MOTAC NEUROSCIENCE Ltd | Date: 2011-03-31
The invention relates to the use of compounds that enhance 5-hydroxytryptamine 1a receptor activity, or activation (e.g. a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine 1a receptor agonists) for preventing or reducing motor fluctuations associated with dopamine replacement therapy.
Barraud Q.,University of Bordeaux Segalen |
Obeid I.,University of Bordeaux 1 |
Aubert I.,University of Bordeaux Segalen |
Barriere G.,University of Bordeaux Segalen |
And 9 more authors.
Background: The A11 diencephalospinal pathway is crucial for sensorimotor integration and pain control at the spinal cord level. When disrupted, it is thought to be involved in numerous painful conditions such as restless legs syndrome and migraine. Its anatomical organization, however, remains largely unknown in the non-human primate (NHP). We therefore characterized the anatomy of this pathway in the NHP. Methods and Findings: In situ hybridization of spinal dopamine receptors showed that D1 receptor mRNA is absent while D2 and D5 receptor mRNAs are mainly expressed in the dorsal horn and D3 receptor mRNA in both the dorsal and ventral horns. Unilateral injections of the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold (FG) into the cervical spinal enlargement labeled A11 hypothalamic neurons quasi-exclusively among dopamine areas. Detailed immunohistochemical analysis suggested that these FG-labeled A11 neurons are tyrosine hydroxylase-positive but dopa-decarboxylase and dopamine transporternegative, suggestive of a L-DOPAergic nucleus. Stereological cell count of A11 neurons revealed that this group is composed by 4002±501 neurons per side. A 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) intoxication with subsequent development of a parkinsonian syndrome produced a 50% neuronal cell loss in the A11 group. Conclusion: The diencephalic A11 area could be the major source of L-DOPA in the NHP spinal cord, where it may play a role in the modulation of sensorimotor integration through D2 and D3 receptors either directly or indirectly via dopamine formation in spinal dopa-decarboxylase-positives cells. © 2010 Barraud et al. Source
Camus S.,Motac Neuroscience Ltd |
Ko W.K.D.,Motac Neuroscience Ltd |
Pioli E.,Motac Neuroscience Ltd |
Bezard E.,Motac Neuroscience Ltd |
And 2 more authors.
Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Although everyone would agree that successful translation of therapeutic candidates for central nervous disorders should involve non-human primate (nhp) models of cognitive disorders, we are left with the paucity of publications reporting either the target validation or the actual preclinical testing in heuristic nhp models. In this review, we discuss the importance of nhps in translational research, highlighting the advances in technological/methodological approaches for 'bridging the gap' between preclinical and clinical experiments. In this process, we acknowledge that nhps remain a vital tool for the investigation of complex cognitive functions, given their resemblance to humans in aspects of behaviour, anatomy and physiology. The recent improvements made for a suitable nhp model in cognitive research, including new surrogates of disease and application of innovative methodological approaches, are continuous strides for reaching efficient translation for human benefit. This will ultimately aid the development of innovative treatments against the current and future threat of neurological and psychiatric disorders to the global population. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source
Bastide M.F.,Institut Universitaire de France |
Bastide M.F.,French National Center for Scientific Research |
Meissner W.G.,Institut Universitaire de France |
Meissner W.G.,French National Center for Scientific Research |
And 47 more authors.
Progress in Neurobiology
Involuntary movements, or dyskinesia, represent a debilitating complication of levodopa (L-dopa) therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD). L-dopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) are ultimately experienced by the vast majority of patients. In addition, psychiatric conditions often manifested as compulsive behaviours, are emerging as a serious problem in the management of L-dopa therapy. The present review attempts to provide an overview of our current understanding of dyskinesia and other L-dopa-induced dysfunctions, a field that dramatically evolved in the past twenty years. In view of the extensive literature on LID, there appeared a critical need to re-frame the concepts, to highlight the most suitable models, to review the central nervous system (CNS) circuitry that may be involved, and to propose a pathophysiological framework was timely and necessary. An updated review to clarify our understanding of LID and other L-dopa-related side effects was therefore timely and necessary. This review should help in the development of novel therapeutic strategies aimed at preventing the generation of dyskinetic symptoms. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source
Schneider J.S.,Thomas Jefferson University |
Pioli E.Y.,Motac Cognition Inc |
Pioli E.Y.,Motac Neuroscience Ltd |
Jianzhong Y.,Motac Cognition Inc |
And 6 more authors.
Neurobiology of Aging
Current pharmacotherapies for Alzheimer's disease (AD) are focused on improving performance of daily activities, personal care, and management of problematic behaviors. Both memantine, a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate channel blocker and galantamine, a selective acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, are currently prescribed as symptomatic therapies for AD. However, drugs that progressed directly from testing in rodent models to testing in AD patients in clinical trials failed to demonstrate consistent effects on cognitive symptoms. Considering the lack of nonhuman primate data on the effects of memantine and galantamine alone or in combination on cognitive dysfunction in aged nonhuman primates, the present study examined how closely data derived from aged nonhuman primates reflects data obtained in humans. Mild beneficial effects on aspects of cognitive performance in aged primates were found, in general agreement with the human clinical experience with these drugs but in contrast to the more positive effects reported in the rodent literature. These data suggest that the nonhuman primate might have more predictive validity for drug development in this area than comparable rodent assays. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source