Moscow South West High School No. 1543

Moscow, Russia

Moscow South West High School No. 1543

Moscow, Russia
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Shipunov A.,Minot State University | Volkova P.,Moscow South West High School No. 1543 | Abramova L.,Moscow South West High School No. 1543 | Borisova P.,Moscow State University
Acta Oecologica | Year: 2013

The aim was to uncover factors that influence short-term (decade) flora dynamics and species richness of northern marine islets characterized by poor flora and weak anthropogenic pressure. The study used presence-absence data of vascular plant species on 100 small uprising islets of the Kandalaksha Gulf of White Sea (Northern Karelia, Russia). We investigated the influence of islands' attributes on species richness and rates of flora dynamics. Two island types were analyzed separately: younger, stone-like and older, islet-like (which generally are larger and have higher diversity of habitats). Sampled islands were studied via classical biogeographical per island approach and metapopulation per species approach. Stone-like islands had noticeably poorer flora with higher rates of immigration and extinction when compared to those of islet-like islands. The species number for islet-like islands correlated positively with number of habitats, abundance of different habitat types and island area. Species richness of stone-like islands correlated positively only with number of habitat types. Plant species associated with birds, crowberry thickets and coastal rocks were the most stable, and the species of disturbed habitats were significantly less stable. Floristic changes that have occurred have been caused by the massive establishment of new species rather than the extinction of pre-existing taxa. Thus, most of these islands are still in the colonization (assortative) stage. While we found no relationship between island area and species number for stone-like islands, this relationship was seen on islet-like islands. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS.

Bartha L.,Babes - Bolyai University | Sramko G.,Debrecen University | Sramko G.,MTA ELTE MTM Ecology Research Group | Volkova P.A.,Moscow South West High School No. 1543 | And 3 more authors.
Plant Systematics and Evolution | Year: 2015

Little attention has been paid so far to the genetic legacy of the oceanic-continental gradient across Europe. Due to this gradient, steppe regions become more extensive and mesic environments become more scattered towards the East. A well-suited system to study the impact of this gradient on lineage differentiation is the temperate mesophilic plant Erythronium dens-canis (Liliaceae), which is widespread in southern Europe with a distribution gap in the Pannonian Plain. Moreover, the large disjunction between E. dens-canis and its sister species E. caucasicum coincides with the Pontic steppe region. By applying range-wide sampling of E. dens-canis and limited sampling of E. caucasicum, we explored their phylogeography using the plastid regions rpl32-trnL and rps15-ycf1. Three major phylogroups were identified: a Caucasian lineage, a highly structured and narrowly distributed Transylvanian lineage, and a more homogenous and widely distributed ‘non-Transylvanian’ lineage. Apparently, both physiographic (mountain) and climatic (steppe) barriers have caused allopatric differentiation in European Erythronium. The Southern Carpathians constitute a latitudinal barrier and the Pannonian Plain a longitudinal barrier between the Transylvanian and ‘non-Transylvanian’ lineages of E. dens-canis. The eastern Carpathian Basin likely functioned as a combination of cryptic eastern (mesic) and cryptic northern refugia for E. dens-canis during glacial periods. The Eastern Carpathians and particularly the Pontic steppe regions acted as a longitudinal barrier between E. dens-canis and E. caucasicum. Steppe-dominated gaps in the distribution range of Erythronium are mirrored by genetic discontinuities along longitudes; this highlights the important role of the oceanic-continental gradient throughout Europe for lineage differentiation. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Wien.

Volkova P.A.,Moscow South West High School no. 1543 | Schanzer I.A.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Soubani E.,Lund University | Meschersky I.G.,RAS Severtsov Institute of Ecology | Widen B.,Lund University
Plant Systematics and Evolution | Year: 2016

Helianthemum nummularium s.l. is a young, morphologically diverse species distributed from western Europe to the Caucasus and the Southern Urals in the east. We analysed the rps16-trnK plastid intergenic spacer sequences from 85 localities covering most of the range of H. nummularium. Thirteen haplotypes were very unevenly distributed throughout the range of the species, and exhibited a strong phylogeographic signal. The results confirm range expansions of H. nummularium from Mediterranean refugia northwards, but also show the major role of eastern European (the Caucasus and the Southern Urals) refugia in rapid postglacial colonization of east, north and central Europe. The plastid haplotypes form distinct clades, one representing an eastern European lineage with few haplotypes and the other representing a western European lineage with many haplotypes. Parallel to this split in haplotype diversity is the pronounced differentiation in morphological variation displayed by the taxa found in west and east Europe. We discuss the role of topography in generating differences in morphological and genetic diversity between these two groups. We also discuss the taxonomical status of Helianthemum arcticum, which is regarded as an endangered local endemic of the Kola Peninsula. Helianthemum arcticum appears to represent an outlying peripheral population of H. nummularium preserved since the last postglacial major range expansion of this species, and bears the same plastid haplotype as the bulk of east and north European populations. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Wien.

Volkova P.A.,Moscow South West High School no. 1543 | Schanzer I.A.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Meschersky I.V.,RAS Severtsov Institute of Ecology
Plant Systematics and Evolution | Year: 2013

Primula vulgaris exhibits flower colour polymorphism in the eastern part of its range, especially pronounced on the NE coast of the Black Sea. This polymorphism in the Caucasian populations has been taxonomically described and some segregated species are listed as rare and endangered. We used sequence variation in two chloroplast noncoding regions (trnL-trnF and rpll32-trnL) and the complete nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of ribosomal DNA region to investigate correspondence between flower colour and geographical distribution of both nuclear and chloroplast haplotypes. It appears that variability in these DNA regions does not correlate with flower colour, being, however, clearly structured geographically. We used nested clade analysis to explore this geographical structure. It seems that the territory of the Colchis refugium on the E coast of the Black Sea contains both the highest flower colour and haplotype diversities. The results suggest that common primroses colonized the NE coast of the Black Sea from this refugium, spreading along the coast westward. At the same time, the analysis of ITS haplotypes indicates that P. vulgaris colonized the Crimea from NW Anatolia. This makes it clear that no segregated species can be recognized within flower colour polymorphic P. vulgaris in the Caucasus region. However, its phylogeography needs further detailed study on a broader scale. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Wien.

Volkova P.A.,Moscow south west high school no. 1543 | Sukhov N.D.,Moscow south west high school no. 1543 | Petrov P.N.,Moscow south west high school no. 1543
Nordic Journal of Botany | Year: 2010

In spite of the recent improvements in the understanding of carnivorous plants' biology, some questions have remained unanswered. In this study, the segregation of food niches (i.e. specialization on different categories of prey) for three sympatric carnivorous temperate Drosera species with different shapes of trapping leaves is tested. Potentially available prey was also taken into account, by using artificial traps. Almost all the prey trapped by the three Drosera species and by passive traps belonged to four insect orders: Diptera, Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Homoptera, as well as Araneae. Diptera specimens were the main prey for all the species. This study demonstrates that arthropods caught by the three temperate sympatric sundew species (D. rotundifolia, D. obovata and D. anglica), belong to the same orders. The proportions of prey from different orders, caught by different sundew species did not differ significantly. The result does not necessarily imply the absence of interspecific competition for prey: arthropods were identified only to order, and competition may have resulted in specialization on prey taxa of lower rank. © 2010 The Authors.

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