Northamptonshire, United Kingdom
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Russell M.,Moulton College | Russell M.,University of Swansea | Rees G.,Swansea City AFC | Benton D.,University of Swansea | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2011

This study compared the demands of a soccer match simulation (SMS) incorporating 90min of soccer-specific movement with passing, dribbling and shooting skills with those of competitive match-play (match). 10 elite youth soccer players participated in SMS and match-play while ingesting fluid-electrolyte beverages. No differences existed between trials for mean HR (SMS, match: 158±4beats•min1, 160±3beats• min1; P=0.587), peak HR (SMS, match: 197±3beats•min 1, 197±4beats•min1; P=0.935) and blood glucose concentrations (SMS, match: 4.5±0.1mmol•L1, 4.6±0.2mmol•L1; P=0.170). Inter-trial coefficient of variation (with Bland and Altman limits of agreement) were 2.6% (19.415.4beats•min1), 1.6% (14.314.7beats•min1) and 5.0% (0.90.7mmol•L1) for mean HR, peak HR and blood glucose concentrations. Although the pattern of blood lactate response was similar between trials, blood lactate concentrations were higher at 15min in SMS when compared to match. Notably, blood glucose concentrations were depressed by 17±4% and 19±5% at 15min after half-time during match-play and SMS, respectively. Time spent completing low-intensity, moderate-intensity and high-intensity activities were similar between trials (P>0.05). In conclusion, the SMS replicates the physiological demands of match-play while including technical actions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart - New York.

Kingsley M.,University of Swansea | Kingsley M.,La Trobe University | Russell M.,Moulton College | Benton D.,University of Swansea
Journal of Sports Sciences | Year: 2012

Our article in the Journal of Sports Sciences (Russell, Benton, & Kingsley, 2010) was designed to evaluate the reliability and construct validity of soccer skills tests that assess passing, shooting, and dribbling. This aim is stated explicitly in the title, abstract, introduction and discussion sections of the article (Russell et al., 2010). Test-retest reproducibility was presented as absolute- and relative-reliability (Hopkins, 2000), and construct validity was determined as the ability of the tests to discriminate between abilities in a group of performers (National Coaching Foundation, 1995). Construct validity was confirmed and the absolute reliability statistics were comparable or tighter than previous soccer skill tests of passing, shooting and dribbling (Russell & Kingsley, 2011). These skill tests have been combined with an exercise protocol to simulate physiological demands and movement patterns of soccer match-play (Russell, Rees, Benton, & Kingsley, 2011). Through a series of subsequent studies, these skill tests have already been used to evaluate the effects of: (1) soccer-specific movement patterns on acid-base balance (Russell & Kingsley, in press), (2) soccer-specific fatigue on precision, speed and success of passing, shooting and dribbling (Russell, Benton, & Kingsley, 2011), and (3) carbohydrate supplementation on passing, shooting and dribbling (Russell, Benton, & Kingsley, 2012). In this response, we provide a brief description of some of the inaccuracies presented in the 'Letter to the Editor' along with further commentary on some of the theoretical issues that relate to soccer skills tests. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Russell M.,Moulton College | Kingsley M.I.C.,University of Swansea | Kingsley M.I.C.,University Institute of Health Sciences
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2012

