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Moulton, United Kingdom

Russell M.,Moulton College | Kingsley M.I.C.,University of Swansea | Kingsley M.I.C.,University Institute of Health Sciences
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2012

This study evaluated changes in markers of acid-base balance that occurred during simulated soccer match play. Sixteen academy soccer players participated in a soccer match simulation that consisted of 90 minutes of soccer-specific exercise with skills throughout. Blood samples were obtained before exercise (preexercise), every 15 minutes during the simulation (15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 minutes), and 10 minutes into the half-time break (half time). Blood lactate concentrations were elevated throughout exercise (preexercise: 1.5 ± 0.12 mmol·L-1; 90 minutes: 6.1 ± 0.7 mmol·L -1, time effect: p < 0.01, partial-eta2 = 0.740). Relative to preexercise values, actual blood bicarbonate (preexercise: 28.02 ± 0.92 mmol·L-1; 90 minutes: 21.73 ± 0.65 mmol·L-1, time effect = p < 0.01, partial-eta2 = 0.680), standard blood bicarbonate (preexercise: 25.97 ± 0.43 mmol·L-1; 90 minutes: 22.87 ± 0.31 mmol·L -1, time effect = p < 0.01, partial-eta2 = 0.667), base excess (preexercise: 2.40 ± 0.54 mmol·L-1, 90 minutes: 21.57 ± 0.39 mmol·L-1, time effect = p < 0.01, partial-eta2 = 0.664), and pH (preexercise: 7.44 ± 0.01 units; 90 minutes: 7.39 ± 0.01 units, time effect = p < 0.01, partial-eta2 = 0.542) were depressed throughout the exercise. Interestingly, blood bicarbonate, base excess, and pH recovered at half time (p > 0.05). This is the first study to provide data concerning the acid-base balance of familiarized soccer players during exercise that simulates soccer match play. These findings suggest that (a) blood pH is reduced during soccer-specific exercise and (b) although buffering capacity is reduced throughout exercise, it returns to normal during half time. Further research is warranted to develop interventions that can maintain acid-base balance throughout the full duration of a soccer match. © 2012 National Strength and Conditioning Association. Source

Russell M.,Moulton College | Russell M.,University of Swansea | Rees G.,Swansea City AFC | Benton D.,University of Swansea | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2011

This study compared the demands of a soccer match simulation (SMS) incorporating 90min of soccer-specific movement with passing, dribbling and shooting skills with those of competitive match-play (match). 10 elite youth soccer players participated in SMS and match-play while ingesting fluid-electrolyte beverages. No differences existed between trials for mean HR (SMS, match: 158±4beats•min1, 160±3beats• min1; P=0.587), peak HR (SMS, match: 197±3beats•min 1, 197±4beats•min1; P=0.935) and blood glucose concentrations (SMS, match: 4.5±0.1mmol•L1, 4.6±0.2mmol•L1; P=0.170). Inter-trial coefficient of variation (with Bland and Altman limits of agreement) were 2.6% (19.415.4beats•min1), 1.6% (14.314.7beats•min1) and 5.0% (0.90.7mmol•L1) for mean HR, peak HR and blood glucose concentrations. Although the pattern of blood lactate response was similar between trials, blood lactate concentrations were higher at 15min in SMS when compared to match. Notably, blood glucose concentrations were depressed by 17±4% and 19±5% at 15min after half-time during match-play and SMS, respectively. Time spent completing low-intensity, moderate-intensity and high-intensity activities were similar between trials (P>0.05). In conclusion, the SMS replicates the physiological demands of match-play while including technical actions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart - New York. Source

Russell M.,Moulton College | Russell M.,Swansea City Association Football Club Ltd | Pennock A.,Swansea City Association Football Club Ltd
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2011

