Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology

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Moscow, Russia

Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology ), abbreviated MIPT, MIPT or informally Phystech is a leading Russian university, originally established in the Soviet Union. It prepares specialists in theoretical and applied physics, applied mathematics, and related disciplines. It is sometimes referred to as "the Russian MIT."MIPT is famous in the countries of the former Soviet Union, but is less known abroad. This is largely due to the specifics of the MIPT educational process . University rankings such as The Times Higher Education Supplement are based primarily on publications and citations. With its emphasis on embedding research in the educational process, MIPT "outsources" education and research beyond the first two or three years of study to institutions of the Russian Academy of science. MIPT's own faculty is relatively small, and many of its distinguished lecturers are visiting professors from those institutions. Student research is typically performed outside of MIPT, and research papers do not identify the authors as MIPT students. This effectively hides MIPT from the academic radar, an effect not unwelcome during the Cold War era when leading scientists and engineers of the Soviet arms and space programs studied there.The word "phystech," without the capital P, is also used in Russian to refer to Phystech students and graduates.The main MIPT campus is located in Dolgoprudny, a northern suburb of Moscow. However the Aeromechanics Department is based in Zhukovsky, a suburb south-east of Moscow. Wikipedia.


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News Article | May 16, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Researchers from the Vavilov Institute of General Genetics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (VIGG) and the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT) have established a catalog of mutations in 319 virulence genes of mycobacteria that cause tuberculosis. These genes encode proteins that suppress human immune response. Further analysis identified a set of three mutations which may enable mycobacteria to develop rapidly in an immunocompromised environment. The emerging strains of TB pathogens require new treatment approaches including the development of new genetically engineered vaccines that take into account both the immune status of a patient and the specific virulence features of a pathogen. The article was published in Genome Biology and Evolution (Oxford University Press, UK). According to the World Health Organization, TB remains one of the most dangerous human infectious diseases, causing over 1.8 million deaths annually. TB is caused by a bacterium known as Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Koch's bacillus. It is clear that HIV-positive individuals and patients with other immunodeficiency conditions are mainly at risk. More than 20 percent of TB cases are connected with smoking. TB is no longer a social disease: It affects members of all social strata. This change was caused by the stresses of modern life>M. tuberculosis has become increasingly resistant to both the environmental factors and antibiotics, which used to guarantee effective treatment. At the same time, the symptoms of TB have become less noticeable. The bacterium can remain in the host body for decades infecting other people. According to WHO statistics, one-third of the world's population is infected with TB. The most serious problem we are currently facing is drug resistant TB aggravated by the adaptation of new pathogenic strains to weakened immunity. Prof. Valery Danilenko of the Department of Biological and Medical Physics at MIPT, the head of the Department of Genetics and Biotechnology at VIGG, comments on the issue: "Humanity is trying to beat the disease with new drugs and innovative treatment methods, but we have -- tactically speaking -- already lost the battle. During the last 50 years of research, only one antibiotic with a novel type of action has been produced -- Bedaquiline. It has been in use for about two years now. However, mycobacteria have already developed mutations that make them resistant to that drug." New strains of drug-resistant bacteria with altered virulence have already sensed our weakness: They "know" if some of us have compromised immunity, and they are exploiting precisely this weakness by targeting immunodeficient patients. Bioinformatics and genetics help identify a dangerous strain of TB pathogens Researchers currently identify 7-8 major M. tuberculosis lineages (groups). They differ from one another in mutations in various genes. A genome can have from 300 to 1,000 of such lineage-specific mutations, or SNPs. The term SNP (pronounced "snip") means a