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Guekht A.B.,Russian National Research Medical University | Popov G.R.,Moscow Research and Clinical Center for Neuropsychiatry
Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psihiatrii imeni S.S. Korsakova | Year: 2014

The studies on apathy, a common phenomenon in psychiatry, are summarized. The definitions of this term suggested by different authors are presented. The difference between apathy as a symptom and apathy as a syndrome is described. Main pathogenetic mechanisms of the development and epidemiology of this disorder, the results on the differential diagnosis of apathy and depression in patients with neurological and mental diseases as well as methods of treatment are presented. Source

Bryukhin A.E.,Peoples Friendship University of Russia | Sologub M.B.,Moscow Research and Clinical Center for Neuropsychiatry | Abdraeva N.K.,Peoples Friendship University of Russia
Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psihiatrii imeni S.S. Korsakova | Year: 2015

A case of comorbid anorexia nervosa and kleptomania is reported in a female patient aged 31 years old. Personality pathology and kleptomanic behavior developed since childhood together with dysmorphophobia related to the congenital chest defect. Later on, the distinct association between the severity of dysmorphophobia, affective disorder and appearances of pathological drives was identified. The patient received several ICD-10 diagnoses (F61.0, F50.0, F62.3, F33.1). The patient’s condition was improved after pharmacotherapy in the combination with psychotherapy. © 2015, Media Sphera. All rights reserved. Source

Brainin M.,Danube University Krems | Tuomilehto J.,Danube University Krems | Heiss W.-D.,Max Planck Institute for Neurological Research | Bornstein N.M.,Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center | And 15 more authors.
European Journal of Neurology | Year: 2015

The close relationship between stroke and dementia is an important health issue. Ischaemic stroke can facilitate the onset of vascular dementia as well as aggravate pre-existing cognitive decline. The onset of cognitive decline may become manifest immediately following the onset of ischaemic stroke, but often there is a delay in the development of cognitive decline after a stroke. This delay can be seen as a therapeutic time window allowing interventions to be applied to preserve cognition following stroke. Both neurodegenerative and vascular mechanisms are activated and probably result in overlapping processes within the neurovascular unit. This review focuses on the incidence and prevalence of cognitive decline following stroke, predisposing stroke aetiologies, pre-stroke decline, imaging factors and biomarkers. Outcomes are discussed in relation to timing of assessment and neuropsychological tests used for evaluation of cognitive decline in ischaemic stroke patients. Including such tests in routine evaluations of stroke patients after some weeks or months is recommended. Finally, an outlook on ongoing and planned intervention trials is added and some recommendations for future research are proposed. © 2014 EAN. Source

Shpak A.A.,The S Fedorov Eye Microsurgery Federal State Institution | Guekht A.B.,Moscow Research and Clinical Center for Neuropsychiatry | Druzhkova T.A.,Moscow Research and Clinical Center for Neuropsychiatry | Kozlova K.I.,The S Fedorov Eye Microsurgery Federal State Institution | And 2 more authors.
Neurochemical Journal | Year: 2015

We studied the content of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) in the lacrimal fluid, the aqueous humor, and the blood serum in 40 patients (40 eyes) with age-related cataracts. Collection of stimulated lacrimal fluid was performed by a pipette on the day preceding surgery; the aqueous humor and the blood were sampled during the phacoemulsification of a cataract. CNTF was measured using an enzyme immunoassay. On average, the concentration of CNTF in patients was 43.0 ± 21.2 pg/mL in the lacrimal fluid, 58.7 ± 26.4 pg/mL in the aqueous humor, and 4.4 ± 2.6 pg/mL in the blood serum. The concentration of CNTF in the aqueous humor correlated well with its content in the lacrimal fluid (Pearson’s correlation coefficient was 0.66, P < 0.000) and exceeded it on average by a factor of 1.4 ± 0.5. The data we obtained may be used for an approximate evaluation of the CNTF concentration in the aqueous humor on the basis of an analysis of the lacrimal fluid. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. Source

Druzhkova T.A.,Moscow Research and Clinical Center for Neuropsychiatry | Pochigaeva K.I.,Moscow Research and Clinical Center for Neuropsychiatry | Guekht A.B.,Moscow Research and Clinical Center for Neuropsychiatry | Gulyaeva N.V.,Russian Academy of Sciences
Neurochemical Journal | Year: 2015

Salivary free cortisol and total serum cortisol were evaluated in healthy volunteers (n = 12) and depressed patients (n = 57). The diurnal rhythm of salivary cortisol demonstrated maximum at 8 a.m. and minimums at 12 a.m. and 12 p.m. In both healthy volunteers and depressed patients at 8 a.m., salivary and serum cortisol demonstrate a positive correlation. Mean cortisol level was higher in both serum and saliva of depressed patients. The saliva-to-serum ratio of cortisol was significantly lower in the patients group, while the dispersion was higher as compared to the controls. The results of this study and the data reported by other groups suggest that if the protocol of saliva sampling and cortisol evaluation is rigorously standardized and the internal standard for salivary cortisol is established in the clinical lab, salivary cortisol test may become the basis for a valid dynamic test for the assessment of stress-reactivity in depressed patients. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. Source

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