University is internationally known as one of North America’s most welcoming universities. Founded in 1818, Dalhousie is one of Canada’s oldest universities, attracting more than 18,500 students from around the world. Located on Canada’s East Coast, the university blends world-class academic programs with leading-edge research. Visit for more information. About Mount Saint Vincent University Recognized as a leader in distance and experiential learning, and based on a strong tradition of social responsibility, Mount Saint Vincent University takes a personalized approach to education to nurture socially responsible global citizens. Founded in 1873, the Mount has been nationally recognized for having one of the lowest student-to-professor ratios, for providing students early access to valuable research opportunities, for its legacy in the advancement of women, and for facilitating critical advancements in food security, healthy aging, literacy, and childhood development. Visit for more information. About Izaak Walton Killam Health Centre and the Biomedical Translational Imaging Centre The IWK Health Centre is the Maritime region's leading health care and research centre dedicated to the well-being of women, children, youth and families. In addition to providing highly specialized and complex care, the IWK provides certain primary care services and is a strong advocate for the health of families. The IWK is a global leader in research and knowledge sharing, and a partner in educating the next generation of health professionals. As part of the IWK Health Centre, the Biomedical Translational Imaging Centre (BIOTIC) has an explicit mandate to translate medical science innovations with industry partners using clinical and preclinical imaging tools to produce next-generation healthcare advances. Visit for more information. About TREVENTIS™ Corporation TREVENTIS is headquartered in Southeastern Pennsylvania and has research operations in Halifax and Toronto, Canada. The company is focused on the discovery and development of disease-modifying small molecule drugs for a variety of dementias including Alzheimer’s. In addition to its therapeutic programs, TREVENTIS has a novel approach to the development of diagnostics for early diagnosis and monitoring treatment effects in Alzheimer’s disease. Visit for more information.

Darvesh S.,Dalhousie University | Darvesh S.,Mount Saint Vincent University
Chemico-Biological Interactions | Year: 2013

Butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) is found to have a brain distribution pattern that is distinct from that of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Neurons containing BuChE are particularly located in the amygdala, hippocampal formation and the thalamus, structures involved in the normal functions of cognition and behavior that typically become compromised in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Progress of this disease is thought to result, at least in part, from the accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the brain. These structures characteristically become associated with cholinesterase activity, and are major determinants of AD diagnosis post-mortem. Early definitive AD diagnosis in the living brain could greatly facilitate specific timely treatment of the disorder and the search for novel drugs to preempt progress of this disease. Radioligands have been developed to detect deposition of Aβ plaques in the brain; however, since many cognitively normal individuals also exhibit Aβ plaque deposition, this approach has inherent disadvantages for definitive AD diagnosis during life. The association of BuChE with Aβ plaques appears to be a characteristic of AD. This has prompted the search for radioligands that target BuChE in association with Aβ plaques that accumulate in cortical grey matter, a region normally with very little of this enzyme activity. A number of BuChE radioligands have been synthesized and preliminary testing indicates that some such radioligands enter the brain and accumulate in regions known to contain BuChE. Radioligands targeting unusual BuChE activity in the brain may represent a means for early diagnosis and treatment monitoring of AD. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

