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West Side Highway, PA, United States

Mount Aloysius College is a Catholic, private college in Cresson, Pennsylvania, United States. It is a liberal arts college that awards bachelor’s, associate’s, and master’s degrees in the arts and science fields. The undergraduate enrollment totals approximately 3,000 students.Mount Aloysius College was established in 1853 by a small community of sisters from the Sisters of Mercy, during which time St. Aloysius Academy was constructed. The Academy became Mount Aloysius Junior College in 1939, and later became Mount Aloysius College in 1991 after amending its charter to allow the conferment of bachelor degrees.Mount Aloysius is located on a rural 193 acre campus in the Allegheny Mountains region of west-central Pennsylvania. Mount Aloysius’ 12 sports teams compete in the Allegheny Mountain Collegiate Conference of the NCAA Division III. Wikipedia.

Van Breukelen N.A.,Mount Aloysius College | Itzkowitz M.,Lehigh University
Animal Behaviour

The convict cichlid Amatitlania nigrofasciata is a monogamous, biparental teleost species. Convict cichlids form pairs to provide parental care and share in territory defence. In order for pairs to be successful there must be coordination of behaviour between the sexes. Although pair dynamics have been studied in the laboratory, few field experiments have investigated male and female responses to mate removal. We examined how convict cichlids modulate their parental defence behaviour in response to mate removal at Lomas Barbudal Biological Reserve, Costa Rica. We presented convict cichlid pairs with a conspecific intruder and observed the parental defence behaviour of both individuals. One member of the pair was then removed and the remaining individual was presented with the intruder. Both males and females significantly increased aggression towards the intruder after the removal of the mate; however, males were able to fully compensate for the loss of the female, whereas females were not. These results suggest that both male and female convict cichlids may modulate their behaviour in response to changing stimuli. © 2011 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Source

Introduction The aim of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between the development of adaptive capacity and disaster response and recovery outcomes. Hospitals and health care systems are a critical element in community planning for all phases of the disaster cycle. There is a lack of research, however, to validate the relationship between the development of these capabilities and improved response and recovery outcomes. Hypothesis/Problem Two hypotheses were formulated to address the research question. The first hypothesis argued that counties or parishes that developed adaptive capacity through pre-event planning, community engagement, training, and the use of national response frameworks would have improved response and recovery performance outcomes. The second hypothesis argued that adaptive capacity, along with response and recovery performance outcomes, predicts the trajectory of recovery progression. Methods This study employed a quantitative cross-sectional survey methodology and existing community demographic data to explore the development of adaptive capacity and its ability to predict disaster response and recovery outcomes in communities affected by major disaster in 2011. A total of 333 counties and parishes were included in the final sample, providing a 95% confidence interval with a 5% margin of error. Data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Multiple, hierarchical, and robust regression were used to find the best fitting model. Multi-level modeling with random intercepts was used to control for the nesting effects associated with county, state, and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) region sampling. Results Descriptive results provide a baseline assessment of adaptive capacity development at the community level. While controlling for other variables, hypothesis testing revealed that pre-event planning, community engagement, full-scale exercises, and use of national frameworks predicated overall response and recovery performance outcomes (R 2 =.43; F 13,303 = 13.34; P <.001). In terms of recovery progression, pre-event planning, overall response and recovery performance outcome, total time of disruption, and percent of people below poverty were significant (R 2 =.15; F14,302 = 4.53; P <.001). Conclusions Establishment of empirical data provides communities with reinforcement to continue resilience-building activities at the local level. However, findings from this study suggest that only full-scale exercises were significant in improving response and recovery outcomes. Implications for re-evaluation of disaster training warrant further exploration. © World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine 2014. Source

D'Emic M.D.,Health Science University | Whitlock J.A.,Mount Aloysius College | Smith K.M.,Georgia Southern University | Fisher D.C.,University of Michigan | Wilson J.A.,University of Michigan

Background:Tooth replacement rate can be calculated in extinct animals by counting incremental lines of deposition in tooth dentin. Calculating this rate in several taxa allows for the study of the evolution of tooth replacement rate. Sauropod dinosaurs, the largest terrestrial animals that ever evolved, exhibited a diversity of tooth sizes and shapes, but little is known about their tooth replacement rates.Methodology/Principal Findings:We present tooth replacement rate, formation time, crown volume, total dentition volume, and enamel thickness for two coexisting but distantly related and morphologically disparate sauropod dinosaurs Camarasaurus and Diplodocus. Individual tooth formation time was determined by counting daily incremental lines in dentin. Tooth replacement rate is calculated as the difference between the number of days recorded in successive replacement teeth. Each tooth family in Camarasaurus has a maximum of three replacement teeth, whereas each Diplodocus tooth family has up to five. Tooth formation times are about 1.7 times longer in Camarasaurus than in Diplodocus (315 vs. 185 days). Average tooth replacement rate in Camarasaurus is about one tooth every 62 days versus about one tooth every 35 days in Diplodocus. Despite slower tooth replacement rates in Camarasaurus, the volumetric rate of Camarasaurus tooth replacement is 10 times faster than in Diplodocus because of its substantially greater tooth volumes. A novel method to estimate replacement rate was developed and applied to several other sauropodomorphs that we were not able to thin section.Conclusions/Significance:Differences in tooth replacement rate among sauropodomorphs likely reflect disparate feeding strategies and/or food choices, which would have facilitated the coexistence of these gigantic herbivores in one ecosystem. Early neosauropods are characterized by high tooth replacement rates (despite their large tooth size), and derived titanosaurs and diplodocoids independently evolved the highest known tooth replacement rates among archosaurs. © 2013 D'Emic et al. Source

Androgens, specifically 11-ketotestosterone, are hypothesized to be important in the expression of pre-spawning behaviors such as courtship and aggression in many teleost species. This experiment attempted to elucidate the roles of androgens in the expression of pre-spawning courtship and aggression in male convict cichlids (Amatitlania nigrofasciata). In a laboratory experiment, males were treated with either the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide or blank control and subsequently exposed to social conditions to stimulate inter-sexual courtship or intra-sexual aggression. Males treated with flutamide expressed significantly fewer courtship behaviors than control males but did not differ from control males in pre-spawning intra-sexual aggression. In a field experiment, males treated with flutamide expressed significantly less courtship behavior than males given blank capsules or unmanipulated control males, but did not differ from either set of control males in aggression towards conspecifics or overall aggression to con- and heterospecifics. These data suggest that androgens mediate pre-spawning courtship behavior but not pre-spawning aggression in this species. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

Gumm J.M.,Lehigh University | Van Breukelen N.A.,Mount Aloysius College | Draud M.,Long Island University | Itzkowitz M.,Lehigh University
Ethology Ecology and Evolution

There is a trade-off between mutually incompatible behaviors involved in conspecific aggression and courtship by territorial male beaugregory damselfish (Stegastes leucostictus). This trade-off may be variable based on the proximity of each stimulus. We first tested whether presenting male and female conspecific stimuli at varying distances from the breeding site influenced the territorial male's behavioral response by placing a single female or a single male in a clear plastic bottle 1m or 2m from the breeding site of the focal male. We found that the focal males responded similarly to females at either distance while they decreased their response to males at the greater distance. To test how distance influences the trade-off between inter- and intrasexually selected behaviors, we simultaneously placed bottled males and females near a male's breeding site. Reducing the proximity of one stimulus resulted in an increased response to the other stimulus. We suggest that the trade-off between behaviors is variable and show that distance plays a role in territorial males' behavioral response to multiple conspecific stimuli. © 2010 Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica dell'Universitá. Source

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