Moulton College

Northamptonshire, United Kingdom

Moulton College

Northamptonshire, United Kingdom
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Wright S.,Moulton College
Comparative Exercise Physiology | Year: 2010

The tension applied to the girth is usually based on an individual's experience rather than by scientific measurement or procedure. The equine thorax is a dynamic structure, and therefore the actual readings of girth tensions at rest and during exercise (actual tension) are likely to vary from the tension to which the girth was intended to be tightened at rest while standing (intended tension). This study was undertaken to determine the variability of girth tensions at rest and during exercise. A total of 19 Hanoverian horses were lunged on a 20 m circle in walk, trot and canter on both reins. In a randomized design, each horse was exposed to intended tensions 6, 10, 14 and 18 kg (saddle and girth at appropriate intended tensions). Girth tension was measured and recorded continuously using an in-line load cell. Intended girth tensions were not significantly different with mean actual girth tensions while standing. Actual girth tensions increased significantly (P < 0.001) between walk, trot and canter at all tensions except rest to trot at tension 6 kg, where the significance level was P < 0.01. Actual girth tension was significantly higher (P < 0.001) on the left rein at tension 14 kg in walk and trot, and at tensions 6, 10 and 14 kg during canter, and there was an overall trend for higher actual girth tensions on the left rein for the other tensions. As the thorax is a dynamic structure, girth tension variation could be due to multiple factors such as respiration, breath holding, muscular contraction, back flexion and extension, speed, gait and vertical acceleration of the saddle. Girth tension is a relatively new area of research, and as there are many opportunities for further research, a better understanding of the impact the girth has on the horse could help to improve performance and welfare. © 2011, Cambridge University Press. All rights reserved.

Ward S.J.,Moulton College | Campo M.,University of Zaragoza | Liste G.,Moulton College
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2017

Lamb rearing is a key point to ensure good quality at the end of the production cycle. Fostering and artificial rearing are techniques commonly used when natural rearing is compromised. However, there is a lack of research investigating their impact on the product's quality, especially when lambs are slaughtered late, around 6 months of age. The current study investigated the effects of artificially reared and fostered lambs on growth, carcass and meat quality. The three foster methods under study were birth fluids, cervical stimulation combined with birth fluids and restraint. Animals were weaned at 3 months of age, and processed at 6 months of age. Artificially reared lambs presented lower weight gains than ewe reared ones at young ages. They also presented worse conformation scores at the processing plant. No differences could be found for growth rates, carcass or meat quality among the foster methods tested. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Russell M.,Moulton College | Russell M.,University of Swansea | Rees G.,Swansea City AFC | Benton D.,University of Swansea | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2011

This study compared the demands of a soccer match simulation (SMS) incorporating 90min of soccer-specific movement with passing, dribbling and shooting skills with those of competitive match-play (match). 10 elite youth soccer players participated in SMS and match-play while ingesting fluid-electrolyte beverages. No differences existed between trials for mean HR (SMS, match: 158±4beats•min1, 160±3beats• min1; P=0.587), peak HR (SMS, match: 197±3beats•min 1, 197±4beats•min1; P=0.935) and blood glucose concentrations (SMS, match: 4.5±0.1mmol•L1, 4.6±0.2mmol•L1; P=0.170). Inter-trial coefficient of variation (with Bland and Altman limits of agreement) were 2.6% (19.415.4beats•min1), 1.6% (14.314.7beats•min1) and 5.0% (0.90.7mmol•L1) for mean HR, peak HR and blood glucose concentrations. Although the pattern of blood lactate response was similar between trials, blood lactate concentrations were higher at 15min in SMS when compared to match. Notably, blood glucose concentrations were depressed by 17±4% and 19±5% at 15min after half-time during match-play and SMS, respectively. Time spent completing low-intensity, moderate-intensity and high-intensity activities were similar between trials (P>0.05). In conclusion, the SMS replicates the physiological demands of match-play while including technical actions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart - New York.