News Article | November 22, 2016

NOT FOR DISSEMINATION IN THE UNITED STATES OR THROUGH U.S. NEWSWIRES Anchor Capital Corporation (TSX VENTURE:ANC.P) ("Anchor" or the "Corporation") is pleased to announce details concerning its proposed qualifying transaction involving a proposed business combination with Mark One Lifestyle, Inc. ("Mark One"). Mark One is a private consumer electronics company, whose key products consist of internet-connected lifestyle devices that automatically track food consumption so consumers can make healthier decisions in real-time. Anchor has entered into a non-binding letter agreement with Mark One dated October 26, 2016 (the "Letter Agreement"), pursuant to which Anchor and Mark One intend to complete a business combination (the "Transaction") pursuant to which Anchor will be renamed "Mark One Lifestyle Corp." ("Newco"). Upon completion of the Transaction, Newco will continue to carry on the business of Mark One and Newco is expected to be a Tier 2 industrial issuer. Pursuant to the Transaction, it is expected that an aggregate of 30,000,000 common shares in the capital of Newco (the "Newco Common Shares") will be issued to the current shareholders of Mark One in exchange for all of the issued and outstanding common stock and securities convertible into common stock of Mark One (the "Mark One Common Shares") at a deemed price of CAD$0.50 per Newco Common Share for an aggregate deemed consideration of CAD$15,000,000, exclusive of (i) Newco Common Shares issued to subscribers under the Mark One Private Placement and the Mark One Financing (both as defined below). Each 3.5 of the 5,514,000 issued and outstanding Anchor Common Shares (as defined below) will be consolidated into one Newco Common Share (the "Consolidation"). Each 3.5 outstanding stock options and agents' options of Anchor will be exchanged for one stock option or agent's option of Newco to reflect the Consolidation and the exercise price will be adjusted proportionately in accordance with their respective terms. In connection with the Transaction, Opus 3 Capital Inc. shall be paid a finder's fee of CAD$750,000 which shall be payable as to CAD$225,000 in cash and by the issuance of 1,050,000 Newco Common Shares, subject to approval of the TSX Venture Exchange (the "TSXV"). It is intended that the Transaction, when completed, will constitute the qualifying transaction of the Corporation pursuant to Policy 2.4 of the TSX Venture Exchange Corporate Finance Manual. The Transaction is an arm's length transaction and is subject to the policies of the TSXV relating to qualifying transactions, as well as shareholder approval of each of Anchor and Mark One. Mark One is a manufacturer and marketer of internet-connected lifestyle devices that automatically track food and beverage consumption, working with fitness trackers to provide consumers with the other half of the equation they need to get and stay healthy. Mark One's product offerings include Pryme Vessyl, a smart cup that helps people calculate and track their unique hydration needs. Pryme Vessyl is currently being used in over 100 countries, in studies to assess its ability to impact outcomes in diseases like kidney stones, and in workplace wellness programs to improve employee health engagement by highlighting the impact of hydration on things like concentration, short-term memory, and productivity. Mark One was founded in Kingston, Ontario, Canada in 2007 and later opened its headquarters in San Francisco, CA USA in 2013. Mark One was co-founded by Yves Behar, a renowned industrial designer and Chief Creative Officer at Jawbone. Mark One's Chief Executive Officer is Mrs. Helen Thomas, an experienced consumer electronics executive and former CEO of LeapFrog China. Mark One's investors include Intel Capital Corporation, Horizons Ventures (family office of Lee Ka-Shing) and Felicis Ventures, among others. Mark One is a private corporation incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware on October 22, 2013. Mark One's head office is located in San Francisco, California. Mark One has one wholly owned subsidiary in Canada called Paperwhite, Inc. Intel Capital Corporation incorporated in Delaware, USA and OurCrowd (Investment in Mark One) L.P. formed in the British Virgin Islands and their affiliates are the only Control Persons (as such term is defined in TSXV policies) of Mark One. Mark One is in the process of issuing secured promissory notes convertible into Mark One Common Shares (the "New Mark One Notes") and 300,000 warrants to purchase common stock of Mark One (the "New Mark One Warrants") as part of a maximum CAD$3,000,000 financing on a private placement basis. In connection with the Transaction, every CAD$0.40 of principal amount of the New Mark One Notes will be exchanged for one Newco Common Share and the New Mark One Warrants will be exchanged for warrants of Newco on the basis of one Newco warrant for every ten Newco Common Shares issued, with each such Newco warrant to have a term of three years and an exercise price of CAD$0.65 on a post-Transaction basis (the "Mark One Financing"). Pursuant to the Letter Agreement, the parties have agreed to use their "commercially reasonable efforts" to cause Mark One to complete a private placement (the "Mark One Private Placement") of subscription receipts of Mark One (the "Subscription Receipts") at a price of CAD$0.50 per Subscription Receipt for gross proceeds of a minimum of CAD$10,000,000 and a maximum of CAD$15,000,000. Each Subscription Receipt will be automatically converted into one Newco Common Share concurrent with the completion of the Transaction at no additional cost to the holder. Mark One intends to engage a syndicate of agents to be determined (the "Agents") to act as agents on a "commercially reasonable efforts" basis for the Mark One Private Placement, and in connection therewith intends to pay a commission to the Agents of up to 7% with a minimum of 5.5% going to the selling group participants. The Agents will also be granted that number of broker warrants equal to 7% of the number of Subscription Receipts sold by