mutation in a particular gene involving the substitution of only one nucleotide. If the mutation occurs in a functional part of a virulence gene, the protein encoded by that gene will trigger a different host immune response. This enables the pathogen to overcome host resistance mechanisms developed in childhood as a result of BCG (anti-TB) vaccination. Natalya Mikheecheva, a researcher at the Laboratory of Bacterial Genetics at VIGG with a bioinformatics degree from MIPT, explains: "We carried out research aimed at identifying the genes and mutations in them that allow mycobacteria to thrive in people with altered immune status including HIV-positive patients. We developed a catalog of SNPs in more than 300 virulence genes. Virulence was defined as the ability of a pathogen to cause disease, overcome host resistance via invasion and adhesion to host cells, and adapt to hostile environments, including immune response modulation." Each lineage was found to comprise dozens or even hundreds of sublineages, depending on the specific gene and the location of the mutation. Bioinformatics analysis conducted using software developed at MIPT's Department of Biological and Medical Physics (MIPT) revealed mutations specific to an epidemiologically dangerous sublineage within the Beijing-B0 lineage. The scientists used databases of sequenced and described genomes to track the spread of the epidemiologically dangerous B0/N-90 sublineage in Russia and the neighboring European countries Belarus, Moldova, and Sweden. To combat drug-resistant TB, an international consortium called TBResist was formed in 2008. Its members include leading experts in medicine, genetics, bioinformatics, etc. from the U.S., Sweden, Russia, the U.K., Bangladesh, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Taiwan, and other countries. Prof. Danilenko who led the research in Russia says: "Our work with the international consortium involved cooperating with our colleagues from South Africa and China to draft a project aimed at investigating the epidemiologically dangerous strain identified in our study. The project is currently being considered by expert communities of the three countries including the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation. Our goal is to warn the international community and the health ministries of the BRICS countries of the impending danger. In the '80s, it was the HIV. We may well expect something similar from new mutated TB strains--it's a Pandora's box." Treatments that are available now can cure the disease within a year or two. However, we could see the emergence of mutant pathogens developing rapidly in certain population groups. With the flu, there is an established practice of making a new vaccine every year to counteract the latest mutated strain of influenza. But unlike the influenza virus, which only has several genes, M. tuberculosis has more than 300 virulence genes, each of them potentially subject to mutations. For the last 30 years, scientists all over the world have been trying to design a genetically engineered TB vaccine. To do this, only certain genes of the bacterium are used, not its whole genome. These genes are cloned to obtain their protein products, which are then used to vaccinate patients and monitor their immune response. There are, however, hundreds of M. tuberculosis sublineages. The research findings indicate that vaccines need to take into account such factors as the host's immune status and the presence in the pathogen of any of at least a dozen epidemiologically dangerous lineages with mutations in particular virulence genes. Prof. Danilenko drives the point home: "We detected mutations that may enable the bacteria to thrive by exploiting compromised immunity. From that point, it is basically analogous to the flu: We suggest that vaccines against specific TB lineages need to be developed using the genes identified through the bioinformatics analysis of hundreds of sequenced genomes. This will help us to find a basic approach that could inhibit the spread of the dangerous lineages. We have also developed diagnostic tests to identify such lineages." On April 13-14, an international academic and research conference titled "Current Methods of Comprehensive Health Care for TB-infected and HIV-positive Patients: Implementation, Development, Resources" was held in Yekaterinburg. The plenary session of the conference featured a report on "Genetically Engineered TB Vaccination: Current Research, Problems, and Prospects." Prof. Igor Krasilnikov, a recognized expert in vaccine development, talked about the plans of several Russian research and government organizations (Federal Agency for Scientific Organizations, the Ministry of Health, Federal Medical and Biological Agency, MIPT) based on new ideas and paradigms that have emerged over the last years.