This study evaluated changes in markers of acid-base balance that occurred during simulated soccer match play. Sixteen academy soccer players participated in a soccer match simulation that consisted of 90 minutes of soccer-specific exercise with skills throughout. Blood samples were obtained before exercise (preexercise), every 15 minutes during the simulation (15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 minutes), and 10 minutes into the half-time break (half time). Blood lactate concentrations were elevated throughout exercise (preexercise: 1.5 ± 0.12 mmol·L-1; 90 minutes: 6.1 ± 0.7 mmol·L -1, time effect: p < 0.01, partial-eta2 = 0.740). Relative to preexercise values, actual blood bicarbonate (preexercise: 28.02 ± 0.92 mmol·L-1; 90 minutes: 21.73 ± 0.65 mmol·L-1, time effect = p < 0.01, partial-eta2 = 0.680), standard blood bicarbonate (preexercise: 25.97 ± 0.43 mmol·L-1; 90 minutes: 22.87 ± 0.31 mmol·L -1, time effect = p < 0.01, partial-eta2 = 0.667), base excess (preexercise: 2.40 ± 0.54 mmol·L-1, 90 minutes: 21.57 ± 0.39 mmol·L-1, time effect = p < 0.01, partial-eta2 = 0.664), and pH (preexercise: 7.44 ± 0.01 units; 90 minutes: 7.39 ± 0.01 units, time effect = p < 0.01, partial-eta2 = 0.542) were depressed throughout the exercise. Interestingly, blood bicarbonate, base excess, and pH recovered at half time (p > 0.05). This is the first study to provide data concerning the acid-base balance of familiarized soccer players during exercise that simulates soccer match play. These findings suggest that (a) blood pH is reduced during soccer-specific exercise and (b) although buffering capacity is reduced throughout exercise, it returns to normal during half time. Further research is warranted to develop interventions that can maintain acid-base balance throughout the full duration of a soccer match. © 2012 National Strength and Conditioning Association.

Russell M.,Moulton College | Benton D.,University of Swansea | Kingsley M.,University of Swansea | Kingsley M.,University Institute of Health Sciences
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport | Year: 2012

Objectives: This study investigated the influence of carbohydrate supplementation on skill performance throughout exercise that replicates soccer match-play. Design: Experimentation was conducted in a randomised, double-blind and cross-over study design. Methods: After familiarization, 15 professional academy soccer players completed a soccer match simulation incorporating passing, dribbling and shooting on two separate occasions. Participants received a 6% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CHO) or electrolyte solution (PL). Precision, success rate, ball speed and an overall index (speed-precision-success; SPS) were determined for all skills. Blood samples were taken at rest, immediately before exercise, every 15. min during exercise (first half: 15, 30 and 45. min; second half: 60, 75 and 90. min), and 10. min into the half time (half-time). Results: Carbohydrate supplementation influenced shooting (time. ×. treatment interaction: p<. 0.05), where CHO attenuated the decline in shot speed and SPS index. Supplementation did not affect passing or dribbling. Blood glucose responses to exercise were influenced by supplementation (time. ×. treatment interaction: p<. 0.05), where concentrations were higher at 45. min and during half-time in CHO compared with PL. Blood glucose concentrations reduced by 30. ±. 1% between half-time and 60. min in CHO. Conclusions: Carbohydrate supplementation attenuated decrements in shooting performance during simulated soccer match-play; however, further research is warranted to optimise carbohydrate supplementation regimes for high-intensity intermittent sports. © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia.

Coulthard E.,Manchester Metropolitan University | McCollin D.,University of Northampton | Littlemore J.,Moulton College
Journal of Insect Conservation | Year: 2016

Linear boundary features such as hedgerows are important habitats for invertebrates in agricultural landscapes. Such features can provide shelter, larval food plants and nectar resources. UK butterflies are known to rely on such features, however their use by moths is understudied. With moth species suffering from significant declines, research into their ecology is important. This research aimed to determine whether UK moth species are using hedgerows as flight paths in intensive farmland. The directional movements of moths were recorded along hedgerows at 1, 5 and 10 m from the hedgerow face. The majority of moths recorded within the study were observed at 1 m from the hedgerow (68 %), and of these individuals, 69 % were moving parallel in relation to the hedge. At further distances, the proportion of parallel movements was reduced. These results suggest that hedgerows may be providing sheltered corridors for flying insects in farmland landscapes, as well as likely providing food plants and nectar resources, emphasising the importance of resource-based approaches to conservation for Lepidoptera. © 2016 The Author(s)

Hammond L.E.,University of Bedfordshire | Cuttell S.,Moulton College | Nunley P.,Moulton College | Meyler J.,Moulton College
BioMed Research International | Year: 2014

