MotiLal Nehru Medical College

Allahābād, India

MotiLal Nehru Medical College

Allahābād, India
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Sahu A.K.,Motilal Nehru Medical College | Singh S.K.,Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology | Verma A.,Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2011

The present study deals with formulation and evaluation of floating matrix tablets of Chitosan and HPMC using furosemide as model drug. Floating matrix tablets using Chitosan and HPMC in various concentrations were formulated and investigation of in vitro dissolution, floating capability, drug release kinetics and mechanism, similarity factor analysis were performed along with Differential Scanning Calorimetry to determine the physiochemical properties of the prepared tablets and the excipients. Effect of Chitosan and HPMC concentration on drug release kinetics and buoyancy was also determined. Formulations showed 78.53, 63.72, 50.19, 46.67, 74.95 and 76.52% of drug released in 8 hrs respectively. The values of t50% and t80% were found to be between 293.78 to 513.13 minutes for 50% of drug release and 488.72 to 826.69 minutes for 80% of drug release. In vitro drug release of furosemide in all the formulations was best explained by zero order equation and followed mechanism typical of non-Fickian diffusion. Most of the formulations showed floatation lag time of less <1 min and floated throughout the dissolution process. By combining HPMC with Chitosan in various blends we obtained formulations following zero order kinetics with floatation period of more than 8hrs and suitable for oral control release of furosemide.


Chakraborty A.,Motilal Nehru Medical College | Adhikari P.,Manipal University India | Shenoy S.,Manipal University India | Saralaya V.,Manipal University India
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology | Year: 2017

Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) express a multitude of virulence factors (VFs) to break the inertia of the mucosal barrier of the urinary tract. The aim of the present study was undertaken to characterised the UPEC strains and to correlate carriage of specific virulence markers with different phylogroups and also to correlate these findings with clinical outcome of patients. A total of 156 non-repeated, clinically significant UPEC isolates were studied. Virulent genes were determined by two set of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Phylogenetic analysis was performed by triplex PCR methods. Antibiograms and patient's clinical outcomes were collected in a structured pro forma. Of the 156 patients infected by UPEC strains with significant bacterial counts the most common predisposing factors were diabetes (45.5%) followed by carcinoma (7%). On analysis of the VF genes of the isolates, a majority of strains (140; 90%) were possessing the fimH gene followed by iutA (98; 63%), papC (76; 49%), cnf1 (46; 29.5%), hlyA (45; 29%) and neuC (8; 5%), respectively. On phylogenetic analysis, 27 (17%) isolates were belong to phylogroup A, 16 (10%) strains to Group B1, 59 (38%) were from Group B2 and 54 (35%) were from Group D. High prevalence of antibiotic resistance was observed among the isolates. The incidence of papC, cnf1 and hlyA was significantly higher (P < 0.05) among the isolates from relapse patients. Our findings indicate that virulent as well as commensal strains are capable of causing urinary tract infection. Virulence genes as well as patients-related factors are equally responsible for the development of infections and also that virulence genes may help such isolates to persist even with appropriate chemotherapy and be responsible for recurrent infections. © 2017 Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology Published by Wolters Kluwer -Medknow.


Chaudhary A.K.,Allahabad University | Chaudhary A.K.,MotiLal Nehru Medical College | Pandya S.,MotiLal Nehru Medical College | Mehrotra R.,MotiLal Nehru Medical College | And 3 more authors.
Biomarkers | Year: 2010

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are a family of zinc-dependent proteases that degrade the entire component of the extracellular matrix. Our study explores the association of the MMP1 gene promoter (-1607 1G/2G) polymorphisms in oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) in an Indian population. The MMP1single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was genotyped by polymerase chain reactionrestriction fragment length polymorphism analysis in 412 patients with OSMF, 422 with HNSCC and 426 controls. Our results showed that the frequency of 1G/2G or 2G/2G promoter genotypes having the 2G allele is associated with higher enzymatic activity and significantly increases in OSMF (p<0.001) and HNSCC cases (p<0.00). In this study, results concluded that SNPs in the MMP1 promoter region may be associated with susceptibility to OSMF as well as HNSCC in an Indian population and addiction habits such as areca nut chewing and alcohol abuse may enhance the expression of the 2G allele of MMP1 genes in OSMF and HNSCC cases. © 2010 Informa UK, Ltd.