News Article | April 20, 2017
Site: www.bbc.co.uk

Irina Khoroshko, from Zelenograd near Moscow, had learned her times tables by the age of five. Her precocious talent, encouraged by a maths-mad family and a favourite female teacher who transformed every lesson into one giant problem-solving game, led to a degree in mathematical economics at Plekhanov Russian University of Economics. "My lecturer instilled in me the power of numbers and calculation, how it gives you the ability to predict things; in that sense the subject always felt magical," she says. Now Irina, 26, is a data scientist at Russian online lender, ID Finance, enjoying a lucrative career devising analytical models to determine loan eligibility. And this isn't an unusual story in Russia. But it is in many other countries around the world. Several studies confirm that all too often girls' early interest in Stem subjects - science, technology, engineering and maths - fizzles out and never recovers. So relatively few women go on to choose engineering or technology as a career. Why? A new study from Microsoft sheds some light. Based on interviews with 11,500 girls and young women across Europe, it finds their interest in these subjects drops dramatically at 15, with gender stereotypes, few female role models, peer pressure and a lack of encouragement from parents and teachers largely to blame. Not so in Russia. According to Unesco, 29% of people in scientific research worldwide are women, compared with 41% in Russia. In the UK, about 4% of inventors are women, whereas the figure is 15% in Russia. Russian girls view Stem far more positively, with their interest starting earlier and lasting longer, says Julian Lambertin, managing director at KRC Research, the firm that oversaw the Microsoft interviews. "Most of the girls we talked to from other countries had a slightly playful approach to Stem, whereas in Russia, even the very youngest were extremely focused on the fact that their future employment opportunities were more likely to be rooted in Stem subjects." These girls cite parental encouragement and female role models as key, as well as female teachers who outnumber their male colleagues presiding over a curriculum viewed as gender neutral. When the Department for Education asked a cross-section of British teenagers for their views on maths and physics, five words summed up the subjects' image problem: male, equations, boring, formulaic, irrelevant. But no such stigma exists in Russia, says Mr Lambertin. "They've really gone beyond that," he says. "People are expected to perform well in these subjects regardless of gender." Alina Bezuglova is head of the Russia chapter of Tech London Advocates, an organisation that connects Russian talent with job opportunities in the UK. She regularly hosts women-only tech events in the UK, but not so in Russia. Why? "You could say it's because we are neglecting the problem or that there is no problem at all, and I'm far more inclined to think the latter," she says. "Compared to the rest of Europe, we just don't stress about 'women's issues'." According to Ms Bezuglova, Russian women's foothold in science and technology can in part be traced back to the Soviet era, when the advancement of science was made a national priority. Along with the growth in specialist research institutes, technical education was made available to everyone and women were encouraged to pursue careers in this field. "It never occurred to me at school that because I'm a girl I shouldn't be choosing Stem, and in the workplace I don't see much sexism, only that you're judged on your abilities," she says. But could the national psyche also play a part? With their characteristically forthright nature, do Russian women simply find it easier to speak up for themselves in male-dominated environments? Emeli Dral, assistant professor at the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, thinks so. She recalls how it was precisely this spirit that spurred her on to success as one of only two girls in her advanced maths group at school. "It actually made both of us even more competitive and more determined to prove ourselves and be better than the boys," she says. "I think Russian women are pretty confident about being in a minority, mainly because of the support they have had from their parents from a young age. "Mine never queried why I was interested in maths and engineering - it was considered to be very natural." Olga Reznikova, whose largely self-taught approach to Stem led to her current role as a senior software engineer, is a case in point. Growing up in a small seaside town populated by miners and fishermen, her love of computers began when she was just four, but it was a struggle to turn her passion into a career. Turning to online tutorials, she mastered the basics of algorithm design, machine learning and programming and made money coding simple websites. But wary of a future stuck in "IT outsourcing sweatshops", she headed to St Petersburg to study further and land a bigger role. "For a while I was the only female programmer at my company," she says. "I did encounter some issues with being taken seriously, but I stayed with it and am now earning a salary that's 30% higher than before." While Russia is doing something right, it's still not there yet in terms of gender parity. "There is no doubt that Russia is firing up girls' imaginations," says Mr Lambertin. "Bringing creativity to the classroom with hands-on, practical application, and stressing the relevance of these subjects by focusing on the workplace, could be the way forward for those countries where girls are currently very disengaged."


