Motac Neuroscience Ltd

Manchester, United Kingdom

Motac Neuroscience Ltd

Manchester, United Kingdom

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Ko W.K.D.,Motac Neuroscience Ltd | Ko W.K.D.,Institut Universitaire de France | Ko W.K.D.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Pioli E.,Motac Neuroscience Ltd | And 8 more authors.
Movement Disorders | Year: 2014

Amantadine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor antagonist, is currently the only pharmacological treatment for levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) in Parkinson's disease (PD), but causes adverse effects on the central nervous system at therapeutic doses. Fenobam, a negative modulator of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5, has recently been reported to attenuate LID in MPTP-treated macaques. The aim of the current study was to investigate the treatment interactions of fenobam and amantadine on LID in the MPTP-treated macaque model of PD. The antidyskinetic and -parkinsonian effects were measured after administration of fenobam (10-30 mg/kg) and amantadine (10-30 mg/kg) alone and in combination. Fenobam (30 mg/kg) and amantadine (30 mg/kg) alone reduced LID, whereas lower doses of either drug did not cause any significant effects. A combined treatment of fenobam and amantadine at subthreshold doses (10 and 20 mg/kg) significantly reduced LID without worsening PD disability. These data suggest that a low-dose combination of fenobam and amantadine can be used for alleviating dyskinesia without causing adverse motor effects. Such combined therapies may offer a new therapeutic strategy for treatment of LID in PD patients. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.


PubMed | Brown University, Fraunhofer Institute for Chemical Technology, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, University of Lausanne and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nature | Year: 2016

Spinal cord injury disrupts the communication between the brain and the spinal circuits that orchestrate movement. To bypass the lesion, brain-computer interfaces have directly linked cortical activity to electrical stimulation of muscles, and have thus restored grasping abilities after hand paralysis. Theoretically, this strategy could also restore control over leg muscle activity for walking. However, replicating the complex sequence of individual muscle activation patterns underlying natural and adaptive locomotor movements poses formidable conceptual and technological challenges. Recently, it was shown in rats that epidural electrical stimulation of the lumbar spinal cord can reproduce the natural activation of synergistic muscle groups producing locomotion. Here we interface leg motor cortex activity with epidural electrical stimulation protocols to establish a brain-spine interface that alleviated gait deficits after a spinal cord injury in non-human primates. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were implanted with an intracortical microelectrode array in the leg area of the motor cortex and with a spinal cord stimulation system composed of a spatially selective epidural implant and a pulse generator with real-time triggering capabilities. We designed and implemented wireless control systems that linked online neural decoding of extension and flexion motor states with stimulation protocols promoting these movements. These systems allowed the monkeys to behave freely without any restrictions or constraining tethered electronics. After validation of the brain-spine interface in intact (uninjured) monkeys, we performed a unilateral corticospinal tract lesion at the thoracic level. As early as six days post-injury and without prior training of the monkeys, the brain-spine interface restored weight-bearing locomotion of the paralysed leg on a treadmill and overground. The implantable components integrated in the brain-spine interface have all been approved for investigational applications in similar human research, suggesting a practical translational pathway for proof-of-concept studies in people with spinal cord injury.


Schneider J.S.,Thomas Jefferson University | Pioli E.Y.,Motac Cognition Inc | Pioli E.Y.,Motac Neuroscience Ltd | Jianzhong Y.,Motac Cognition Inc | And 6 more authors.
Movement Disorders | Year: 2013

Background: Levodopa effectively relieves motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), but has had inconsistent effects on cognition, even worsening some aspects of cognitive functioning. Therefore, remediation of PD cognitive deficits is a major unmet need. However, drug development efforts have been hampered by lack of an animal model in which motor and cognitive deficits can be examined simultaneously. Methods: Cynomolgus monkeys were trained to perform cognitive tasks and then chronically exposed to MPTP to slowly produce cognitive and motor deficits of parkinsonism. Results: Administration of L-dopa to these animals dose dependently improved motor functioning, but did not significantly improve cognitive performance. At doses that maximally improved motor function, additional cognitive deficits were observed. The present model of MPTP-induced parkinsonism recapitulates important motor and cognitive aspects of PD. Results with L-dopa mirror data derived from PD patients. Conclusion: This model should allow more efficient testing of potential PD therapeutics to evaluate motor and cognitive functions simultaneously. © 2012 Movement Disorders Society.