This study explored whether anthropometric measures influence magnitude of skin cooling following exposure to whole body cryotherapy (WBC). Height, weight, body fat percentage, and lean mass were measured in 18 male and 14 female participants. Body surface area, body surface area to mass ratio, body mass index, fat-free mass index, and fat mass index were calculated. Thermal images were captured before and after WBC (-60°C for 30 seconds, -110°C for 2 minutes). Skin temperature was measured at the chest, arm, thigh, and calf. Mean skin temperature before and after WBC and change in mean skin temperature (Δ T sk) were calculated. Δ T sk was significantly greater in females (12.07 ± 1.55 °C) than males (10.12 ± 1.86°C; t (30) = - 3.09, P =. 004). A significant relationship was observed between body fat percentage and Δ T sk in the combined dataset (P =. 002, r =. 516) and between fat-free mass index and Δ T sk in males (P =. 005, r =. 622). No other significant associations were found. Skin response of individuals to WBC appears to depend upon anthropometric variables and sex, with individuals with a higher adiposity cooling more than thinner individuals. Effects of sex and anthompometrics should be considered when designing WBC research or treatment protocols. © 2014 L. E. Hammond et al.

Russell M.,Moulton College | Russell M.,Swansea City Association Football Club Ltd | Pennock A.,Swansea City Association Football Club Ltd
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2011

Limited data exist concerning the dietary practices of young professional soccer players that compete within the United Kingdom. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the nutritional and activity habits of professional male soccer players (n = 10; age: 17 ± 1 years, height: 1.72 ± 0.01 m, mass: 67.5 ± 1.8 kg, estimated maximal aerobic capacity: 57.8 ± 0.9 ml·kg -1·min -1) who played for the youth team of a UK-based Championship club. All players recorded their 7-day dietary intake and activity habits during a competitive week that included a match day, 4- training days, and 2 rest days in the first half of the 2009/2010 playing season. The intake of carbohydrates (5.9 ± 0.4 g·kg -1·d -1), proteins (1.7 ± 0.1 g·kg -1·d -1), and fats (1.5 ± 0.1 g·kg -1·d -1) represented 56 ± 1, 16 ± 1, and 31 ± 1% of the mean daily energy intake respectively. The intake of fiber was found to be significantly lower than Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) values (67%of RNI, p < 0.001), whereas all other analyzed micronutrients met or exceeded recommended values. A mean daily energy deficit of 788 ± 174 kcal existed because daily energy expenditures exceeded that of intake (3,618 ± 61 vs. 2831 ± 164 kcal, p = 0.001). The mean daily fluid intake was 3.2 ± 0.3 L. Consequently, the nutritional practices of the sampled group of professional youth soccer players were inadequate to sustain optimized performance throughout training and match play. Youth soccer players should therefore seek to ensure that their diets contain adequate energy through increased total caloric intake, while also optimizing the proportion of energy derived from carbohydrates and ensuring that enough fiber-rich foods are consumed. © 2011 National Strength and Conditioning Association.

Campion K.L.,University of Manchester | McCormick W.D.,University of Manchester | McCormick W.D.,Moulton College | Warwicker J.,University of Manchester | And 8 more authors.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology | Year: 2015

The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR)modulates renal calciumreabsorption and parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion and is involved in the etiology of secondary hyperparathyroidism in CKD. Supraphysiologic changes in extracellular pH (pHo) modulate CaR responsiveness in HEK-293 (CaR-HEK) cells. Therefore, because acidosis and alkalosis are associated with altered PTH secretion in vivo, we examined whether pathophysiologic changes in pHo can significantly alter CaR responsiveness in both heterologous and endogenous expression systems and whether this affects PTH secretion. In both CaR-HEK and isolated bovine parathyroid cells, decreasing pHo from 7.4 to 7.2 rapidly inhibited CaR-induced intracellular calcium (Ca2+i) mobilization, whereas raising pHo to 7.6 potentiated responsiveness to extracellular calcium (Ca2+o). Similar pHo effects were observed for Ca2+o-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation and actin polymerization and for L-Phe-induced Ca2+i mobilization. Intracellular pH was unaffected by acute 0.4-unit pHo changes, and the presence of physiologic albumin concentrations failed to attenuate the pHo-mediated effects. None of the individual point mutations created at histidine or cysteine residues in the extracellular domain of CaR attenuated pHo sensitivity. Finally, pathophysiologic pHo elevation reversibly suppressed PTH secretion from perifused human parathyroid cells, and acidosis transiently increased PTH secretion. Therefore, pathophysiologic pHo changes can modulate CaR responsiveness in HEK-293 and parathyroid cells independently of extracellular histidine residues. Specifically, pathophysiologic acidification inhibits CaR activity, thus permitting PTH secretion, whereas alkalinization potentiates CaR activity to suppress PTH secretion. These findings suggest that acid-base disturbances may affect the CaR-mediated control of parathyroid function and calcium metabolism in vivo. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

