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Devaney S.A.,Johns Hopkins University | Devaney S.A.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Palomaki G.E.,Brown University | Scott J.A.,Johns Hopkins University | Bianchi D.W.,Mother Infant Research Institute
JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association | Year: 2011

Context: Noninvasive prenatal determination of fetal sex using cell-free fetal DNA provides an alternative to invasive techniques for some heritable disorders. In some countries this testing has transitioned to clinical care, despite the absence of a formal assessment of performance. Objective: To document overall test performance of noninvasive fetal sex determination using cell-free fetal DNA and to identify variables that affect performance. Data Sources: Systematic review and meta-analysis with search of PubMed (January 1, 1997-April 17, 2011) to identify English-language human studies reporting primary data. References from review articles were also searched. Study Selection and Data Extraction: Abstracts were read independently to identify studies reporting primary data suitable for analysis. Covariates included publication year, sample type, DNA amplification methodology, Y chromosome sequence, and gestational age. Data were independently extracted by 2 reviewers. Results: From 57 selected studies, 80 data sets (representing 3524 male-bearing pregnancies and 3017 female-bearing pregnancies) were analyzed. Overall performance of the test to detect Y chromosome sequences had the following characteristics: sensitivity, 95.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 94.7%-96.1%) and specificity, 98.6% (95% CI, 98.1%-99.0%); diagnostic odds ratio (OR), 885; positive predictive value, 98.8%; negative predictive value, 94.8%; area under curve (AUC), 0.993 (95% CI, 0.989-0.995), with significant interstudy heterogeneity. DNA methodology and gestational age had the largest effects on test performance. Methodology test characteristics were AUC, 0.988 (95% CI, 0.979-0.993) for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and AUC, 0.996 (95% CI, 0.993-0.998) for real-time quantitative PCR (RTQ-PCR) (P=.02). Gestational age test characteristics were AUC, 0.989 (95% CI, 0.965-0.998) (<7 weeks); AUC, 0.994 (95% CI, 0.987- 0.997) (7-12 weeks); AUC, 0.992 (95% CI, 0.983-0.996) (13-20 weeks); and AUC, 0.998 (95% CI, 0.990-0.999) (>20 weeks) (P=.02 for comparison of diagnostic ORs across age ranges). RTQ-PCR (sensitivity, 96.0%; specificity, 99.0%) outperformed conventional PCR (sensitivity, 94.0%; specificity, 97.3%). Testing after 20 weeks (sensitivity, 99.0%; specificity, 99.6%) outperformed testing prior to 7 weeks (sensitivity, 74.5%; specificity, 99.1%), testing at 7 through 12 weeks (sensitivity, 94.8%; specificity, 98.9%), and 13 through 20 weeks (sensitivity, 95.5%; specificity, 99.1%). Conclusions: Despite interstudy variability, performance was high using maternal blood. Sensitivity and specificity for detection of Y chromosome sequences was greatest using RTQ-PCR after 20 weeks' gestation. Tests using urine and tests performed before 7 weeks' gestation were unreliable. ©2011 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.

Vishwanathan R.,Tufts University | Kuchan M.J.,Abbott Laboratories | Sen S.,Mother Infant Research Institute | Johnson E.J.,Tufts University
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition | Year: 2014

Methods: Voluntarily donated brain tissues from 30 infants who died during the first 1.5 years of life were obtained from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Brain and Tissue Bank. Tissues (hippocampus and prefrontal, frontal, auditory, and occipital cortices) were extracted using standard lipid extraction procedures and analyzed using reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. Results: Lutein, zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, and β-carotene were the major carotenoids found in the infant brain tissues. Lutein was the predominant carotenoid accounting for 59% of total carotenoids. Preterm infants (n = 8) had significantly lower concentrations of lutein, zeaxanthin, and cryptoxanthin in their brain compared with term infants (n = 22) despite similarity in postmenstrual age. Among formula-fed infants, preterm infants (n=3) had lower concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin compared with term infants (n=5). Brain lutein concentrations were not different between breast milk-fed (n=3) and formula-fed (n=5) term decedents. In contrast, term decedents with measurable brain cryptoxanthin, a carotenoid that is inherently low in formula, had higher brain lutein, suggesting that the type of feeding is an important determinant of brain lutein concentrations.Conclusions: These data reveal preferential accumulation and maintenance of lutein in the infant brain despite underrepresentation in the typical infant diet. Further investigation on the impact of lutein on neural development in preterm infants is warranted.Objectives: Lutein and zeaxanthin are dietary carotenoids that may influence visual and cognitive development. The objective of this study was to provide the first data on distribution of carotenoids in the infant brain and compare concentrations in preterm and term infants. Copyright © 2014 by European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition and North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition.

