The Moscow State Pedagogical University, previously known as the Moscow University for Women, the Second Moscow State University, the Moscow State Pedagogical Institute and the Moscow State V. I. Lenin Pedagogical Institute, and with origins dating back to 1872, is a major educational and scientific institution in Moscow, Russia, with eighteen faculties and seven branches in other Russian cities. Wikipedia.
Brandyshev P.E.,Moscow State Pedagogical University
Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2017
It is known that to obtain cosmological solutions consistent with the Hubble law and accelerated expansion, it is necessary to represent space-time in the form of de Sitter space of the first kind, which ismost simply described by a Robertson-Walkermetric having the scale factor with exponential time dependence. In standard general relativity, this solution is obtained by introduction of the cosmological constant Λ associated with dark energy, whose nature is still not clear. It would be of some interest to consider theories allowing one to obtain cosmological-type solutions without using an effective Λ term. This role was at their time claimed by various supergravity theories which are low-energy approximations of superstring theories. However, it was found that in these theories there are so-called no-go theorems which do not allow solutions in the form of de Sitter space of the first kind. It turned out that this problem can be solved in at least two ways. The first way is to admit the possibility of extra time dimensions, as was demonstrated for the ten-dimensional supergravity by Arefyeva et al. Another way is to consider corrections of higher order in the curvature tensor, which is a subject of this paper. As is known, non-chiral ten-dimensional N = 2 supergravity is a low-energy approximation of type IIA superstring theory. In the present paper, we consider the effective action for type IIA superstring theory, taking into account fourthorder curvature corrections. It is shown that in this case, indeed, one can obtain a cosmological solution in the form of de Sitter space, describing an exponential expansion of space without an effective Λ term. © 2017, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.
Gladush M.G.,Moscow State Pedagogical University
EPJ Web of Conferences | Year: 2016
A many particle quantum-kinetic formalism is suggested to derive the Maxwell-Bloch-Type equations which describe the interaction of quantum emitters with light in a frozen dielectric. It is shown that the quantum-kinetic formalism can meet the concept of local variations of dielectric properties and their influence on the emitter. The definitions of the local response and the effective refractive index in macroscopically homogeneous media are discussed. © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: SiS-2010-18.104.22.168 | Award Amount: 4.14M | Year: 2011
Following the recommendations of the Science Education Now: A renewed Pedagogy for the Future of Europe report, the Pathway Supporting Action is bringing together experts in the field of science education research and teachers communities, scientists and researchers involved in pioneering scientific research, policy makers and curriculum developers to promote the effective widespread use of inquiry and problem based science teaching techniques in primary and secondary schools in Europe and beyond. The proposed approach is based on three main axes that could facilitate the uptake of IBSE (Inquiry-Based Science Education): It a) proposes a standard-based approach to teaching science by inquiry that outlines instructional models that will help teachers to organise effectively their instruction, b) deploys a series of methods to motivate teachers to adopt inquiry based techniques and activities in their classrooms and c) offers access to a unique collection of open educational resources and teaching practices (linked with the science curricula) that have proven their efficiency and efficacy in promoting inquiry based education and that are expanding the limitations of classroom instruction. Such an approach enables all stakeholders (teachers, teachers trainers, curriculum developers, policy-makers) to examine their own practices in the light of the best performing approaches that set the standards on what can be achieved and provides them with a unique tool to bring about improvements in their everyday practice.
Novikov A.S.,Moscow State Pedagogical University |
Kuznetsov M.L.,University of Lisbon |
Pombeiro A.J.L.,University of Lisbon
Chemistry - A European Journal | Year: 2013
The theoretical background of the formation of N-heterocyclic oxadiazoline carbenes through a metal-assisted [2+3]-dipolar cycloaddition (CA) reaction of nitrones R1CH=N(R2)O to isocyanides Ci≡NR and the decomposition of these carbenes to imines R1CH=NR2 and isocyanates O=C=NR is discussed. Furthermore, the reaction mechanisms and factors that govern these processes are analyzed in detail. In the absence of a metal, oxadiazoline carbenes should not be accessible due to the high activation energy of their formation and their low thermodynamic stability. The most efficient promotors that could assist the synthesis of these species should be "carbenophilic" metals that form a strong bond with the oxadiazoline heterocycle, but without significant involvement of π-back donation, namely, AuI, AuIII, PtII, PtIV, Re V, and PdII metal centers. These metals, on the one hand, significantly facilitate the coupling of nitrones with isocyanides and, on the other hand, stabilize the derived carbene heterocycles toward decomposition. The energy of the LUMOCNR and the charge on the N atom of the Ci≡N group are principal factors that control the cycloaddition of nitrones to isocyanides. The alkyl-substituted nitrones and isocyanides are predicted to be more active in the CA reaction than the aryl-substituted species, and the N,N,C-alkyloxadiazolines are more stable toward decomposition relative to the aryl derivatives. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Pipin V.V.,Russian Academy of Sciences |
Sokoloff D.D.,Moscow State Pedagogical University |
Usoskin I.G.,University of Oulu
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2012
Context. Solar cycles vary in their amplitude and shape. There are several empirical relations between various parameters that link the cycle's shape and amplitude, foremost these of the Waldmeier relations. Aims. The solar cycle is believed to be a result of the solar dynamo action, therefore these relations require an explanation in the framework of this theory, which we aim to present here. Methods. We related the cycle-to-cycle variability of solar activity to fluctuations of solar dynamo drivers and primarily to fluctuations in the parameter responsible for the recovery of the poloidal magnetic field from the toroidal one. To be specific, we developed a model in the framework of the mean-field dynamo based on the differential rotation and α-effect. Results. We demonstrate that the mean-field dynamo model, which is based on a realistic rotation profile and on nonlinearity that is associated with the magnetic helicity balance, reproduces both qualitatively and quantitatively the Waldmeier relations observed in sunspot data since 1750. The model also reproduces more or less successfully other relations between the parameters under discussion, in particular, the link between odd and even cycles (Gnevyshev-Ohl rule). Conclusions. We conclude that the contemporary solar dynamo theory provides a way to explain the cycle-to-cycle variability of solar activity as recorded in sunspots.We discuss the importance of the model for stellar activity cycles which, as known from the data of the Mount Wilson HK project, which measures the Ca H and K line index for other stars, demonstrate the cycle-to-cycle variability similar to solar cycles. © 2012 ESO.
