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Thika, Kenya

De Steur H.,Ghent University | Mogendi J.B.,Ghent University | Mogendi J.B.,Mount Kenya University | Wesana J.,Ghent University | And 2 more authors.

Objective/Purpose: To use Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) to evaluate stakeholders' intention to adopt iodine biofortified foods as an alternative means to improve children's iodine status and overall school performance. Methods: A survey was administered with 360 parents of primary school children and 40 school heads. Protection motivation is measured through matching the cognitive processes they use to evaluate iodine deficiency (threat appraisal), as well as iodine biofortified foods to reduce the threat (coping appraisal). Data were analyzed through Robust (Cluster) regression analysis. Results: Gender had a significant effect on coping appraisal for school heads, while age, education, occupation, income, household size and knowledge were significant predictors of threat, coping appraisal and/or protection motivation intention among parents. Nevertheless, in the overall protection motivation model, only two coping factors, namely self-efficacy (parents) and response cost (school heads), influenced the intention to adopt iodine biofortified foods. Conclusion: School feeding programs incorporating iodine biofortification should strive to increase not only consumer knowledge about iodine but also its association to apparent deficiency disorders, boost self-efficacy and ensure that the costs incurred are not perceived as barriers of adoption. The insignificant threat appraisal effects lend support for targeting future communication on biofortification upon the strategies itself, rather than on the targeted micronutrient deficiency. PMT, and coping factors in particular, seem to be valuable in assessing intentions to adopt healthy foods. Nevertheless, research is needed to improve the impacts of threat appraisal factors. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Ogolla J.O.,Mount Kenya University | Ayaya S.O.,Moi University | Otieno C.A.,Moi University
Iranian Journal of Public Health

Background: This study sought to determine the level of adherence to Coartem© in the routine treatment of uncomplicated malaria among children under the age of five years in Nyando district, Kenya. Methods: Seventy-three children below the age of five years with microscopically confirmed uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria and prescribed Coartem® during the normal outpatient department hours were included into the study on 27th of April to 15th of May 2009. Adherence was assessed through a semi-structured interviewer administered questionnaire; pill count and blister pack recovery. Patients were then classified into three categories of adherence. Patients who had tablets remaining in the blister pack were classified as definitely non-adherent. Those who had blister pack missing or empty and the caretaker did not report administering all the doses at the correct time and amount were considered probably non-adherent or as probably adherent when the caretaker reported administering all doses at the correct time and amount. Results: Nine (14.5%) patients were definitely non-adherent, 6 (9.7%) probably non-adherent and 47 (75.8%) probably adherent. The most significantly left tablet was the sixth doses (P = 0.029). Conclusion: Caretakers should be made much aware that non-adherence might not only be dangerous to child's health but also dramatically increase the financial cost for public-health services. Source

Ivan E.,A+ Network | Ivan E.,University of Witwatersrand | Crowther N.J.,University of Witwatersrand | Mutimura E.,Women Equity in Access to Care and Treatment WE ACTx | And 5 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases

Background:Within sub-Saharan Africa, helminth and malaria infections cause considerable morbidity in HIV-positive pregnant women and their offspring. Helminth infections are also associated with a higher risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of, and the protective and risk factors for helminth and malaria infections in pregnant HIV-positive Rwandan women receiving anti-retroviral therapy (ART).Methodology and principle findings:Pregnant females (n = 980) were recruited from health centres in rural and peri-urban locations in the central and eastern provinces of Rwanda. Helminth infection was diagnosed using the Kato Katz method whilst the presence of Plasmodium falciparum was identified from blood smears. The prevalence of helminth infections was 34.3%; of malaria 13.3%, and of co-infections 6.6%. Helminth infections were more common in rural (43.1%) than peri-urban (18.0%; p<0.0005) sites. A CD4 count ≤350 cells/mm3 was associated with a higher risk of helminth infections (odds ratio, 3.39; 95% CIs, 2.16-5.33; p<0.0005) and malaria (3.37 [2.11-5.38]; p<0.0005) whilst helminth infection was a risk factor for malaria infection and vice versa. Education and employment reduced the risk of all types of infection whilst hand washing protected against helminth infection (0.29 [0.19-0.46]; p<0.0005);). The TDF-3TC-NVP (3.47 [2.21-5.45]; p<0.0005), D4T-3TC-NVP (2.47 [1.27-4.80]; p<0.05) and AZT-NVP (2.60 [1.33-5.08]; p<0.05) regimens each yielded higher helminth infection rates than the AZT-3TC-NVP regimen. Anti-retroviral therapy had no effect on the risk of malaria.Conclusion/significance:HIV-positive pregnant women would benefit from the scaling up of de-worming programs alongside health education and hygiene interventions. The differential effect of certain ART combinations (as observed here most strongly with AZT-3TC-NVP) possibly protecting against helminth infection warrants further investigation. © 2013 Ivan et al. Source

Wekesa M.,Mount Kenya University
Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice

Unregulated biomedical research has previously caused untold suffering to humankind. History is full of examples of abuse of animal and human subjects for research. Several codes and instruments have been formulated to regulate biomedical research. In Kenya, the Science, Technology and Innovation Act, 2014, together with the Constitution of Kenya, 2010, provide a fairly robust legal framework. Possible challenges include capacity building, overlap of functions of institutions, monitoring and evaluation, scientific/technological advances, intellectual property rights, funding for research, and dispute resolution. It is hoped that the new legislation will adequately address these challenges. © 2015 Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow. Source

Obanda V.,Kenya Wildlife Service | Ndambiri E.M.,Kenya Wildlife Service | Kingori E.,Kenya Wildlife Service | Gakuya F.,Kenya Wildlife Service | And 3 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors

Background: For centuries, immature stages of Dipterans have infested humans and animals, resulting in a pathological condition referred to as myiasis. Myiases are globally distributed but they remain neglected diseases in spite of the great medical and veterinary importance. Moreover, there is a paucity of information on the clinical-pathology and/or epidemiology of the infestation, especially in African free ranging wildlife. Findings. In the present study we report for the first time an outbreak of traumatic cutaneous myiasis (caused by Old World screwworm, Chrysomyia bezziana and blowfly, Lucilia sp.) in free-ranging common elands (Taurotragus oryx). The infestation affected both animal sexes and different age classes, and had a negative impact on individual fitness as well as the overall health. Severely affected individuals were euthanized, while others were clinically treated, and apparently recovered. Conclusions: This study indicates that myiasis-causing flies still exist in Kenya and are able to cause severe outbreaks of clinical cutaneous myiasis in wild animals. The status of these parasites in Kenya, which are of zoonotic potential, are either unknown or neglected. © 2013 Obanda et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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