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Elmhurst, IA, United States

Mount Mercy University is a four-year, co-educational Catholic liberal arts university located in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, United States. The school was founded by the Sisters of Mercy in 1928.Intellectual development and strong career preparation are the twin anchors of academic life at Mount Mercy University, an 85 year-old Catholic four-year co-educational University founded by the Sisters of Mercy. Students take a core of liberal arts courses providing a comprehensive foundation for many specific areas of study including: English, fine arts, history, mathematics, multicultural studies, natural science, philosophy, religious studies, social science and speech/drama. The University offers over 37 undergraduate majors in both liberal arts and professional programs, as well as four graduate programs. Wikipedia.

Prinsloo S.,University of Houston | Gabel S.,University of Houston | Lyle R.,Mount Mercy University | Cohen L.,University of Houston
Integrative Cancer Therapies | Year: 2014

Managing cancer-related chronic pain is challenging to health care professionals as well as cancer patients and survivors. The management of cancer-related pain has largely consisted of pharmacological treatments, which has caused researchers to focus on neurotransmitter activity as a mediator of patients' perception of pain rather than the electrical activity during neurobiological processes of cancer-related pain. Consequently, brain-based pain treatment has focused mainly on neurotransmitters and not electrical neuromodulation. Neuroimaging research has revealed that brain activity is associated with patients' perceptions of symptoms across various diagnoses. The brain modulates internally generated neural activity and adjusts perceptions according to sensory input from the peripheral nervous system. Cancer-related pain may result not only from changes in the peripheral nervous system but also from changes in cortical activity over time. Thus, cortical reorganization by way of the brain's natural, plastic ability (neuroplasticity) may be used to manage pain symptoms. Physical and psychological distress could be modulated by giving patients tools to regulate neural activity in symptom-specific regions of interest. Initial research in nononcology populations suggests that encouraging neuroplasticity through a learning paradigm can be a useful technique to help treat chronic pain. Here we review evidence that indicates a measurable link between brain activity and patient-reported psychological and physical distress. We also summarize findings regarding both the neuroelectrical and neuroanatomical experience of symptoms, review research examining the mechanisms of the brain's ability to modify its own activity, and propose a brain-computer interface as a learning paradigm to augment neuroplasticity for pain management. © The Author(s) 2013. Source

Lee J.E.,Mount Mercy University | Lee J.E.,University of Iowa | Watson D.,University of Notre Dame | Frey-Law L.A.,University of Iowa
European Journal of Pain (United Kingdom) | Year: 2013

Background: Recent studies suggest an underlying three- or four-factor structure explains the conceptual overlap and distinctiveness of several negative emotionality and pain-related constructs. However, the validity of these latent factors for predicting pain has not been examined. Methods: A cohort of 189 (99 female, 90 male) healthy volunteers completed eight self-report negative emotionality and pain-related measures (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire - Revised, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, Fear of Pain Questionnaire; Somatosensory Amplification Scale, Anxiety Sensitivity Index and Whiteley Index). Using principal axis factoring, three primary latent factors were extracted: general distress, catastrophic thinking and pain-related fear. Using these factors, individuals clustered into three subgroups of high, moderate and low negative emotionality responses. Experimental pain was induced via intramuscular acidic infusion into the anterior tibialis muscle, producing local (infusion site) and/or referred (anterior ankle) pain and hyperalgesia. Results: Pain outcomes differed between clusters (multivariate analysis of variance and multinomial regression), with individuals in the highest negative emotionality cluster reporting the greatest local pain (p = 0.05), mechanical hyperalgesia (pressure pain thresholds; p = 0.009) and greater odds (2.21 odds ratio) of experiencing referred pain when compared to the lowest negative emotionality cluster. Conclusion: Our results provide support for three latent psychological factors explaining the majority of the variance between several pain-related psychological measures, and that individuals in the high negative emotionality subgroup are at increased risk for (1) acute local muscle pain; (2) local hyperalgesia; and (3) referred pain using a standardized nociceptive input. © 2012 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters. Source