Fernagut P.-O.,University of Bordeaux Segalen | Li Q.,Motac Neuroscience Ltd | Li Q.,China Academy of Medical science | Dovero S.,University of Bordeaux Segalen | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: Radiotracer imaging of the presynaptic nigrostriatal dopaminergic system is used to assess disease progression in Parkinson's disease (PD) and may provide a useful adjunct to clinical assessment during therapeutic trials of potential neuroprotective agents. Several clinical trials comparing dopamine agonists to L-DOPA or early vs. late L-DOPA have revealed differences between clinical assessment and imaging of the presynaptic dopaminergic system, hence questioning the comparability of these measures as neuroprotection outcome variables. Thus, results of these studies may have been affected by factors other than the primary biological process investigated. Methodology/Principal Findings: We tested the possibility that L-DOPA might interfere with DAT binding. Post-mortem DAT binding was conducted in normal and MPTP-treated macaque monkeys that were administered L-DOPA, acutely or chronically. In parallel, DAT SPECT was conducted in MPTP-treated animals that were administered chronic L-DOPA. [99mTc]TRODAT-1 SPECT binding was similarly reduced in all MPTP monkeys regardless of L-DOPA treatment. L-DOPA had no significant effect on post-mortem DAT binding either in saline or in MPTP-lesioned animals. Conclusions/Significance: These data indicate that L-DOPA does not induce modifications of DAT expression detectable by SPECT of by DAT binding autoradiography, suggesting that differences between clinical assessment and radiotracer imaging in clinical trials may not be specifically related to L-DOPA treatment. © 2010 Fernagut et al.


Camus S.M.J.,Institut Universitaire de France | Blois-Heulin C.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Li Q.,China Academy of Medical science | Li Q.,Motac Neuroscience Ltd | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background:To date, experimental and preclinical studies on neuropsychiatric conditions have almost exclusively been performed in experimentally-induced animal models and have only rarely relied upon an ethological approach where animals have been observed in more naturalistic settings. The laboratory species of choice has been the rodent while the potential of more closely-related non-human primates have remained largely underexplored.Methods:The present study, therefore, aimed at investigating the possible existence of spontaneous atypical/abnormal behaviours displayed by 40 cynomolgus macaques in captive conditions using an unbiased ethological scan-sampling analysis followed by multifactorial correspondence analysis and a hierarchical clustering.Results:The study identified five distinct profiles (groups A to E) that significantly differed on several behaviours, body postures, body orientations, gaze directions and locations in the cage environment. We suggest that animals from the low n groups (D and E) present depressive-like and anxious-like symptoms, reminiscent of depressive and generalized anxiety disorders. Inter-individual differences were highlighted through unbiased ethological observations of spontaneous behaviours and associated parameters, although these were not associated with differences in plasma or cerebrospinal fluid levels of either stress-related hormones or monoamines, i.e. in accordance with the human situation.Conclusions:No interventional behavioural testing was required to discriminate between 3 typical and 2 atypical ethologically-defined behavioural profiles, reminiscent of certain depressive-like and anxiety-like symptoms. The use of unbiased behavioural observations might, thus, allow the identification of animal models of human mental/behavioural disorders and their most appropriate control groups. © 2013 Camus et al.


Camus S.,Motac Neuroscience Ltd | Ko W.K.D.,Motac Neuroscience Ltd | Pioli E.,Motac Neuroscience Ltd | Bezard E.,Motac Neuroscience Ltd | And 2 more authors.
Neurobiology of Learning and Memory | Year: 2015

Although everyone would agree that successful translation of therapeutic candidates for central nervous disorders should involve non-human primate (nhp) models of cognitive disorders, we are left with the paucity of publications reporting either the target validation or the actual preclinical testing in heuristic nhp models. In this review, we discuss the importance of nhps in translational research, highlighting the advances in technological/methodological approaches for 'bridging the gap' between preclinical and clinical experiments. In this process, we acknowledge that nhps remain a vital tool for the investigation of complex cognitive functions, given their resemblance to humans in aspects of behaviour, anatomy and physiology. The recent improvements made for a suitable nhp model in cognitive research, including new surrogates of disease and application of innovative methodological approaches, are continuous strides for reaching efficient translation for human benefit. This will ultimately aid the development of innovative treatments against the current and future threat of neurological and psychiatric disorders to the global population. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | Motac Neuroscience Ltd and French National Center for Scientific Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Neuropharmacology | Year: 2016