the Agents in connection with the Private Placement (the "Broker Warrants"), with each Broker Warrant entitling the holder to purchase one Newco Common Share at a price of CAD$0.50 per share for a period of 18 months from the date of closing of the Transaction. A further press release announcing additional details will be issued in due course. The net proceeds from the Mark One Private Placement will be used for bringing to market new consumer products, purchase of inventory, marketing, and for general working capital purposes. The net proceeds of the Mark One Private Placement will be held in escrow and released concurrent with the completion of the Transaction. The Board of Directors of Newco is expected to consist of five directors, including Helen Thomas (the current Chief Executive Officer of Mark One), Arlene Dickinson (a current director of Anchor), one mutually agreed upon independent nominee and two other nominees of Mark One, provided that such persons are eligible to act as directors pursuant to the requirements of applicable corporate legislation and subject to approval of the TSXV. Upon completion of the Transaction, the officers of Newco will be appointed by the Board of Directors of Newco and will include Helen Thomas as Chief Executive Officer, Osei Van Horne as Vice-President, Operations, Dr. Hanson Lenyou as Vice-President, Health, Alex Prevoteau as Director, Software, as well as a Chief Financial Officer and a Corporate Secretary to be determined by the Board of Directors of Newco. The following is a brief description and jurisdiction of residence of each of the proposed members of management and directors of Newco. Helen Thomas - CEO, Chairman of the Board of Directors Ms. Thomas is a seasoned executive with over twenty years of experience spearheading strategic partnerships, mergers and acquisitions (M&A), and marketing campaigns for complex, global business development initiatives for companies across education technology, Internet of Things (IoT), and media industries. Her leadership has rapidly grown multiple companies from zero to tens and hundreds of millions in revenue through effective brand positioning and distribution strategies to ensure product reach their targeted audience on time the world over. Ms. Thomas was the Chairman, Co-founder and CEO of Touchjet Inc., a company focused on the development of touchscreen smart projectors and touchscreen smart televisions from 2014 to 2016, where she successfully launched two award-wining IoT products with cloud based collaborative software. Prior to that, she was the founding President of BlueFocus Communications Group of America Inc., from 2012 to 2014, a wholly owned subsidiary of the largest digital marketing communication company in China, BlueFocus Communication Group Co., Ltd. She built BlueFocus Communications Group of America Inc. to over $150 million via strategic acquisitions including fuseproject in Silicon Valley and Vision 7 in Canada. As part of the senior founding team at Livescribe Inc., a global leader in the design and manufacturing of smart pens from 2008 to 2012, she led worldwide sales and achieved $50 million annual revenue within 3 years and built distribution in over 45 countries. She started her career at Leapfrog Enterprises Inc. (NYSE: LF), a developer of educational entertainment for children, from 2003 to 2007, where she led Asia Pacific business and served as the founding CEO of LeapFrog China. Ms. Thomas received her Master of Business Administration with a concentration in Marketing from the University of California, Berkeley, Haas School of Business. She has a Bachelor of Arts in International Finance from the Renmin University of China. Mr. Van Horne is a seasoned executive with an established a record of principal investing, M&A advisory across a wide range of industries, including technology, consumer products, and healthcare. Prior to joining Mark One in 2014, Mr. Van Horne was a lean and six sigma management consultant at Genpact (a General Electric company spinout) from 2012 to 2014. Mr. Van Horne has experience as a private equity and venture capital investor at Goldman Sachs where he was part of the Merchant Banking Division from 2005 to 2009. Further, Mr. Van Horne has experience as an M&A investment banker covering technology and business services industries at Wachovia Securities (a Wells Fargo company) from 2003 to 2005. Mr. Van Horne serves on the Board of Directors of Books for Kids Foundation, a non-profit organization focused on promoting early childhood literacy in underserved communities throughout New York City and greater metropolitan area; and Woman's Venture Fund, a leading non-profit organization focused on providing financing solutions for women-owned small business in the New York Tri-State area. Also, Mr. Van Horne was a member of the adjunct faculty at New York University, where he instructed M&A and venture capital subject matter. Mr. Van Horne holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Biology from Howard University, Washington, USA. Dr. Lenyoun is Head of Health for Mark One, where he ensures that Mark One's products achieve the mission of getting people healthier. Prior to Mark One, he worked with medical teams at Genentech, a leading biotechnology company from 2012 to 2014 where Dr. Lenyoun worked on over a dozen label expansions and product launches, as well as several initiatives that used technology to improve patient outcomes. Dr. Lenyoun holds a Bachelor of Arts in Visual and Environmental Studies from Harvard University, a Master of Science in Chemistry from the University of California, and a Medical Degree from Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons. He trained in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery at Columbia University Medical Center and Weill Cornell Medical Center. Mr. Prevoteau is a startup veteran and seasoned technology leader currently responsible for software development at Mark One including backend systems, mobile applications, algorithm development and application of machine learning technologies. Mr. Prevoteau has experience