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Moscow, Russia

Kaverin N.,Moscow Medical Academy
Future Microbiology | Year: 2010

The genome of the influenza A virus consists of eight single-stranded negative sense RNA segments. Segmentation allows reassortment of genes between influenza A virus strains when two strains infect one host cell. Reassortment may lead to the emergence of pandemic influenza viruses. The process of reassortment is limited by the necessity of a functional balance among viral genes. The nature of the functional constraint on reassortment is currenty not well understood. An insight into the basis of functional matching of virus genes, its restrictions and its restoration after reassortment may be provided by the analysis of postreassortment mutations in model systems. This article summarizes the data on postreassortment amino acid changes in virus glycoproteins and polymerase proteins and their effect on the intergenic functional match. © 2010 Future Medicine Ltd. Source

Nikolaev E.N.,Moscow Medical Academy | Kostyukevich Y.I.,Institute For Energy Problems Of Chemical Physicsrussian Academy Of Sciencesleninskij Pr 38 K 2119334Moscowrussia | Vladimirov G.N.,Institute For Energy Problems Of Chemical Physicsrussian Academy Of Sciencesleninskij Pr 38 K 2119334Moscowrussia
Mass Spectrometry Reviews | Year: 2014

Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT ICR) mass spectrometer offers highest resolving power and mass accuracy among all types of mass spectrometers. Its unique analytical characteristics made FT ICR important tool for proteomics, metabolomics, petroleomics, and investigation of complex mixtures. Signal acquisition in FT ICR MS takes long time (up to minutes). During this time ion-ion interaction considerably affects ion motion and result in decreasing of the resolving power. Understanding of those effects required complicated theory and supercomputer simulations but culminated in the invention of the ion trap with dynamic harmonization which demonstrated the highest resolving power ever achieved. In this review we summarize latest achievements in theory and simulation of FT ICR mass spectrometers. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Kesic V.,University of Belgrade | Poljak M.,University of Ljubljana | Rogovskaya S.,Moscow Medical Academy
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention | Year: 2012

Cervical cancer is an important public health care problem in Europe. The overall incidence rate of cervical cancer in Europe is 10.6 per 100,000. However, within Europe, the incidence rates significantly differ, being lower in Western Europe where prevention programs are better developed. Significantly higher are the incidence and mortality rates in Central and Eastern Europe, being in close correlation to the intensity of organized screening. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are being delivered to the low-incidence populations that already have extensive screening programs, whereas the high-incidence countries have not implemented the vaccination programs yet. The resolution of the problem of cervical cancer control in Europe will be a matter of the implementation of public health care programs across the whole continent. © 2012 AACR. Source

Chew D.P.,Flinders University | Junbo G.,Zhongshan Hospital | Parsonage W.,Royal Brisbane and Womens Hospital | Kerkar P.,King Edward VII Memorial Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes | Year: 2013

Background-Acute coronary syndrome registries report the use of incomplete guideline therapies, especially among the highest risk patients. Whether this treatment gap results from misperceptions of risk by physicians is uncertain. Methods and Results-The Perceived Risk of Ischemic and Bleeding Events in Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients (PREDICT) study was a prospective acute coronary syndrome registry in Australia, China, India, and Russia, involving 58 hospitals between May 2009 and February 2011. In-hospital care and events up to 6 months were assessed. At least 2 clinicians involved in patient care estimated the untreated risk and change in risk with each therapy. Physician risk assessment and objective risk measures (eg, Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events [GRACE] score) for death, death/myocardial infarction, and bleeding events were compared using the c statistic and integrated discrimination improvement. In total, 1542 patients and 4230 patient-specific physician estimates were obtained. Of responding clinicians, 81.9% were cardiovascular specialists (years of practice: mean [SD], 11.5 [7.7] years). The median physician-perceived risk of 6-month death was 25% (interquartile range, 14%-35%). The GRACE score was superior to physician estimation (c statistic: GRACE score, 0.812 [95% confidence interval, 0.772-0.851] versus physician, 0.652 [95% confidence interval, 0.596-0.708]; P<0.0001). The GRACE score added to clinician intuition improved discrimination (integrated discrimination improvement, 0.0632 [SE, 0.012]; P<0.0001). Invasive management correlated with physician-estimated risk but not with GRACE risk. Among patients not at high risk by physician estimation, increased risk by GRACE score was associated with higher mortality (3.7% versus 0.8%; P<0.001). Conclusions-Objective risk assessment provides superior risk discrimination when compared with physician-estimated risk. Whether systematic use of objective risk stratification improves clinical outcomes should be studied in appropriately designed clinical trials. © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

Reshetnyak V.I.,Moscow Medical Academy
World Journal of Hepatology | Year: 2012

Gallstone disease (GD) is a chronic recurrent hepatobiliary disease, the basis for which is the impaired metabolism of cholesterol, bilirubin and bile acids, which is characterized by the formation of gallstones in the hepatic bile duct, common bile duct, or gallbladder. GD is one of the most prevalent gastrointestinal diseases with a substantial burden to health care systems. GD can result in serious outcomes, such as acute gallstone pancreatitis and gallbladder cancer. The epidemiology, pathogenesis and treatment of GD are discussed in this review. The prevalence of GD varies widely by region. The prevalence of gallstone disease has increased in recent years. This is connected with a change in lifestyle: reduction of motor activity, reduction of the physical load and changes to diets. One of the important benefits of early screening for gallstone disease is that ultrasonography can detect asymptomatic cases, which results in early treatment and the prevention of serious outcomes. The pathogenesis of GD is suggested to be multifactorial and probably develops from complex interactions between many genetic and environmental factors. It suggests that corticosteroids and oral contraceptives, which contain hormones related to steroid hormones, may be regarded as a model system of cholelithiasis development in man. The achievement in the study of the physiology of bile formation and the pathogenesis of GD has allowed expanding indications for therapeutic treatment of GD. © 2012 Baishideng. Source

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