Ward S.J.,Moulton College | Liste G.,University of Cambridge | Tinarwo A.,Moulton College
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2011

Fostering is a process used by sheep farmers for the rearing of abandoned lambs or in the incidence of triplets, providing the surplus lamb a surrogate ewe. Historically, research has assessed the varying success rates of different fostering methods and evaluated them using the latency to accept the alien lamb. There are no current studies on the frequency of use of the different methods, nor the farmers' perception of the effects of the methods on ewe behaviour and welfare. The aim of the survey was to identify which fostering methods are currently in use in the UK and to gain an insight into farmers' attitudes towards them, in relation to the ewe's behaviour and welfare. Data were collected using paper and online questionnaires that were distributed with the help of stakeholders such as the English Beef and Lamb Executive (EBLEX) and at events such as the Royal Show and the NSA Sheep event. Seventy five farmers responded and results showed that they used birth fluids and restraint more often than other methods. Farmers believed that restraint methods can have negative welfare implications as determined by the ewe's behaviour and the lamb growth rate. There was also a significant relationship between the foster method and breed type. The farmers also suggested that the birth fluid method was preferred by the animals compared to all of the other methods as it was less disruptive and restricting to the ewes. Exploratory Factor Analysis identified two main factors influencing the farmers' choice of foster methods; these were the 'ewes health and welfare' and 'the farmers previous knowledge and success of the method'. The former had a significantly greater influence than the latter signifying that farmers are concerned for the animal's welfare during this process. Overall, farmers acknowledged that the selection of the appropriate foster method is a means to increase lamb productivity which can influence their return. They also recognised that the display of positive or negative ewe behaviours plays a vital role in the selection process of the fostering technique. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

PubMed | Royal Veterinary College University of London, Moulton College and Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Equine veterinary journal | Year: 2015

Lungeing is often part of the clinical lameness examination. The difference in movement symmetry, which is a commonly employed lameness measure, has not been quantified between surfaces.To compare head and pelvic movement symmetry between surfaces and reins during lungeing.Quantitative gait analysis in 23 horses considered sound by their owners.Twenty-three horses were assessed in-hand and on the lunge on both reins on hard and soft surfaces with inertial sensors. Seven movement symmetry parameters were quantified and used to establish 2 groups, namely symmetrical (n = 9) and forelimb-lame horses (n = 14), based on values from straight-line assessment. Movement symmetry values for left rein measurements were side corrected to allow comparison of the amount of movement symmetry between reins. A mixed model (P<0.05) was used to study effects on movement symmetry of surface (hard/soft) and rein (inside/outside with respect to movement symmetry on the straight).In forelimb-lame horses, surface and rein were identified as significantly affecting all head movement symmetry measures (rein, all P<0.0001; surface, all P<0.042). In the symmetrical group, no significant influence of surface or rein was identified for head movement symmetry (rein, all P>0.245; surface, all P>0.073). No significant influence of surface or rein was identified for any of the pelvic movement symmetry measures in either group.While more symmetrical horses showed a consistent amount of movement symmetry across surfaces/reins, horses objectively quantified as lame on the straight showed decreased movement symmetry during lungeing, in particular with the lame limb on the inside of a hard circle. The variation within group questions straight-line movement symmetry as a sole measure of lameness without quantification of movement symmetry on the lunge, ideally on hard and soft surfaces to evaluate differences between reins and surfaces. In future, thresholds for lungeing need to be determined using simultaneous visual and objective assessment.

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