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Moscow Medical Academy
Moscow, Russia
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Makarova Z.S.,Moscow Medical Academy
Voprosy Prakticheskoi Pediatrii | Year: 2016

Cough is one of the most common complaints of patients at their visits to paediatricians. The article presents an algorithm of differential diagnosis and a tactics of choosing a treatment for cough in the outpatient-polyclinical settings. Clinical approaches to using medicinal herbs and herbal remedies for cough therapy, indications and contraindications to their administration are discussed. The effectiveness of using multi-component herbal medicines is presented by the example of the Dr.MOM® herbal cough syrup in therapy of cough in children with acute respiratory diseases.

Kesic V.,University of Belgrade | Poljak M.,University of Ljubljana | Rogovskaya S.,Moscow Medical Academy
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention | Year: 2012

Cervical cancer is an important public health care problem in Europe. The overall incidence rate of cervical cancer in Europe is 10.6 per 100,000. However, within Europe, the incidence rates significantly differ, being lower in Western Europe where prevention programs are better developed. Significantly higher are the incidence and mortality rates in Central and Eastern Europe, being in close correlation to the intensity of organized screening. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are being delivered to the low-incidence populations that already have extensive screening programs, whereas the high-incidence countries have not implemented the vaccination programs yet. The resolution of the problem of cervical cancer control in Europe will be a matter of the implementation of public health care programs across the whole continent. © 2012 AACR.

Boulton A.J.M.,University of Manchester | Kempler P.,Semmelweis University | Ametov A.,Moscow Medical Academy | Ziegler D.,Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf
Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews | Year: 2013

Diabetic distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSPN) occurs in around one-third of patients with diabetes and is associated with significant morbidity and increased mortality. Diagnosis and clinical assessment of DSPN remain a challenge, not only for the physician in clinical practice but also for clinical trials. Optimal diabetes control is generally considered an essential first step in the prevention and management of DSPN. However, glycaemic control alone may be insufficient to prevent the development or progression of DSPN, especially in type 2 diabetes. Near-normoglycaemia is also difficult to achieve in a significant proportion of patients. Although considerable advances have been made in symptomatic pain management, these have not addressed the problem of sensory deficits and have no impact on the underlying pathogenesis of DSPN. There remains a lack of treatment options that effectively target the natural history of the disease. Several pathogenetic treatment approaches have been investigated, but evidence from clinical trials is limited with a number of treatments having shown disappointing results. However, some pathogenetic therapies have shown clinically relevant improvements in neuropathic endpoints in randomised controlled trials, in particular α-lipoic acid and Actovegin. These advances in DSPN disease modification need to be confirmed with further robust evidence from clinical trials together with a better understanding of the mechanisms of action of promising treatments. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Carrive P.,University of New South Wales | Churyukanov M.,Moscow Medical Academy | Le Bars D.,University Pierre and Marie Curie
Pain | Year: 2011

An increased tail-flick latency to noxious heat during or after stress in the rodent is usually interpreted as a stress-induced reduction in pain sensitivity and often described as a form of stress-induced "analgesia. " However, this measure is an indirect and flawed measure of the change in nociceptive threshold to noxious heat. A major confound of the latency measure is the initial temperature of the tail, which can drop down to room temperature during stress, the consequence of a marked sympathetically mediated vasoconstriction in the skin of the extremities. We addressed this issue with tail-flick tests during contextual fear using infrared thermography to monitor temperature changes and a CO2 laser to deliver the heat stimulus. The experiment revealed a 4.2°C increase of the nociceptive threshold, confirming a true antinociceptive effect. However, its contribution to the increased withdrawal latency was less than two-thirds (63.2%). Nearly one-third (32.2%) was due to the drop in tail temperature (4.4°C), which also slowed conduction along sensory fibers (2.2%, included in the 32.2%). The remaining 4.6% was due to an increase in decisional/motor latency. This new unbiased method establishes beyond doubt that a conditioned stress response is associated with true antinociception to noxious heat. It also confirms that stress-induced changes in skin temperature can be a major confound in tail-flick tests. The present study shows, for the first time, the exact contribution of these two components of the tail-flick latency for a stress response. Less than two-thirds of the increase in tail-flick latency to noxious heat, evoked by conditioned fear, reflects true antinociception. The remaining is due to skin vasoconstriction. © 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Kudinova N.V.,Moscow Medical Academy | Berezov T.T.,Peoples' Friendship University of Russia
Biochemistry (Moscow) Supplement Series B: Biomedical Chemistry | Year: 2010