Bedre R.H.,Louisiana State University | Raj U.,Indian Institute of Information Technology Allahabad | Misra S.P.,Motilal Nehru Medical College | Varadwaj P.K.,Indian Institute of Information Technology Allahabad
Indian Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2016

Nucleotide/nucleoside analogues (antiviral therapy) are used in the therapy of HBeAg positive and HBeAg negative chronic hepatitis B. We analyzed ten selected randomized controlled with 2557 patients to estimate the effect of antiviral drugs in chronic hepatitis B with compared to placebo. Virological response, biochemical response, histological response, seroconversion of HBeAg, and loss of HBeAg were estimated as primary efficacy measures. The included studies were subjected for heterogeneity and publication bias. The heterogeneity was assessed with χ2 and I2 statistics. Publication bias was assessed by funnel plot. Greater rates of improvement obtained in antiviral group for virological response [43.96 % vs. 3.15 %, RR = 0.57, 95 % CI = 0.54–0.61, p-value <0.00001], biochemical response [58.37 % vs. 21.87 %, RR = 0.52, 95 % CI = 0.48–0.56, p-value <0.00001], histological response [58.99 % vs. 27.13 %, RR = 0.56, 95 % CI = 0.50–0.63, p-value <0.0001], seroconversion of HBeAg [10.66 % vs. 5.56 %, RR = 0.94, 95 % CI = 0.91–0.97, p-value = 0.0005], and HBeAg loss [14.59 % vs. 9.64 %, RR = 0.92, 95 % CI = 0.88–0.96, p-value = 0.0002]. The safety analysis were carried out for adverse events such as headache [17.22 % vs. 17.34 %, OR = 1.09, 95 % CI = 0.81–1.46, p-value = 0.58], abdominal pain [16.46 % vs. 14.34 %, OR = 1.24, 95 % CI = 0.90–1.72, p-value = 0.19], and pharyngitis [22.22 % vs. 18.23 %, OR = 1.12, 95 % CI = 0.86–1.45, p-value = 0.40]. Excluding adverse events, all primary efficacy measures shown statistical significant result for chronic hepatitis treatment (p-value <0.05). Antiviral therapy provided significant benefit for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B with no measurable adverse effects. © 2016, Indian Society of Gastroenterology.


PubMed | Indian Institute of Information Technology Allahabad, Louisiana State University and Motilal Nehru Medical College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Indian journal of gastroenterology : official journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology | Year: 2016

Nucleotide/nucleoside analogues (antiviral therapy) are used in the therapy of HBeAg positive and HBeAg negative chronic hepatitis B. We analyzed ten selected randomized controlled with 2557 patients to estimate the effect of antiviral drugs in chronic hepatitis B with compared to placebo. Virological response, biochemical response, histological response, seroconversion of HBeAg, and loss of HBeAg were estimated as primary efficacy measures. The included studies were subjected for heterogeneity and publication bias. The heterogeneity was assessed with 2 and I(2) statistics. Publication bias was assessed by funnel plot. Greater rates of improvement obtained in antiviral group for virological response [43.96% vs. 3.15%, RR=0.57, 95% CI=0.54-0.61, p-value <0.00001], biochemical response [58.37% vs. 21.87%, RR=0.52, 95% CI=0.48-0.56, p-value <0.00001], histological response [58.99% vs. 27.13%, RR=0.56, 95% CI=0.50-0.63, p-value <0.0001], seroconversion of HBeAg [10.66% vs. 5.56%, RR=0.94, 95% CI=0.91-0.97, p-value=0.0005], and HBeAg loss [14.59% vs. 9.64%, RR=0.92, 95% CI=0.88-0.96, p-value=0.0002]. The safety analysis were carried out for adverse events such as headache [17.22% vs. 17.34%, OR=1.09, 95% CI=0.81-1.46, p-value=0.58], abdominal pain [16.46% vs. 14.34%, OR=1.24, 95% CI=0.90-1.72, p-value=0.19], and pharyngitis [22.22% vs. 18.23%, OR=1.12, 95% CI=0.86-1.45, p-value=0.40]. Excluding adverse events, all primary efficacy measures shown statistical significant result for chronic hepatitis treatment (p-value <0.05). Antiviral therapy provided significant benefit for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B with no measurable adverse effects.


PubMed | Mangalore University and Motilal Nehru Medical College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Indian journal of pathology & microbiology | Year: 2016

In recent years, nonlactose fermenting (NLF) Escherichia coli have been increasingly isolated in the microbiology laboratory, but their clinical significance has not yet been clearly elucidated.To characterize the lactose fermenting (LF) and NLF isolates on the basis of their virulence factors, phylogenetic background, and drug resistance property.This descriptive study was carried out in a multi-specialty tertiary care hospital.Three hundred nonrepeat E. coli isolates from inpatients were studied. Isolates were differentiated as LF and NLF on the basis of colony characteristics on MacConkeys agar. Possession of virulence and drug resistance genes was determined by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Phylogenetic analysis was performed by triplex PCR methods. Antibiotic sensitivity testing was performed by disk diffusion method.Of 300 isolates 39 (13%) were NLF isolates. Maximum number of NLF isolates belonged to phylogroups B2 and D when compared with LF isolates. The incidence of iutA, hlyA, and neuC genes were significantly higher in NLF isolates. The presence of drug resistance genes such as AmpC gene, SHV, and CTXM were higher in LF isolates.LF isolates demonstrated a higher antimicrobial resistance and NLF isolates possessed higher virulence properties. The microbiology laboratory should report lactose fermentation profile as it may help the physician to initiate appropriate treatment.