Istradefylline (KW-6002), an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist, is used adjunct with optimal doses of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) to extend on-time in Parkinsons disease (PD) patients experiencing motor fluctuations. Clinical application of istradefylline for the management of other l-DOPA-induced complications, both motor and non-motor related (i.e. dyskinesia and cognitive impairments), remains to be determined. In this study, acute effects of istradefylline (60-100mg/kg) alone, or with optimal and sub-optimal doses of l-DOPA, were evaluated in two monkey models of PD (i) the gold-standard 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated macaque model of parkinsonian and dyskinetic motor symptoms and (ii) the chronic low dose (CLD) MPTP-treated macaque model of cognitive (working memory and attentional) deficits. Behavioural analyses in l-DOPA-primed MPTP-treated macaques showed that istradefylline alone specifically alleviated postural deficits. When combined with an optimal l-DOPA treatment dose, istradefylline increased on-time, enhanced therapeutic effects on bradykinesia and locomotion, but exacerbated dyskinesia. Istradefylline treatment at specific doses with sub-optimal l-DOPA specifically alleviated bradykinesia. Cognitive assessments in CLD MPTP-treated macaques showed that the attentional and working memory deficits caused by l-DOPA were lowered after istradefylline administration. Taken together, these data support a broader clinical use of istradefylline as an adjunct treatment in PD, where specific treatment combinations can be utilised to manage various l-DOPA-induced complications, which importantly, maintain a desired anti-parkinsonian response.


Bezard E.,Institut Universitaire de France | Bezard E.,Institute for Neurodegenerative Diseases | Bezard E.,China Academy of Medical science | Tronci E.,University of Cagliari | And 8 more authors.
Movement Disorders | Year: 2013

The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5HT]) system has recently emerged as an important player in the appearance of l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (levodopa [l-dopa])-induced dyskinesia in animal models of Parkinson's disease. In fact, dopamine released as a false transmitter from serotonin neurons appears to contribute to the pulsatile stimulation of dopamine receptors, leading to the appearance of the abnormal involuntary movements. Thus, drugs able to dampen the activity of serotonin neurons hold promise for the treatment of dyskinesia. The authors investigated the ability of the mixed 5-HT 1A/1B receptor agonist eltoprazine to counteract l-dopa-induced dyskinesia in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats and in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated macaques. The data demonstrated that eltoprazine is extremely effective in suppressing dyskinesia in experimental models, although this effect was accompanied by a partial worsening of the therapeutic effect of l-dopa. Interestingly, eltoprazine was found to (synergistically) potentiate the antidyskinetic effect of amantadine. The current data indicated that eltoprazine is highly effective in counteracting dyskinesia in preclinical models. However, the partial worsening of the l-dopa effect observed after eltoprazine administration represents a concern; whether this side effect is due to a limitation of the animal models or to an intrinsic property of eltoprazine needs to be addressed in ongoing clinical trials. The data also suggest that the combination of low doses of eltoprazine with amantadine may represent a valid strategy to increase the antidyskinetic effect and reduce the eltoprazine-induced worsening of l-dopa therapeutic effects. © 2012 Movement Disorder Society.


PubMed | National Research Council Italy, Motac Neuroscience Ltd, University of Cagliari and University of Ferrara
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society | Year: 2016

The serotonin 5-HT1A/1B receptor agonist eltoprazine suppressed dyskinetic-like behavior in animal models of Parkinsons disease (PD) but simultaneously reduced levodopa (l-dopa)-induced motility. Moreover, adenosine A2A receptor antagonists, such as preladenant, significantly increased l-dopa efficacy in PD without exacerbating dyskinetic-like behavior.We evaluated whether a combination of eltoprazine and preladenant may prevent or suppress l-dopa-induced dyskinesia, without impairing l-dopas efficacy in relieving motor signs, in 2 PD models: unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated monkeys.Rotational behavior and abnormal involuntary movements, or disability and l-dopa-induced dyskinesia were evaluated in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats and MPTP-treated monkeys, respectively. Moreover, in the rodent striatum, induction of immediate-early gene zif-268, an index of long-term changes, was correlated with dyskinesia.In 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats, combined administration of l-dopa (4mg/kg) plus eltoprazine (0.6mg/kg) plus preladenant (0.3mg/kg) significantly prevented or reduced dyskinetic-like behavior without impairing motor activity. Zif-268 was increased in the striatum of rats treated with l-dopa and l-dopa plus preladenant compared with vehicle. In contrast, rats treated with eltoprazine (with or without preladenant) had lower zif-268 activation after chronic treatment in both the dyskinetic and l-dopa-non-primed groups. Moreover, acute l-dopa plus eltoprazine plus preladenant prevented worsening of motor performance (adjusting step) and sensorimotor integration deficit. Similar results were obtained in MPTP-treated monkeys, where a combination of preladenant with eltoprazine was found to counteract dyskinesia and maintain the full therapeutic effects of a low dose of l-dopa.Our results suggest a promising nondopaminergic pharmacological strategy for the treatment of dyskinesia in PD. 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

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