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New York, NEW YORK, United States

Motilal Nehru was an Indian lawyer, an activist of the Indian National Movement and an important leader of the Indian National Congress, who also served as the Congress President twice, 1919–1920 and 1928–1929. He was the founder patriarch of India's most powerful political family, the Nehru-Gandhi family. Wikipedia.

Mehrotra R.,MOTI
Diagnostic Cytopathology | Year: 2012

Historically, sensitivity and specificity of oral cytology is poor. Using conventional oral cytology for the diagnosis of cancer and its precursors has not had the success that cytologists had hoped for; however, with improved methodology, oral cytology has enjoyed a resurgence of interest. This renewed interest is partly due to the introduction of a specialized brush that collects a full-thickness epithelial sample and not just superficially sloughed cells, as well as analysis of that sample with computer assistance; in addition, a variety of adjunctive techniques have been introduced to potentially enhance the diagnosis of the cytologic specimens including DNA analysis, immunocytochemistry, molecular analysis, and liquid-based preparations. An increase in sensitivity (>96%) and specificity (>90%) of the oral brush biopsy with computer-assisted diagnosis has been reported for identification of malignant and premalignant lesions. Brush cytology is valuable to prevent misdiagnosing doubtful oral lesions, i.e., those lesions without a definitive etiology, diagnosing large lesions where excision of the entire tissue is not possible or practicable, evaluating patients with recurrent malignancies, and monitoring premalignant lesions. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2012; © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Mehrotra R.,MOTI
Indian journal of cancer | Year: 2010

Beginning with the Cigarettes Act, 1975, a number of legislative strategies and programs to curb tobacco use have been implemented in India, with limited success. Currently, the Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act, 2003, is designed to curb the use of tobacco in order to protect and promote public health. This review presents a critical appraisal of the current situation in its historical context. Source

Pandey S.,MOTI
Journal of orthopaedic surgery (Hong Kong) | Year: 2013

To compare outcomes of different conservative treatments for flatfoot using the foot print index and valgus index. 150 symptomatic flatfoot patients and 50 controls (without any flatfoot or lower limb deformity) aged older than 8 years were evaluated. The diagnosis was based on pain during walking a distance, the great toe extension test, the valgus index, the foot print index (FPI), as well as eversion/ inversion and dorsiflexion at the ankle. The patients were unequally randomised into 4 treatment groups: (1) foot exercises (n=60), (2) use of the Thomas crooked and elongated heel with or without arch support (n=45), (3) use of the Rose Schwartz insoles (n=18), and (4) foot exercises combined with both footwear modifications (n=27). Of the 150 symptomatic flatfoot patients, 96 had severe flatfoot (FPI, >75) and 54 had incipient flatfoot (FPI, 45-74). The great toe extension test was positive in all 50 controls and 144 patients, and negative in 6 patients (p=0.1734, one-tailed test), which yielded a sensitivity of 96% and a positive predictive value of 74%. Symptoms correlated with the FPI (Chi squared=9.7, p=0.0213). Combining foot exercises and foot wear modifications achieved best outcome in terms of pain relief, gait improvement, and decrease in the FPI and valgus index. The great toe extension test was the best screening tool. The FPI was a good tool for diagnosing and grading of flatfoot and evaluating treatment progress. Combining foot exercises and foot wear modifications achieved the best outcome. Source

Sharan R.N.,North - Eastern Hill University | Mehrotra R.,MOTI | Choudhury Y.,Assam University | Asotra K.,GaneShiva Consultants
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Betel nut (BN), betel quid (BQ) and products derived from them are widely used as a socially endorsed masticatory product. The addictive nature of BN/BQ has resulted in its widespread usage making it the fourth most abused substance by humans. Progressively, several additives, including chewing tobacco, got added to simple BN preparations. This addictive practice has been shown to have strong etiological correlation with human susceptibility to cancer, particularly oral and oropharyngeal cancers. The PUBMED database was searched to retrieve all relevant published studies in English on BN and BQ, and its association with oral and oropharyngeal cancers. Only complete studies directly dealing with BN/BQ induced carcinogenesis using statistically valid and acceptable sample size were analyzed. Additional relevant information available from other sources was also considered. This systematic review attempts to put in perspective the consequences of this widespread habit of BN/BQ mastication, practiced by approximately 10% of the world population, on oral cancer with a clinical perspective. BN/BQ mastication seems to be significantly associated with susceptibility to oral and oropharyngeal cancers. Addition of tobacco to BN has been found to only marginally increase the cancer risk. Despite the widespread usage of BN/BQ and its strong association with human susceptibility to cancer, no serious strategy seems to exist to control this habit. The review, therefore, also looks at various preventive efforts being made by governments and highlights the multifaceted intervention strategies required to mitigate and/or control the habit of BN/BQ mastication. © 2012 Sharan et al. Source

Kastury N.,MOTI
Journal, Indian Academy of Clinical Medicine | Year: 2010

Communication is an important component of patient care. However, doctors are generally not given any specific training in how to communicate well with patients. Traditionally, communication in medical school curricula was incorporated informally as part of rounds and faculty feedback, but without a specific or intense focus on skills of communication per se. It has been shown that good doctor-patient communication has an impact on better health outcomes, higher compliance to therapeutic regimens in patients, higher patient and clinician satisfaction, and a decrease in malpractice risk. It is the need of time to conduct more research in this area and to actively include teaching the art of communication skills in undergraduate and postgraduate learning programmes for the benefit of both the doctor and the patient. Source

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