Limited data exist concerning the dietary practices of young professional soccer players that compete within the United Kingdom. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the nutritional and activity habits of professional male soccer players (n = 10; age: 17 ± 1 years, height: 1.72 ± 0.01 m, mass: 67.5 ± 1.8 kg, estimated maximal aerobic capacity: 57.8 ± 0.9 ml·kg -1·min -1) who played for the youth team of a UK-based Championship club. All players recorded their 7-day dietary intake and activity habits during a competitive week that included a match day, 4- training days, and 2 rest days in the first half of the 2009/2010 playing season. The intake of carbohydrates (5.9 ± 0.4 g·kg -1·d -1), proteins (1.7 ± 0.1 g·kg -1·d -1), and fats (1.5 ± 0.1 g·kg -1·d -1) represented 56 ± 1, 16 ± 1, and 31 ± 1% of the mean daily energy intake respectively. The intake of fiber was found to be significantly lower than Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) values (67%of RNI, p < 0.001), whereas all other analyzed micronutrients met or exceeded recommended values. A mean daily energy deficit of 788 ± 174 kcal existed because daily energy expenditures exceeded that of intake (3,618 ± 61 vs. 2831 ± 164 kcal, p = 0.001). The mean daily fluid intake was 3.2 ± 0.3 L. Consequently, the nutritional practices of the sampled group of professional youth soccer players were inadequate to sustain optimized performance throughout training and match play. Youth soccer players should therefore seek to ensure that their diets contain adequate energy through increased total caloric intake, while also optimizing the proportion of energy derived from carbohydrates and ensuring that enough fiber-rich foods are consumed. © 2011 National Strength and Conditioning Association. Source

Coulthard E.,Manchester Metropolitan University | McCollin D.,University of Northampton | Littlemore J.,Moulton College
Journal of Insect Conservation | Year: 2016

Linear boundary features such as hedgerows are important habitats for invertebrates in agricultural landscapes. Such features can provide shelter, larval food plants and nectar resources. UK butterflies are known to rely on such features, however their use by moths is understudied. With moth species suffering from significant declines, research into their ecology is important. This research aimed to determine whether UK moth species are using hedgerows as flight paths in intensive farmland. The directional movements of moths were recorded along hedgerows at 1, 5 and 10 m from the hedgerow face. The majority of moths recorded within the study were observed at 1 m from the hedgerow (68 %), and of these individuals, 69 % were moving parallel in relation to the hedge. At further distances, the proportion of parallel movements was reduced. These results suggest that hedgerows may be providing sheltered corridors for flying insects in farmland landscapes, as well as likely providing food plants and nectar resources, emphasising the importance of resource-based approaches to conservation for Lepidoptera. © 2016 The Author(s) Source

Sculthorpe N.,University of Bedfordshire | Grace F.,Kingston University | Jones P.,Moulton College | Fletcher I.,University of Bedfordshire
Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism | Year: 2010

During high-intensity exercise, intracellular creatine phosphate (PCr) is rapidly broken down to maintain adenosine triphosphate turnover. This has lead to the widespread use of creatine monohydrate as a nutritional ergogenic aid. However, the increase in intracellular PCr and the concomitant increase in intracellular water have not been investigated with regard to their effect on active range of movement (ROM). Forty male subjects (age, 24 ± 3.2 years) underwent restricted randomization into 2 equal groups, either an intervention group (CS) or a control group (C). The CS group ingested 25 gay-1 of creatine monohydrate for 5 days, followed by 5 gay-1 for a further 3 days. Before (24 h before starting supplementation (PRE) and after (on the 8th day of supplementation (POST)) this loading phase, both groups underwent goniometry measurement of the shoulder, elbow, hip, and ankle. Data indicated significant reductions in active ROM in 3 movements: shoulder extension (57 ±11.3° PRE vs. 48 ±11.2° POST, p < 0.01), shoulder abduction (183.4 ± 6.8° PRE vs. 180.3 ± 5.1° POST, p < 0.05), and ankle dorsiflexion (14.2 ± 4.7° PRE vs. 12.1 ± 6.4° POST, p < 0.01). There was also a significant increase in body mass for the CS group (83.6 ± 6.2 kg vs. 85.2 ± 6.3 kg, p < 0.05). The results suggest that short-term supplementation with creatine monohydrate reduces the active ROM of shoulder extension and abduction and of ankle dorsiflexion. Although the mechanism for this is not fully understood, it may be related to the asymmetrical distribution of muscle mass around those joints. Source

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