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: AAT.2013.8-1. | Award Amount: 3.21M | Year: 2013

BUTERFLI is a project in response to the invitation to tender from European Commission FP7 within Call FP7-AAT-2013 RTD-Russia. BUTERFLI is the acronym of BUffet and Transition delay control investigated within Europe-Russia cooperation for improved FLIght performances. The Project Topic will focus on experimental and numerical flow control investigations of different phenomena: the buffet on a laminar airfoil, the buffet on a turbulent supercritical airfoil, and the cross-flow instabilities on a swept wing. Different control techniques will be studied: bump design, fluidic control devices, and DBD devices. The Project aims at the improvement of aircraft flight performances. This Project will be carried out in the framework of a EUROPE RUSSIA cooperation. ONERA is the coordinator, and TSAGI will act as Coordinator of the Russian Parties. There are 12 partners, 7 from Europe and 5 from Russia. ONERA (F), IAG-Stuttgart (G), DLR (G), KTH (S), University of Nottingham (UK), EADS UK Ltd. (UK), TsAGI (Russia), MIPT (Russia), JIHT (Russia), ITAM (Russia), Sukhoi Civil Aircraft (Russia), and Erdyn (F). BUTERFLI is splitted into four work packages: WP1 is dedicated to buffet control on 2D turbulent supercritical wing (tangential jet blowing and plasma actuators) WP2 is dedicated to buffet control on 2D laminar wing (bump and perforation blowing) WP3 is dedicated to crossflow instabilities control on swept wing WP4 ensures the scientific coordination of the overall project, and will proposes final roadmaps for the future.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: AAT.2013.8-1. | Award Amount: 3.42M | Year: 2013

The PoLaRBEAR (Production and Analysis Evolution For Lattice Related Barrel Elements Under Operations With Advanced Robustness) project focuses on reliable novel composite aircraft structures based on geodesic technology aiming at a significant higher Robustness and Technology Readiness Level (TRL). While the global structural behavior of composite geodesic structures is investigated and understood in a top-down approach in EU-ALaSCA, PoLaRBEAR will follow up in a bottom-up approach on local level analyzing the geodesic structures in terms of in-operation demands for higher TRL. The main objectives of this research proposal are: Industrial highly automated process for cost efficient barrel manufacturing Advanced reliability of geodesic structures under operational loads Design rules for robust grid structures The aim is to promote a competent cooperation in the development of light, low-cost airframe fuselage structures made with a new generation of composite materials and based on geodesic / iso-grid technologies under operations. The proposal will enhance the cooperation in research and in innovation between the European Union and the Russian Federation in the field of civil transport aircraft.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: AAT.2013.8-1. | Award Amount: 3.50M | Year: 2013

The purpose of COBRA is to use technology breakthroughs to overcome the insufficient noise performance of the counter-rotating fan tested in VITAL FP6 Program. This will be achieved through exploring higher by-pass ratio (15-25) resulting in much lower blade tip speed and blades count. The designs shall comply also with higher or equal aerodynamic efficiency compare to the VITAL ouputs. COBRA is structured to benefit from the existing skills of both EU and Russian partners. It results in multidisciplinary design conception/optimization of the Ultra High Bypass-Ratio (UHBR) Counter Rotating Turbo Fan architecture. COBRA is an ambitious project that aims at meeting the ACARE environmentally objectives, where strong improvements on new engine architecture is required. Based on the current state of the art, and on the complementary skills we gather in COBRA, on the actions planned in the project, the 9 partners take on ambitious and measurable objectives: to reduce noise by 9 EPNdB per operation vs. year 2000 in service engine with the same efficiency improvement as the one achieved in VITAL for lower BPR (~2 / 2.5 points) vs. year 2000 single fan state of the art. The COBRA consortium has been chosen to provide a multidisciplinary expertise, coming from different backgrounds from Europe and Russia Federation: industrial entities, research centers, university and SME. Coordinated by ONERA for the EU side and CIAM for the Russian side, COBRAs consortium is largely built with former partners from the VITAL WP2.4 project. Following the success of this project, a natural cooperation has been created between partners and consolidated within DREAM FP6 Programme. COBRA leans on a very dynamic consortium, with partners that know each other and therefore shall lead to a reinforced cooperation between European and Russian scientists from different disciplines.


