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Borzych-Duzalka D.,Medical University of Gdansk | Borzych-Duzalka D.,University of Heidelberg | Hataya H.,Tokyo Metropolitan Childrens Medical Center | Kennedy S.E.,University of New South Wales | And 9 more authors.
Kidney International | Year: 2014

End-stage renal disease requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) during the neonatal period is a very rare condition, and little information is available regarding long-term RRT and outcomes. To gain more information, we performed a collaborative study on patient characteristics and treatment outcomes in children who started RRT as neonates during their first month of life between 2000 and 2011 who were prospectively registered in the ESPN/ERA-EDTA, the IPPN (since 2007), the Japanese registry, or the Australian and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant (ANZDATA) registry. During the first month of life, 264 patients from 32 countries started RRT and were followed for a median of 29 months (interquartile range 11-60 months). Most neonates (242) started on peritoneal dialysis, 21 started on hemodialysis, and 1 patient with a transplant. The most important causes of renal failure were congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract in 141, cystic kidneys in 35, and cortical necrosis in 30. Within 2 years after the start of RRT, 69 children changed dialysis modality and 53 received a renal transplant. After a median of 7 months, 45 children had died, mainly because of infection, resulting in an estimated 2-year survival of 81%, and 5-year survival of 76%. Growth retardation (63%), anemia (55%), and hypertension (57%) were still major problems after 2 years. Thus, relatively good medium-term patient survival may be achieved with RRT started during the neonatal period, but specific therapeutic challenges continue to exist in this age group. © 2014 International Society of Nephrology.

Billing H.,University of Heidelberg | Sander A.,University of Heidelberg | Susal C.,University of Heidelberg | Ovens J.,University of Heidelberg | And 9 more authors.
Transplant International | Year: 2013

Biomarker-based post-transplant immune monitoring for the prediction of impending graft rejection requires validation in specific patient populations. Serum of 28 pediatric renal transplant recipients within the framework of a well-controlled prospective randomized trial was analyzed pre- and post-transplant for soluble CD30 (sCD30), a biomarker reflecting mainly T-cell reactivity, and anti-human leukocyte antigen (anti-HLA) antibody reactivity, a biomarker for B-cell activation. A sCD30 concentration ≥40.3 U/ml on day 14 was able to discriminate between patients with or without biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR) with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 76%. Six of seven patients (86%) with BPAR showed a sCD30 above this cut-off, whereas only 3/21 patients (14%) without BPAR had a sCD30 above this cut-off (P = 0.004). For pre- and post-transplant anti-HLA class II reactivities by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, a cut-off value of 140 optical density was able to discriminate rejecters from nonrejecters with a sensitivity of 86% or 71% and a specificity of 81% or 90%, respectively. Withdrawal of steroids was associated with a approximately twofold higher serum sCD30 compared to controls, but did not affect anti-HLA reactivities. An increased post-transplant sCD30 serum concentration and positive pre- and post-transplant anti-HLA class II reactivities are informative biomarkers for impending BPAR in pediatric renal transplant recipients. (TWIST, Clinical Trial No: FG-506-02-43) © 2012 The Authors Transplant International © 2012 European Society for Organ Transplantation. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Van Stralen K.J.,University of Amsterdam | Tizard E.J.,Bristol Royal Hospital for Children | Jager K.J.,University of Amsterdam | Schaefer F.,University of Heidelberg | And 14 more authors.
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation | Year: 2010

Background. Few studies have investigated the determinants of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in paediatric patients starting on dialysis or with a transplant.Methods. Data were collected as part of the European Society of Paediatric Nephrology/European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association registry from 14 European countries and referred to incident paediatric patients starting on renal replacement therapy (RRT) between 2002 and 2007 under the age of 18 years. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the Schwartz formula. Data were adjusted for age, gender, treatment modality at start, primary cause of renal failure (PRD) and regions in Europe (eGFRadj). Results. Median eGFR in the 938 patients starting RRT was 10.4 mL/min/1.73 m2 (5th and 95th percentile: 4.0-26.9). Twenty-six patients (2.8%), mainly infants with Finnish-type nephropathy, started with eGFR levels >50 mL/min/1.73 m2. Younger age, female gender, starting on dialysis and having a short time between the first visit to a paediatric nephrologist (PN) and start of RRT were associated with lower eGFR at start of RRT. Gender differences were only present during adolescent age and disappeared when using the same K value for both genders. The various PRDs showed large differences in the rate of decline in eGFR between the first visit to a PN and start of RRT; however, this did not result in differences in eGFRadj at start of RRT. Conclusions. The main determinants of eGFR at start of RRT were age, gender, treatment modality at start, and the time between the first visit to a PN and start of RRT. Research is needed to determine the consequences of these differences. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

