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Parnell J.A.,Mount Royal College, Calgary | Reimer R.A.,University of Calgary
British Journal of Nutrition

There is a growing interest in modulating gut microbiota with diet in the context of obesity. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the dose-dependent effects of prebiotics (inulin and oligofructose) on gut satiety hormones, energy expenditure, gastric emptying and gut microbiota. Male lean and obese JCR:LA-cp rats were randomised to either of the following: lean 0 % fibre (LC), lean 10 % fibre (LF), lean 20 % fibre (LHF), obese 0 % fibre (OC), obese 10 % fibre (OF) or obese 20 % fibre (OHF). Body composition, gastric emptying, energy expenditure, plasma satiety hormone concentrations and gut microbiota (using quantitative PCR) were measured. Caecal proglucagon and peptide YY mRNA levels were up-regulated 2-fold in the LF, OF and OHF groups and 3-fold in the LHF group. Ghrelin O-acyltransferase mRNA levels were higher in obese v. lean rats and decreased in the OHF group. Plasma ghrelin response was attenuated in the LHF group. Microbial species measured in the Bacteroidetes division decreased, whereas those in the Firmicutes increased in obese v. lean rats and improved with prebiotic intake. Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus increased in the OHF v. OC group. Bacteroides and total bacteria negatively correlated with percentage of body fat and body weight. Enterobacteriaceae increased in conjunction with glucose area under the curve (AUC) and glucagon-like peptide-1 AUC. Bacteroides and total bacteria correlated positively with ghrelin AUC yet negatively with insulin AUC and energy intake (P < 005). Several of the mechanisms through which prebiotics act (food intake, satiety hormones and alterations in gut microbiota) are regulated in a dose-dependent manner. The combined effects of prebiotics may have therapeutic potential for obesity. © The Authors 2011. Source

Background: Prospective memory (ProM) is the ability to become aware of a previously-formed plan at the right time and place. For over twenty years, researchers have been debating whether prospective memory declines with aging or whether it is spared by aging and, most recently, whether aging spares prospective memory with focal vs. non-focal cues. Two recent meta-analyses examining these claims did not include all relevant studies and ignored prevalent ceiling effects, age confounds, and did not distinguish between prospective memory subdomains (e.g., ProM proper, vigilance, habitual ProM) (see Uttl, 2008, PLoS ONE). The present meta-analysis focuses on the following questions: Does prospective memory decline with aging? Does prospective memory with focal vs. non-focal cues decline with aging? Does the size of age-related declines with focal vs. non-focal cues vary across ProM subdomains? And are age-related declines in ProM smaller than agerelated declines in retrospective memory? Methods and Findings: A meta-analysis of event-cued ProM using data visualization and modeling, robust count methods, and conventional meta-analysis techniques revealed that first, the size of age-related declines in ProM with both focal and non-focal cues are large. Second, age-related declines in ProM with focal cues are larger in ProM proper and smaller in vigilance. Third, age-related declines in ProM proper with focal cues are as large as age-related declines in recall measures of retrospective memory. Conclusions: The results are consistent with Craik's (1983) proposal that age-related declines on ProM tasks are generally large, support the distinction between ProM proper vs. vigilance, and directly contradict widespread claims that ProM, with or without focal cues, is spared by aging. © 2011 Bob Uttl. Source

Das A.,Mount Royal College, Calgary | McFarlane A.A.,Nipissing University | Chowdhury M.,University of Kings College
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews

Reserves of natural gas in Bangladesh are very large and total demand has increased secularly in recent years. This paper examines the causal relationship between the consumption of natural gas and GDP in Bangladesh over the period 1980 to 2010. We find that there is a positive unidirectional causality running from GDP to natural gas consumption: movements in GDP affect the consumption of natural gas but not vice-versa. While our results rest on several statistical assumptions, they support the pursuit of policies that are in line with energy conservation. Implementing these policies will be of particular significance in light of the fact that Bangladesh's current reserves of natural gas will not meet its current level of consumption demand beyond the next two decades. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Vaughan N.D.,Mount Royal College, Calgary
Internet and Higher Education

The purpose this article is to describe an institutional initiative created to support faculty engaged in blended course redesign. This Inquiry Through Blended Learning (ITBL) program adapted Garrison, Anderson, and Archer's (2000) Community of Inquiry framework in order to provide faculty participants with a guided inquiry process for discussing and reflecting on key redesign questions, exploring blended learning from a student perspective, integrating the new experiences and ideas, and then applying this knowledge through the implementation of a course redesigned for blended learning. An overview of the ITBL program, the methods used to evaluate the redesigned courses, the findings, and conclusions are presented in this article. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

This review examines selected methods for studying the use of public spaces in libraries, including mental mapping, observation, questionnaires, and interviews. Although use-of-space research often features more than one method of inquiry, observation (in its various forms) is a key method. Information gathered from use-of-space research can be used for a variety of purposes, from feeding into design and renovation projects to contributing to library promotion and funding initiatives. © The Canadian Journal of Information and Library Science. Source

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