Kingsley M.,University of Swansea | Kingsley M.,La Trobe University | Russell M.,Moulton College | Benton D.,University of Swansea
Journal of Sports Sciences | Year: 2012

Our article in the Journal of Sports Sciences (Russell, Benton, & Kingsley, 2010) was designed to evaluate the reliability and construct validity of soccer skills tests that assess passing, shooting, and dribbling. This aim is stated explicitly in the title, abstract, introduction and discussion sections of the article (Russell et al., 2010). Test-retest reproducibility was presented as absolute- and relative-reliability (Hopkins, 2000), and construct validity was determined as the ability of the tests to discriminate between abilities in a group of performers (National Coaching Foundation, 1995). Construct validity was confirmed and the absolute reliability statistics were comparable or tighter than previous soccer skill tests of passing, shooting and dribbling (Russell & Kingsley, 2011). These skill tests have been combined with an exercise protocol to simulate physiological demands and movement patterns of soccer match-play (Russell, Rees, Benton, & Kingsley, 2011). Through a series of subsequent studies, these skill tests have already been used to evaluate the effects of: (1) soccer-specific movement patterns on acid-base balance (Russell & Kingsley, in press), (2) soccer-specific fatigue on precision, speed and success of passing, shooting and dribbling (Russell, Benton, & Kingsley, 2011), and (3) carbohydrate supplementation on passing, shooting and dribbling (Russell, Benton, & Kingsley, 2012). In this response, we provide a brief description of some of the inaccuracies presented in the 'Letter to the Editor' along with further commentary on some of the theoretical issues that relate to soccer skills tests. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Russell M.,Moulton College | Kingsley M.I.C.,University of Swansea | Kingsley M.I.C.,University Institute of Health Sciences
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2012

This study evaluated changes in markers of acid-base balance that occurred during simulated soccer match play. Sixteen academy soccer players participated in a soccer match simulation that consisted of 90 minutes of soccer-specific exercise with skills throughout. Blood samples were obtained before exercise (preexercise), every 15 minutes during the simulation (15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 minutes), and 10 minutes into the half-time break (half time). Blood lactate concentrations were elevated throughout exercise (preexercise: 1.5 ± 0.12 mmol·L-1; 90 minutes: 6.1 ± 0.7 mmol·L -1, time effect: p < 0.01, partial-eta2 = 0.740). Relative to preexercise values, actual blood bicarbonate (preexercise: 28.02 ± 0.92 mmol·L-1; 90 minutes: 21.73 ± 0.65 mmol·L-1, time effect = p < 0.01, partial-eta2 = 0.680), standard blood bicarbonate (preexercise: 25.97 ± 0.43 mmol·L-1; 90 minutes: 22.87 ± 0.31 mmol·L -1, time effect = p < 0.01, partial-eta2 = 0.667), base excess (preexercise: 2.40 ± 0.54 mmol·L-1, 90 minutes: 21.57 ± 0.39 mmol·L-1, time effect = p < 0.01, partial-eta2 = 0.664), and pH (preexercise: 7.44 ± 0.01 units; 90 minutes: 7.39 ± 0.01 units, time effect = p < 0.01, partial-eta2 = 0.542) were depressed throughout the exercise. Interestingly, blood bicarbonate, base excess, and pH recovered at half time (p > 0.05). This is the first study to provide data concerning the acid-base balance of familiarized soccer players during exercise that simulates soccer match play. These findings suggest that (a) blood pH is reduced during soccer-specific exercise and (b) although buffering capacity is reduced throughout exercise, it returns to normal during half time. Further research is warranted to develop interventions that can maintain acid-base balance throughout the full duration of a soccer match. © 2012 National Strength and Conditioning Association.