PubMed | Molecular Biology Unit, Hospital and Research Center, CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory and Motilal Nehru Medical College
Type: | Journal: Journal of infection and public health | Year: 2016

The human stomach is colonized by diverse bacterial species. The presence of non-Helicobacter pylori bacteria in urease-positive biopsies of individuals has been reported. Bacteria belonging to the Ochrobactrum genus have been documented in the human gastric niche. The co-occurrence of Ochrobactrum spp. with H. pylori was previously reported in an antral biopsy of a non-ulcer dyspeptic (NUD) subject from Northern India. There is no information on the genetic diversity of Ochrobactrum spp. isolated from the gastric niche in the stomach. We aimed to study the species distribution and diversity of Ochrobactrum spp. with and without H. pylori in urease-positive biopsies across three different geographical regions in India. Sixty-two Ochrobactrum isolates recovered from patients with an upper gastric disorder (n=218) were subjected to molecular identification and multilocus sequence typing. H. pylori DNA was found in the majority of biopsies, which had a variable degree of Ochrobactrum spp present. Interestingly, some of the urease-positive biopsies only had Ochrobactrum without any H. pylori DNA. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the Ochrobactrum isolates were distributed into the O. intermedium, O. anthropi and O. oryzae groups. This indicates there are multiple species in the gastric niche irrespective of the presence or absence of H. pylori. Antibiotyping based on colistin and polymyxin B could differentiate between O. intermedium and O. anthropi without revealing the resistance-driven diversity. Considering the prevalence of multiple Ochrobactrum spp. in the human gastric niche, it is important to evaluate the commensal and/or pathogenic nature of non-H. pylori bacteria with respect to their geographical distribution, lifestyle and nutrition needs.


Bhalerao S.A.,Government M D Eye Hospital | Tandon M.,Government M D Eye Hospital | Singh S.,Government M D Eye Hospital | Dwivedi S.,Motilal Nehru Medical College | And 2 more authors.
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2015

Background/Aims: Information on eye diseases in blind school children in Allahabad is rare and sketchy. A cross-sectional study was performed to identify causes of blindness (BL) in blind school children with an aim to gather information on ocular morbidity in the blind schools in Allahabad and in its vicinity. Study Design and Setting: A cross-sectional study was carried out in all the four blind schools in Allahabad and its vicinity. Materials and Methods: The students in the blind schools visited were included in the study and informed consents from parents were obtained. Relevant ocular history and basic ocular examinations were carried out on the students of the blind schools. Results: A total of 90 students were examined in four schools of the blind in Allahabad and in the vicinity. The main causes of severe visual impairment and BL in the better eye of students were microphthalmos (34.44%), corneal scar (22.23%), anophthalmos (14.45%), pseudophakia (6.67%), optic nerve atrophy (6.67%), buphthalmos/glaucoma (3.33%), cryptophthalmos (2.22%), staphyloma (2.22%), cataract (2.22%), retinal dystrophy (2.22%), aphakia (1.11%), coloboma (1.11%), retinal detachment (1.11%), etc. Of these, 22 (24.44%) students had preventable causes of BL and another 12 (13.33%) students had treatable causes of BL. Conclusion: It was found that hereditary diseases, corneal scar, glaucoma and cataract were the prominent causes of BL among the students of blind schools. Almost 38% of the students had preventable or treatable causes, indicating the need of genetical counseling and focused intervention.


Singh A.K.,MotiLal Nehru Medical College | Singh B.,MotiLal Nehru Medical College
Journal of the Anatomical Society of India | Year: 2012

This cross sectional study was conducted to evaluate accuracy of commonly used ultrasound dating formulae in specified North Indian population. BPD of fetuses of 841 singleton pregnant females was ultrasonographically measured for subsequent statistical analysis.The mean BPD for each GA (derived from LMP) of this study was statistically compared with mean BPD from that of published data by Hadlock et al., Shepard & Filly, Sabbagha & Hughey and Kurtz et al.. Square Regression Equation was selected to prepare a population specific BPD table for every respective GA.The results show that North Indian fetuses are smaller than European fetuses even before 3rd trimester and gestational ages derived from sonographic Western reference equations are underestimated in this population, hence IUGR is diagnosed frequently; suggesting the need of population specific charts.It is generally thought that the small size of Indian neonates at birth is attributable to small maternal size, an inadequate nutrient supply during late pregnancy, or both; but that early fetal growth, when nutrient requirements are very small and there are no constraints on space for growth, is similar to that of other populations.This suggests that any intervention designed to ensure appropriate fetal growth in North Indian populations would need to start pre-conceptionally or during early pregnancy. © 2012 Anatomical Society of India.


PubMed | Motilal Nehru Medical College and Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Anesthesia, essays and researches | Year: 2015

Ceftazidime is a widely used antibiotic with broad spectrum activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative microbes and is used prophylactically in neurosurgical patients prior to surgery. Neurotoxicity is a recognized complication of ceftazidime use but is reported predominantly after repeated administration in patients with impaired renal status. We encountered a patient with an intracranial tumor who developed generalized convulsions following a single dose of ceftazidime, which was infused rapidly and attempt to provide an explanation of this uncommon occurrence.

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