Sahpazova E.,University of Macedonia | Mencarelli F.,Nephrology and Dialysis Unit | Spasojevic B.,University of Belgrade | Reusz G.,Semmelweis University | And 10 more authors.
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation | Year: 2016

BackgroundGrowth retardation in paediatric end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has a serious impact on adult life. It is potentially treatable with recombinant growth hormone (rGH). In this study, we aimed to quantify the variation in rGH policies and actual provided care in these patients across Europe. MethodsRenal registry representatives of 38 European countries received a structured questionnaire on rGH policy. Cross-sectional data on height and actual use of rGH on children with ESRD aged <18 years were retrieved from the ESPN/ERA-EDTA Registry. ResultsIn 21 (75%) of 28 responding countries, rGH is reimbursed for children with ESRD. The specific conditions for reimbursement (minimum age, maximum age and chronic kidney disease stage) vary considerably. Mean height standard deviation scores (SDS) at renal replacement therapy (RRT) [95% confidence interval (CI)] were significantly higher in countries where rGH was reimbursed -1.80 (-2.06; -1.53) compared with countries in which it was not reimbursed [-2.34 (-2.49;-2.18), P < 0.001]. Comparison of the mean height SDS at onset of RRT and final height SDS yielded similar results. Among the 13 countries for which both data on actual rGH use between 2007 and 2011 and data from the questionnaire were available, 30.1% of dialysis and 42.3% of transplanted patients had a short stature, while only 24.1 and 7.6% of those short children used rGH, respectively. ConclusionReimbursement of rGH associates with a less compromised final stature of ESRD children. In many countries with full rGH reimbursement, the actual rGH prescription in growth-retarded ESRD children is low and obviously more determined by the doctor's and patients' attitude towards rGH therapy than by financial hurdles. © 2015 The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

Van Stralen K.J.,University of Amsterdam | Krischock L.,Royal Hospital for Sick Children | Schaefer F.,University of Heidelberg | Verrina E.,G. Gaslini Hospital | And 13 more authors.
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation | Year: 2012

BackgroundAnaemia is a common and potentially treatable co-morbidity of end-stage renal disease. We aimed to determine the prevalence of the sub-target haemoglobin (Hb) level among European children on dialysis and to identify factors associated with a low Hb level.MethodsFrom the European Society for Paediatric Nephrology (ESPN)/European Renal Association-European Dialysis Transplant Association (ERA-EDTA) registry, data were available on 2351 children between 1 month and 18 years of age, totalling 5546 measurements from 19 countries.ResultsThe mean Hb level was 10.8 g/dL (5th-95th percentiles, 7.4-13.9). Among those above 2 years of age, the mean Hb level was 10.9 g/dL (11.4 below 8.5 g/dL), while it was 10.3 g/dL among those below 2 years (11.2 below 8.0 g/dL). A total of 91.2 of the patients were on an erythropoiesis- stimulating agent (ESA). Hb levels increased with age and were higher in peritoneal dialysis compared with haemodialysis patients. Patients with congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract showed the highest Hb levels, and those with cystic kidney diseases or metabolic disorders the lowest ones. Ferritin levels between 25 and 50 ng/mL were associated with the highest Hb levels. We found a weak inverse association between parathyroid hormone (PTH) and Hb. Whereas standardized blood pressure (BP) was not elevated in patients with above-target Hb, elevated systolic BP z-score was noted in those with sub-target Hb levels.ConclusionsSub-target Hb levels remain common in children on dialysis, in spite of virtually all children being treated with ESA; although we cannot exclude under-dosing. Optimal ferritin levels seemed to be slightly lower in children (25-50 ng/mL) than those in adults. Other risk factors for sub-target Hb are dialysis modality and a high PTH level. © 2012 The Author.

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