Russell M.,Moulton College | Benton D.,University of Swansea | Kingsley M.,University of Swansea | Kingsley M.,University Institute of Health Sciences
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport | Year: 2012

Objectives: This study investigated the influence of carbohydrate supplementation on skill performance throughout exercise that replicates soccer match-play. Design: Experimentation was conducted in a randomised, double-blind and cross-over study design. Methods: After familiarization, 15 professional academy soccer players completed a soccer match simulation incorporating passing, dribbling and shooting on two separate occasions. Participants received a 6% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CHO) or electrolyte solution (PL). Precision, success rate, ball speed and an overall index (speed-precision-success; SPS) were determined for all skills. Blood samples were taken at rest, immediately before exercise, every 15. min during exercise (first half: 15, 30 and 45. min; second half: 60, 75 and 90. min), and 10. min into the half time (half-time). Results: Carbohydrate supplementation influenced shooting (time. ×. treatment interaction: p<. 0.05), where CHO attenuated the decline in shot speed and SPS index. Supplementation did not affect passing or dribbling. Blood glucose responses to exercise were influenced by supplementation (time. ×. treatment interaction: p<. 0.05), where concentrations were higher at 45. min and during half-time in CHO compared with PL. Blood glucose concentrations reduced by 30. ±. 1% between half-time and 60. min in CHO. Conclusions: Carbohydrate supplementation attenuated decrements in shooting performance during simulated soccer match-play; however, further research is warranted to optimise carbohydrate supplementation regimes for high-intensity intermittent sports. © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia.

Cuttell S.,University of Northampton | Hammond L.,University of Warwick | Langdon D.,Moulton College | Costello J.,University of Portsmouth
Journal of Thermal Biology | Year: 2017

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of whole body cryotherapy (WBC) on a range of thermoregulatory measures. We also sought to examine the influence of sex and body composition. A convenience sample of 18 healthy participants (10 males and 8 females) (27±6 yr) volunteered for this study. Temperature (core, tympanic, skin and mean body), heart rate, blood pressure, and thermal comfort and sensation were recorded pre- and post- (immediately and every 5 min until 35 min post) exposure to a single bout of WBC (30 s at −60 °C, 150 s at 110 °C). Anthropometric data (height, weight, body surface area, body mass index, fat mass and fat free mass) were also recorded. No significant differences in temperature (core, tympanic, skin and mean body), heart rate, blood pressure, or thermal comfort / sensation were observed between male and females at baseline. Immediately post WBC mean body (male:31.9±0.8 °C; female:31.0±0.9 °C; ∆ mean body temperature:0.9±0.1 °C; P≤0.05, d=0.64) and mean skin (male:22.1±2.2 °C; female:19.6±2.8 °C; ∆ mean skin temperature:−2.5±0.6 °C; d=0.99, P≤0.05) temperature was significantly different between sexes. Sex differences were also observed in regional skin temperature (male thigh, 20.8±1.1 °C; female thigh, 16.7±1.1 °C, ∆ mean thigh skin temperature:−4.1 °C; d=3.72; male calf, 20.5±1.1 °C; female calf, 18.2±1 °C, ∆ mean calf skin temperature:−2.3±0.1 °C; d=3.61; male arm, 21.7±1 °C; female arm, 19±0.4 °C, ∆ mean arm skin temperature: −2.7±0.3 °C; d=3.54; P≤0.05). Mean arterial pressure was significantly different over time (P≤0.001) and between sexes (male 0 mins:94±10 mmHg; female 0 mins:85±7 mmHg; male 35 mins:88±7 mmHg; female 35 mins:80±6 mmHg; P≤0.05). Combined data set indicated a strong negative relationship between skin temperature and body fat percentage 35 min’ post WBC (r=−0.749, P≤0.001) and for core temperature and body mass index in males only (r=0.726, P≤0.05) immediately after WBC. There were no significant differences between sexes in any other variables (heart rate, tympanic and perceptual variables). We observed sex differences in mean skin and mean body temperature following exposure to whole body cryotherapy. In an attempt to optimise treatment, these differences should be taken into account if whole body cryotherapy is prescribed. © 2017

Coulthard E.,Manchester Metropolitan University | McCollin D.,University of Northampton | Littlemore J.,Moulton College
Journal of Insect Conservation | Year: 2016