Martin B.T.,University of Texas at Tyler | Bernstein N.P.,Mount Mercy University | Birkhead R.D.,Auburn University | Koukl J.F.,University of Texas at Tyler | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2013

•Terrapene ornata ornata and T. o. luteola lack distinction phylogenetically.•T. carolina triunguis, T. c. yucatana, T. c. mexicana elevated to T. mexicana spp.•T. carolina bauri, T. c. major, and T. coahuila remain unresolved.•DNA barcoding analyses support our recommended classification revisions.•Molecular clock analysis provides divergence estimates for Terrapene. The classification of the American box turtles (Terrapene spp.) has remained enigmatic to systematists. Previous comprehensive phylogenetic studies focused primarily on morphology. The goal of this study was to re-assess the classification of Terrapene spp. by obtaining DNA sequence data from a broad geographic range and from all four recognized species and 11 subspecies within the genus. Tissue samples were obtained for all taxa except for Terrapene nelsoni klauberi. DNA was extracted, and the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b (Cytb) and nuclear DNA (nucDNA) glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (GAPD) genes were amplified via polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. In addition, the mtDNA gene commonly used for DNA barcoding (cytochrome oxidase c subunit I; COI) was amplified and sequenced to calculate pairwise percent DNA sequence divergence comparisons for each Terrapene taxon. The sequence data were analyzed using maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic inference, a molecular clock, AMOVAs, SAMOVAs, haplotype networks, and pairwise percent sequence divergence comparisons. Terrapene carolina mexicana and T. c. yucatana formed a monophyletic clade with T. c. triunguis, and this clade was paraphyletic to the rest of T. carolina. Terrapene ornata ornata and T. o. luteola lacked distinction phylogenetically, and Terrapene nelsoni was confirmed to be the sister taxon of T. ornata. Terrapene c. major, T. c. bauri, and Terrapene coahuila were not well resolved for some of the analyses. The DNA barcoding results indicated that all taxa were different species (>2% sequence divergence) except for T. c. triunguis - T. c. mexicana and T. o. ornata - T. o. luteola. The results suggest that T. c. triunguis should be elevated to species status (Terrapene mexicana), and mexicana and yucatana should be included in this group as subspecies. In addition, T. o. ornata and T. o. luteola should not be considered separate subspecies. The DNA barcoding data support these recommended taxonomic revisions. Because conservation efforts are typically species-based, these results will be important for facilitating successful conservation management strategies. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.. Source

Ghosh A.P.,Iowa State University | Kleiman E.,Mount Mercy University | Roitershtein A.,Iowa State University
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory | Year: 2011

In a number of applications, the underlying stochastic process is modeled as a finite-state discrete-time Markov chain that cannot be observed directly and is represented by an auxiliary process. The maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimator is widely used to estimate states of this hidden Markov model through available observations. The MAP path estimator based on a finite number of observations is calculated by the Viterbi algorithm, and is often referred to as the Viterbi path. It was recently shown in [2], [3] and [16], [17] (see also [12] and [15]) that under mild conditions, the sequence of estimators of a given state converges almost surely to a limiting regenerative process as the number of observations approaches infinity. This in particular implies a law of large numbers for some functionals of hidden states and finite Viterbi paths. The aim of this paper is to provide the corresponding large deviation estimates. © 2011 IEEE. Source

Ebert A.,Mount Mercy University
Agricultural History | Year: 2011

This essay expands and refines academic knowledge of English beekeeping during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Scientific beekeeping focused on improvement, which, in turn, depended on the dissemination of ideas and practices. This analysis, therefore, encompasses the mentalities and tactics of popularizers. The article also identifies two neglected concepts in the popularization campaign. First, popularizers saw scientific beekeeping as a way to end the tradition of killing the bees in order to safely harvest. Second, they sought to promote a rural industry for the economic welfare of the nation. The case study of Exeter's Western Apiarian Society reveals precisely how popularization functioned in reality. The result is a more thorough history of scientific beekeeping and how the rhetoric of improvement related to the culture of practice. © the Agricultural History Society, 2011. Source

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