building systems for LinkedIn, Autodesk, Citrix, Ford, St Jude's Children's Medical Center, and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services while he served as Consulting Director at 6D Global Technologies from 2013 to 2015 and Mobile and Social Technology Lead at Razorfish Technology Platforms from 2011 to 2013. Mr. Prevoteau holds a Bachelor of Science in Management of Information Systems of Wright State University's Raj Soin College of Business. Ms. Dickinson is the owner and Chief Executive Officer of Venture Communications, a company she joined in 1988 and grew from a small, local firm to one of the largest independent marketing agencies in Canada. She is also the Chief Executive Officer of District Ventures and, companies that help market, fund and grow entrepreneurs and their companies. She is a two time best-selling author, frequent speaker and is best known to Canadians as one of the venture capitalists on the award-winning CBC series Dragons' Den. Ms. Dickinson has been recognized with honors, including Canada's Most Powerful Women Top 100, the Pinnacle Award for Entrepreneurial Excellence, as well as PROFIT and Chatelaine's Top 100 Women Business Owners and is a Marketing Hall of Legends inductee. Ms. Dickinson sits on the Leadership Council of the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, several boards including the Omers Venture advisory board and is a recipient of The Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal. Ms. Dickinson is an Honorary Captain of the Royal Canadian Navy and the recipient of honorary degrees from Mount Saint Vincent University, Saint Mary's University and the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology. Anchor is a capital pool company within the meaning of the policies of the TSXV and the common shares of Anchor (the "Anchor Common Shares") are listed for trading on the TSXV. Anchor currently has 5,514,000 Anchor Common Shares outstanding, stock options outstanding to acquire 551,400 Anchor Common Shares at a price of CAD$0.10 per share until December 2, 2024, and agent's options outstanding to acquire 351,400 Anchor Common Shares at a price of CAD$0.10 per share until December 2, 2016. As at June 30, 2016, Anchor had cash and near cash assets, net of liabilities, of approximately CAD$190,000. Other Matters Concerning the Qualifying Transaction The completion of the Transaction is subject to the approval of the TSXV and all other necessary regulatory approvals. The completion of the Transaction is also subject to additional conditions precedent, including completion of the Mark One Private Placement and the Mark One Financing for gross proceeds of a minimum of CAD$10,000,000, shareholder approval of Anchor and Mark One, satisfactory completion of final due diligence reviews by the parties, board of directors approval of Anchor and Mark One, and certain other usual conditions for transactions of this nature. Concurrent with the closing of the Transaction, the current founding shareholders of Anchor will transfer within escrow an aggregate of 1,000,000 Anchor Common Shares at a price of CAD$0.07 per share to Mark A. Lawson, advisor to Mark One, subject to the receipt of all necessary regulatory approval including approval of TSXV. Anchor will apply to the TSXV for an exemption from the sponsorship requirements in connection with the Transaction on the basis of the Private Placement. There is no assurance that such exemption will be granted. If such exemption is not granted, Anchor will be required to engage a sponsor for the Transaction. Trading of the Anchor Common Shares is currently halted and will not resume until all documents required by the TSXV in respect of the Transaction have been filed and the TSXV is otherwise satisfied that the halt should be lifted. Anchor will issue a further news release when the TSXV has received the necessary documentation and trading of the Anchor Common Shares is to resume. Further information on the Transaction, including financial information on Mark One, will be provided in a subsequent news release. As indicated above, completion of the Transaction is subject to a number of conditions, including but not limited to, TSXV acceptance and shareholder approval. The Transaction cannot close until the required shareholder approval is obtained. There can be no assurance that the Transaction will be completed as proposed or at all. Investors are cautioned that, except as disclosed in the Information Circular or Filing Statement to be prepared in connection with the Transaction, any information released or received with respect to the Transaction may not be accurate or complete and should not be relied upon. Trading in the securities of the Corporation should be considered highly speculative. Neither the TSXV nor its Regulation Service Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSXV) has in any way passed upon the merits of the proposed transaction and has neither approved nor disapproved the contents of this press release. Except for historical information contained herein, this news release contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Actual results may differ materially. Neither Mark One nor Anchor will update these forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date hereof other than as required by applicable securities laws or TSXV policies. Readers are therefore cautioned not to place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements. More detailed information about potential factors that could affect financial results is included in the documents filed from time to time with the Canadian securities regulatory authorities by Anchor. The securities of Anchor being offered have not been, nor will be, registered under the United States Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and may not be offered or sold within the United States or to, or for the account or benefit of, U.S. persons absent U.S. registration or an applicable exemption from U.S. registration requirements. This release does not constitute an offer for sale of securities in the United States.