Linear boundary features such as hedgerows are important habitats for invertebrates in agricultural landscapes. Such features can provide shelter, larval food plants and nectar resources. UK butterflies are known to rely on such features, however their use by moths is understudied. With moth species suffering from significant declines, research into their ecology is important. This research aimed to determine whether UK moth species are using hedgerows as flight paths in intensive farmland. The directional movements of moths were recorded along hedgerows at 1, 5 and 10 m from the hedgerow face. The majority of moths recorded within the study were observed at 1 m from the hedgerow (68 %), and of these individuals, 69 % were moving parallel in relation to the hedge. At further distances, the proportion of parallel movements was reduced. These results suggest that hedgerows may be providing sheltered corridors for flying insects in farmland landscapes, as well as likely providing food plants and nectar resources, emphasising the importance of resource-based approaches to conservation for Lepidoptera. © 2016 The Author(s)

Russell M.,Moulton College | Russell M.,Swansea City Association Football Club Ltd | Pennock A.,Swansea City Association Football Club Ltd
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2011

Limited data exist concerning the dietary practices of young professional soccer players that compete within the United Kingdom. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the nutritional and activity habits of professional male soccer players (n = 10; age: 17 ± 1 years, height: 1.72 ± 0.01 m, mass: 67.5 ± 1.8 kg, estimated maximal aerobic capacity: 57.8 ± 0.9 ml·kg -1·min -1) who played for the youth team of a UK-based Championship club. All players recorded their 7-day dietary intake and activity habits during a competitive week that included a match day, 4- training days, and 2 rest days in the first half of the 2009/2010 playing season. The intake of carbohydrates (5.9 ± 0.4 g·kg -1·d -1), proteins (1.7 ± 0.1 g·kg -1·d -1), and fats (1.5 ± 0.1 g·kg -1·d -1) represented 56 ± 1, 16 ± 1, and 31 ± 1% of the mean daily energy intake respectively. The intake of fiber was found to be significantly lower than Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) values (67%of RNI, p < 0.001), whereas all other analyzed micronutrients met or exceeded recommended values. A mean daily energy deficit of 788 ± 174 kcal existed because daily energy expenditures exceeded that of intake (3,618 ± 61 vs. 2831 ± 164 kcal, p = 0.001). The mean daily fluid intake was 3.2 ± 0.3 L. Consequently, the nutritional practices of the sampled group of professional youth soccer players were inadequate to sustain optimized performance throughout training and match play. Youth soccer players should therefore seek to ensure that their diets contain adequate energy through increased total caloric intake, while also optimizing the proportion of energy derived from carbohydrates and ensuring that enough fiber-rich foods are consumed. © 2011 National Strength and Conditioning Association.

Ward S.J.,Moulton College | Liste G.,University of Cambridge | Tinarwo A.,Moulton College
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2011

Fostering is a process used by sheep farmers for the rearing of abandoned lambs or in the incidence of triplets, providing the surplus lamb a surrogate ewe. Historically, research has assessed the varying success rates of different fostering methods and evaluated them using the latency to accept the alien lamb. There are no current studies on the frequency of use of the different methods, nor the farmers' perception of the effects of the methods on ewe behaviour and welfare. The aim of the survey was to identify which fostering methods are currently in use in the UK and to gain an insight into farmers' attitudes towards them, in relation to the ewe's behaviour and welfare. Data were collected using paper and online questionnaires that were distributed with the help of stakeholders such as the English Beef and Lamb Executive (EBLEX) and at events such as the Royal Show and the NSA Sheep event. Seventy five farmers responded and results showed that they used birth fluids and restraint more often than other methods. Farmers believed that restraint methods can have negative welfare implications as determined by the ewe's behaviour and the lamb growth rate. There was also a significant relationship between the foster method and breed type. The farmers also suggested that the birth fluid method was preferred by the animals compared to all of the other methods as it was less disruptive and restricting to the ewes. Exploratory Factor Analysis identified two main factors influencing the farmers' choice of foster methods; these were the 'ewes health and welfare' and 'the farmers previous knowledge and success of the method'. The former had a significantly greater influence than the latter signifying that farmers are concerned for the animal's welfare during this process. Overall, farmers acknowledged that the selection of the appropriate foster method is a means to increase lamb productivity which can influence their return. They also recognised that the display of positive or negative ewe behaviours plays a vital role in the selection process of the fostering technique. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

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