Maron J.L.,Mother Infant Research Institute
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine | Year: 2016

The ability to noninvasively assess the physical and developmental status of a neonate is a goal of modern medicine. In recent years, technological advances have permitted the highthroughput analysis of saliva for thousands of genes, proteins, and metabolites from a single sample source. Saliva is an ideal biofluid to assess health, disease, and development in the newborn. It may be harnessed repeatedly, even in the most vulnerable patients, without risk of harm. Translating novel information about an infant’s global development and risk of disease to the neonatal bedside through the salivary transcriptome has the potential to significantly improve clinical care and outcomes in this at-risk population. © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

Bianchi D.W.,Mother Infant Research Institute | Wilkins-Haug L.,Harvard University
Clinical Chemistry | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Over the past 2 years, noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT), which uses massively parallel sequencing to align and countDNAfragments floating in the plasma of pregnant women, has become integrated into prenatal care. Professional societies currently recommend offering NIPT as an advanced screen to pregnant women at high risk for fetal aneuploidy, reserving invasive diagnostic procedures for those at the very highest risk. CONTENT: In this review, we summarize the available information on autosomal and sex chromosome aneuploidy detection. Clinical performance in CLIAcertified, College of American Pathology-accredited laboratories appears to be equivalent to prior clinical validation studies, with high sensitivities and specificities and very high negative predictive values. The main impact on clinical care has been a reduction in invasive procedures. Test accuracy is affected by the fetal fraction, the percentage of fetalDNAin the total amount of circulating cell-free DNA. Fetal fraction is in turn affected by maternal body mass index, gestational age, type of aneuploidy, singleton vs multiples, and mosaicism. Three studies comparing NIPT to serum or combined screening for autosomal aneuploidy all show that NIPT has significantly lower false-positive rates (approximately 0.1%), even in all-risk populations. A significant number of the discordant positive cases have underlying biological reasons, including confined placental mosaicism, maternal mosaicism, cotwin demise, or maternal malignancy. SUMMARY: NIPT performs well as an advanced screen for whole chromosome aneuploidy. Economic considerations will likely dictate whether its use can be expanded to all risk populations and whether it can be applied routinely for the detection of subchromosome abnormalities. © 2013 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

Taglauer E.S.,Floating Hospital for Children | Wilkins-Haug L.,Brigham and Womens Hospital | Bianchi D.W.,Mother Infant Research Institute
Placenta | Year: 2014

In human pregnancy, the constant turnover of villous trophoblast results in extrusion of apoptotic material into the maternal circulation. This material includes cell-free (cf) DNA, which is commonly referred to as "fetal", but is actually derived from the placenta. As the release of cf DNA is closely tied to placental morphogenesis, conditions associated with abnormal placentation, such as preeclampsia, are associated with high DNA levels in the blood of pregnant women. Over the past five years, the development and commercial availability of techniques of massively parallel DNA sequencing have facilitated noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for fetal trisomies 13, 18, and 21. Clinical experience accrued over the past two years has highlighted the importance of the fetal fraction (ff) in cf DNA analysis. The ff is the amount of cell-free fetal DNA in a given sample divided by the total amount of cell-free DNA. At any gestational age, ff has a bell-shaped distribution that peaks between 10 and 20% at 10-21 weeks. ff is affected by maternal body mass index, gestational age, fetal aneuploidy, and whether the gestation is a singleton or multiple. In approximately 0.1% of clinical cases, the NIPT result and a subsequent diagnostic karyotype are discordant; confined placental mosaicism has been increasingly reported as an underlying biologic explanation. Cell-free fetal DNA is a new biomarker that can provide information about the placenta and potentially be used to predict clinical problems. Knowledge gaps still exist with regard to what affects production, metabolism, and clearance of feto-placental DNA. © 2013 Published by IFPA and Elsevier Ltd.

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