Osad'ko I.S.,Russian Academy of Sciences |
Fedyanin V.V.,Moscow State Pedagogical University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2011
A single complex molecule with conformational changes (conformations 0 and 2) is considered. When such a molecule is irradiated by cw-laser light it can randomly change the intensity or polarization of its fluorescence due to jumps from one conformation to another. In fact, the molecule manifests itself either like the 0-type or the 2-type emitter. An expression for the matrix s αβ(t) called the start-stop correlator (waiting time distribution) in which α=0,2 and β=0,2 is derived. An expression for the matrix pαβ(t) called the full correlator is derived as well. It determines the density of the probability of finding an event of α type and an event of β type separated by time interval t. A relation between matrices sαβ(t) and p αβ(t) is found. A mathematical expression for the distribution wN(T) of events measured in time interval T is derived. It is expressed solely via the matrix sαβ(t). Numerical calculations of the event distribution function for various rates of intra- and interconformational jumps are carried out with the help of the formula for wN(T) and by the Monte Carlo method. Both methods of the calculation yield identical distributions. Fluctuating fluorescence intensity I(t) for a bin time of 5 ms is calculated for slow and fast interconformational jumps. A relation is found between the autocorrelation function g(2)(t) of fluorescence measurable in experiments and the matrix p αβ(t) calculated theoretically. © 2011 American Physical Society.
Brandenburg A.,University of Stockholm |
Sokoloff D.,Moscow State Pedagogical University |
Subramanian K.,Inter-University Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics
Space Science Reviews | Year: 2012
Several recent advances in turbulent dynamo theory are reviewed. High resolution simulations of small-scale and large-scale dynamo action in periodic domains are compared with each other and contrasted with similar results at low magnetic Prandtl numbers. It is argued that all the different cases show similarities at intermediate length scales. On the other hand, in the presence of helicity of the turbulence, power develops on large scales, which is not present in non-helical small-scale turbulent dynamos. At small length scales, differences occur in connection with the dissipation cutoff scales associated with the respective value of the magnetic Prandtl number. These differences are found to be independent of whether or not there is large-scale dynamo action. However, large-scale dynamos in homogeneous systems are shown to suffer from resistive slow-down even at intermediate length scales. The results from simulations are connected to mean field theory and its applications. Recent work on magnetic helicity fluxes to alleviate large-scale dynamo quenching, shear dynamos, nonlocal effects and magnetic structures from strong density stratification are highlighted. Several insights which arise from analytic considerations of small-scale dynamos are discussed. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Grachev M.K.,Moscow State Pedagogical University
Russian Chemical Reviews | Year: 2013
Published data on the preparation of phosphorus-containing cyclodextrins are summarized. It is demonstrated that some significant features of their synthesis and chemical behaviour are caused by specific supramolecular interactions involving the inner chiral cavity of cyclodextrins capable of incorporating various guests, which often leads to alteration of customary routes of chemical transformations. The possibilities of practical applications of phosphorus-containing cyclodextrins are briefly analyzed. The bibliography includes 89 references. © 2013 Russian Academy of Sciences and Turpion Ltd.
Naumov A.V.,Moscow State Pedagogical University
Physics-Uspekhi | Year: 2013
Sixty years ago, in 1952, Prof. E V Shpol'skii and his colleagues were the first to see quasilinear spectra from complex organic compounds in specially selected solvents at low temperatures. Twenty years later, in 1972, a team headed by Prof. RI Personov discovered laser fluorescence line narrowing in the solid solutions of organic dyes. These two discoveries served as the basis for the field of laser selective spectroscopy of impurity centers in solids. The work in this field culminated in the techniques of spectroscopy and luminescence imaging (microscopy) of single molecules in condensed matter. Today, optical spectroscopy of impurity centers in solid solutions has become one of the most popular tools for solving a wide variety of interdisciplinary problems in physics, physical chemistry, optics and spectroscopy, biophysics, quantum optics, and nano-technology. In this article, the development of this field is briefly reviewed, potentials of the developed methods are discussed, and some research results are highlighted. © 2013 Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk, Russian Academy of Sciences.
Osadko I.S.,Moscow State Pedagogical University |
Shchukina A.L.,Moscow State Pedagogical University
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2010
Fluorescence of M noninteracting molecules, each of which exhibits blinking fluorescence with on- and off-intervals, is considered. Theoretical expressions suitable for statistical analysis of fluorescence of M molecules are derived. The derivation of (i) the distribution functions Pon,off(t) for on- and off-interval duration, (ii) the distribution function wN(t) for the number N of photons emitted at a time interval t, and (iii) the fluorescence autocorrelation function g(2)(t) is carried out with the help of the formulas previously derived for single molecule blinking fluorescence. The statistical treatment of intensity fluctuations in fluorescence of several molecules is carried out to find the three types of the above-mentioned functions. The coincidence of the functions "measured" in blinking fluorescence and those calculated with the help of the theoretical formulas derived proves the validity of the latter. © 2010 American Chemical Society.