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a minimally invasive and promising new modality to combat cancer. The method is based on selective accumulation of sensitizers in tumor cells. The high degree of selectivity offered by this modality has been applied for fluorescent diagnostics of cancer. Photosensitization of a tissue-localized sensitizer in the presence of oxygen generates cytotoxic reactive oxygen species results in the selective destruction of tumor. The PDT's major advantages compared to traditional methods of cancer treatment are better selectivity, and low toxicity of administered drugs. This review highlights basic principles of this method, mechanisms underlying damage of tumor tissue and first and second generations of sensitizers. Future developments in PDT will include the development of new methods of treatment and diagnostics of tumor diseases. © 2010 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Nikolaev E.N.,Moscow Medical Academy | Kostyukevich Y.I.,Institute For Energy Problems Of Chemical Physicsrussian Academy Of Sciencesleninskij Pr 38 K 2119334Moscowrussia | Vladimirov G.N.,Institute For Energy Problems Of Chemical Physicsrussian Academy Of Sciencesleninskij Pr 38 K 2119334Moscowrussia
Mass Spectrometry Reviews | Year: 2014

Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT ICR) mass spectrometer offers highest resolving power and mass accuracy among all types of mass spectrometers. Its unique analytical characteristics made FT ICR important tool for proteomics, metabolomics, petroleomics, and investigation of complex mixtures. Signal acquisition in FT ICR MS takes long time (up to minutes). During this time ion-ion interaction considerably affects ion motion and result in decreasing of the resolving power. Understanding of those effects required complicated theory and supercomputer simulations but culminated in the invention of the ion trap with dynamic harmonization which demonstrated the highest resolving power ever achieved. In this review we summarize latest achievements in theory and simulation of FT ICR mass spectrometers. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Vandenplas Y.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Zakharova I.,Moscow Medical Academy | Dmitrieva Y.,Moscow Medical Academy
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2015

The gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota differs between breast-fed and classic infant formula-fed infants. Breast milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides (OS) and may also contain some probiotics, but scientific societies do not recommend the addition of prebiotic OS or probiotics to standard infant formula. Nevertheless, many infant formula companies often add one or the other or both. Different types of prebiotic OS are used in infant formula, including galacto-oligosaccharide, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose and mixtures of these OS, but none adds human milk OS. There is evidence that the addition of prebiotics to infant formula brings the GI microbiota of formula-fed infants closer to that of breast-fed infants. Prebiotics change gut metabolic activity (by decreasing stool pH and increasing SCFA), have a bifidogenic effect and bring stool consistency and defecation frequency closer to those of breast-fed infants. Although there is only limited evidence that these changes in GI microbiota induce a significant clinical benefit for the immune system, interesting positive trends have been observed in some markers. Additionally, adverse effects are extremely seldom. Prebiotics are added to infant formula because breast milk contains human milk OS. Because most studies suggest a trend of beneficial effects and because these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to the golden standard of breast milk. Copyright © The Authors 2015.

Kaverin N.,Moscow Medical Academy
Future Microbiology | Year: 2010

The genome of the influenza A virus consists of eight single-stranded negative sense RNA segments. Segmentation allows reassortment of genes between influenza A virus strains when two strains infect one host cell. Reassortment may lead to the emergence of pandemic influenza viruses. The process of reassortment is limited by the necessity of a functional balance among viral genes. The nature of the functional constraint on reassortment is currenty not well understood. An insight into the basis of functional matching of virus genes, its restrictions and its restoration after reassortment may be provided by the analysis of postreassortment mutations in model systems. This article summarizes the data on postreassortment amino acid changes in virus glycoproteins and polymerase proteins and their effect on the intergenic functional match. © 2010 Future Medicine Ltd.

The article discusses current approaches to improving the prevention of thromboembolic complications with the new oral anticoagulants (NOAK). Discusses in detail the optimal modes of reception NOAK, and the relationship of such regimes with efficacy and safety of drugs belonging to this class. The contemporary data on the benefits of a single reception NOAK. © 2014, Media Sphera. All rights reserved.

Reshetnyak V.I.,Moscow Medical Academy
World Journal of Hepatology | Year: 2012

Gallstone disease (GD) is a chronic recurrent hepatobiliary disease, the basis for which is the impaired metabolism of cholesterol, bilirubin and bile acids, which is characterized by the formation of gallstones in the hepatic bile duct, common bile duct, or gallbladder. GD is one of the most prevalent gastrointestinal diseases with a substantial burden to health care systems. GD can result in serious outcomes, such as acute gallstone pancreatitis and gallbladder cancer. The epidemiology, pathogenesis and treatment of GD are discussed in this review. The prevalence of GD varies widely by region. The prevalence of gallstone disease has increased in recent years. This is connected with a change in lifestyle: reduction of motor activity, reduction of the physical load and changes to diets. One of the important benefits of early screening for gallstone disease is that ultrasonography can detect asymptomatic cases, which results in early treatment and the prevention of serious outcomes. The pathogenesis of GD is suggested to be multifactorial and probably develops from complex interactions between many genetic and environmental factors. It suggests that corticosteroids and oral contraceptives, which contain hormones related to steroid hormones, may be regarded as a model system of cholelithiasis development in man. The achievement in the study of the physiology of bile formation and the pathogenesis of GD has allowed expanding indications for therapeutic treatment of GD. © 2012 Baishideng.

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