Starikovskiy A.,Princeton University | Aleksandrov N.,Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology
Progress in Energy and Combustion Science | Year: 2013

The use of a thermal equilibrium plasma for combustion control dates back more than a hundred years to the advent of internal combustion (IC) engines and spark ignition systems. The same principles are still applied today to achieve high efficiency in various applications. Recently, the potential use of nonequilibrium plasma for ignition and combustion control has garnered increasing interest due to the possibility of plasma-assisted approaches for ignition and flame stabilization. During the past decade, significant progress has been made toward understanding the mechanisms of plasma-chemistry interactions, energy redistribution and the nonequilibrium initiation of combustion. In addition, a wide variety of fuels have been examined using various types of discharge plasmas. Plasma application has been shown to provide additional combustion control, which is necessary for ultra-lean flames, high-speed flows, cold low-pressure conditions of high-altitude gas turbine engine (GTE) relight, detonation initiation in pulsed detonation engines (PDE) and distributed ignition control in homogeneous charge-compression ignition (HCCI) engines, among others. The present paper describes the current understanding of the nonequilibrium excitation of combustible mixtures by electrical discharges and plasma-assisted ignition and combustion. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Veselago V.G.,Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology
Physics-Uspekhi | Year: 2011

The scientific session, titled 'Electromagnetic and acoustic waves in metamaterials and structures', of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) was held on February 24, 2011. A metamaterial is an artificial composite crystal made of macroscopic structural elements immersed in a homogeneous medium weakly absorbing electromagnetic radiation. Among other things, the reason for the interest in metamaterials is that their dielectric permittivity, magnetic permeability, and refractive index can be varied over sufficiently wide ranges by varying the size, shape, and concentration of their constituent macroscopic elements. In the pioneering work by Pendry, it was shown that using a flat lens made of n = -1 metamaterial, super-resolution imaging can be achieved, which is impossible in the limit of a geometric optic. Another major possibility that arose with the advent of metamaterials is that of creating an invisibility cloak, a metamaterial coating that makes the coated region invisible.


Fedyanin D.Y.,Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology
Optics Letters | Year: 2012

The use of surface plasmon polariton (SPP)-based waveguides can significantly reduce the size of optical interconnects, but the propagation length of SPPs is limited by Joule heating losses and does not exceed a few micrometers. In this paper, we present an SPP amplification scheme that utilizes compact electrical pumping and gives a possibility for designing really compact on-chip waveguides. Moreover, we demonstrate here numerically that this approach can be easily used to design an electrically pumped cw or pulsed spaser. © 2012 Optical Society of America.


Rozhkov A.V.,Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014

It is well known that, generically, one-dimensional interacting fermions cannot be described in terms of a Fermi liquid. Instead, they present a different phenomenology, that of a Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid: the Landau quasiparticles are ill defined, and the fermion occupation number is continuous at the Fermi energy. We demonstrate that suitable fine tuning of the interaction between fermions can stabilize a peculiar state of one-dimensional matter, which is dissimilar to both Tomonaga-Luttinger and Fermi liquids. We propose to call this state a quasi-Fermi liquid. Technically speaking, such a liquid exists only when the fermion interaction is irrelevant (in the renormalization group sense). The quasi-Fermi liquid exhibits the properties of both a Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid and a Fermi liquid. Similar to a Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid, no finite-momentum quasiparticles are supported by the quasi-Fermi liquid; on the other hand, its fermion occupation number demonstrates a finite discontinuity at the Fermi energy, which is a hallmark feature of a Fermi liquid. A possible realization of the quasi-Fermi liquid with the help of cold atoms in an optical trap is discussed. © 2014 American Physical Society.


Fedorov A.,Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology
Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics | Year: 2011

This article reviews stability and laminar-turbulent transition in high-speed boundary-layer flows, emphasizing qualitative features of the disturbance spectrum leading to new mechanisms of receptivity and instability. It is shown that the extension of subsonic and low-supersonic stability concepts and transition prediction methods to hypersonic speeds is not straightforward. The discussion focuses on theoretical models providing insights into the physics of instability and helping make proper decisions on transition control strategies. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

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