Fisher S.,University of Pennsylvania | Franz-Odendaal T.,Mount Saint Vincent University
Current Opinion in Genetics and Development | Year: 2012

Current fossil, embryological and genetic data shed light on the evolution of the gene regulatory network (GRN) governing bone formation. The key proteins and genes involved in skeletogenesis are well accepted. We discuss when these essential components of the GRN evolved and propose that the Runx genes, master regulators of skeletogenesis, functioned in early cartilages well before they were co-opted to function in the making of bone. Two rounds of whole genome duplication, together with additional tandem gene duplications, created a genetic substrate for segregation of one GRN into several networks regulating the related tissues of cartilage, bone, enamel, and dentin. During this segregation, Runx2 assumed its position at the top of the bone GRN, and Sox9 was excluded from bone, retaining its ancient role in cartilage. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

MacRae H.,Mount Saint Vincent University
Qualitative Health Research | Year: 2010

Although any illness can negatively affect the self, Alzheimers disease poses a special threat. Based on interviews with nine Canadians diagnosed with early-stage Alzheimers disease, and adopting a symbolic interactionist perspective, this study examines the impact of the illness on identity. Findings indicate that, given the necessary resources, persons with Alzheimers can live meaningful, purposeful lives and creatively manage to protect and preserve identity. In contrast to previous research, participants did not reveal a great deal of concern about potential loss of self.

Franz-Odendaal T.A.,Mount Saint Vincent University
Frontiers in Bioscience | Year: 2011

The primary focus of this article is to review intramembranous bone development, that is, ossification that takes place directly. Comparisons with endochondral ossification (ossification with a cartilage precursor) will be made in order to illustrate the differences between these two modes of ossification and to highlight the comparatively sparse information that is available about intramembranous ossification. Despite decades of research into understanding skeletal development, there is still much to learn. Most of the research in this area has focused on the development of the calvariae (or skull bones) as typical intramembranous bones and the development of the limb bones as a typical endochondral bones. Few studies investigate other skeletal elements or compare these processes in a systematic manner. In this review, I focus primarily on condensation formation and skeletal patterning with specific examples from different organisms.

Matta C.F.,Mount Saint Vincent University | Matta C.F.,Dalhousie University
Journal of Computational Chemistry | Year: 2010

This article compares molecular properties and atomic properties defined by the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) obtained from three underlying levels of theory: MP2(full), density functional theory (DFT) (B3LYP), and Hartree-Fock (H-F). The same basis set (6-31.1+ +G(d,p)) has been used throughout the study. The calculations and comparisons were applied to a set of 30 small, molecules representing common fragments of biological, molecules. The molecular properties investigated are the energies and the electrostatic moments (up to and including the quadrupoles), and the atomic properties include electron populations (and atomic charge), atomic dipolar and quadrupolar polarizations, atomic volumes, and corrected and raw atomic energies. The Cartesian distance between dipole vectors and the Frobenius distance between the quadrupole tensors calculated at the three levels of theory provide a measure of their correlation (or lack thereof). With the exception of energies (atomic and molecular), it is found that both DFT and H-F are in excellent agreement with MP2, especially with regards to the electrostatic mutipoles up to the quadrupoles, but DFT and MP2 agree better in almost all studied properties (with the exception of molecular geometries). QTAIM properties whether obtained from H-F, DFT(B3LYP), or MP2 calculations when, used in the construction of empirical correlations with experiment such as quantitative structure-activity(or property)-relationships (QSAR/QSPR) are equivalent (because the properties calculated at the three levels are very highly correlated among themselves with r2 typically >0.95, and therefore preserving trends). These results suggest that the massive volume of results that were published in the older literature at the H-F level, is valid especially when used to study trends or in QSAR or QSPR. studies, and, as long as our test set of molecules is representative, there is no pressing need to re-evaluate them at other levels of theory except when inadequate basis sets were used by today's standards. Extensive tabulation of molecular and atomic properties at the three theoretical levels is available in the Supporting Information, including optimized geometries, molecular energies, virial ratios, molecular electrostatic moments up to and including hexadecapoles, atomic populations, atomic volumes, atomic electrostatic moments up to and including the quadrupoles, and atomic energies. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Mcgregor S.L.,Mount Saint Vincent University
International Journal of Consumer Studies | Year: 2012

Complexity economics is a promising theory for consumer education that aspires to be focused on global justice and sustainability in a profoundly complex consumer marketplace. This paper first discusses the basic tenets of complexity theory, the foundations of complexity economics, followed by an overview of normal vs. post-normal science, including tame and wicked problems. The third part of the paper positions consumer education within normal science, explicating the assumptions of conventional neoliberal economic theory. The final part discusses the assumptions of complexity economics and how it challenges traditional economic theory. A case is made for augmenting 21st century consumer education with complexity economics, anticipating a companion paper with pedagogical details. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Duench K.,Mount Saint Vincent University | Franz-Odendaal T.A.,Mount Saint Vincent University
Developmental Biology | Year: 2012

Bone development is a complex process, involving multiple tissues and hierarchical inductive interactions. The study of skeletal development has largely focused on endochondral bones while intramembranous bones, such as the scleral ossicles within the avian eye, have received less attention. Our previous research directly demonstrated the involvement of s. onic hedgehog and suggested the involvement of bmp2 and 4 during the development of scleral ossicles. The bones of the sclerotic ring are induced by overlying conjunctival papillae at HH 35 and 36. Here, we examine the spatial and temporal expression patterns of ptc1, ihh, bmp2, bmp4 and bmp7. We show that the cells of conjunctival papillae express ptc1, ihh and bmp2 at these stages; coincident with shh expression previously described. Interestingly, both ihh and ptc1 are also expressed in the mesenchyme underlying the papillae unlike shh and bmp2. Bmp4 and bmp7 are not expressed in these regions at any stages examined. Furthermore, using Noggin soaked beads implanted adjacent to papillae, we provide direct evidence that the BMP family of genes are important factors in the development of scleral ossicles. Localized inhibition of BMPs in this way causes a reduced expression of ihh in the surrounding tissue demonstrating that the BMP and Hedgehog pathways interact. Our data also demonstrates that the sclerotic ring has an intrinsic ability to compensate for missing elements. The scleral ossicle system provides a unique opportunity to investigate the epithelial-mesenchymal induction of intramembranous bones of the vertebrate skull. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Various factors influence how individuals experience illness. Especially important, however, is the reaction of others whose response shapes the meaning of the illness for the person who is ill, and the impact it will have on her or his sense of self. Adopting a symbolic interactionist perspective, and drawing on data obtained from in-depth interviews conducted with nine individuals living with early-stage Alzheimer's disease, this paper examines how others' reactions to and treatment of persons living with the condition can influence how they experience dementia. The findings reveal that the majority of the participants did not believe others' treatment of them had substantially changed, nor did most express the level of concern about the possible negative response of others reported in other studies. Within their relationships and social interactions participants received the essential support, cooperation, and encouragement that enabled them to create meaning in life and sustain identity. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

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