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Babizhayev M.A.,Castle Inc. | Babizhayev M.A.,Moscow Helmholtz Research Institute for Eye Diseases | Yegorov Y.E.,RAS Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology
Current Molecular Medicine | Year: 2011

Glaucoma is a major cause of irreversible blindness, affecting more than 70 million individuals worldwide. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is a major risk factor in the development of glaucoma and in the progression of glaucomatous damage. High IOP usually occurs as a result of an increase in aqueous humor outflow resistance in trabecular meshwork (TM). Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is characterized by quantifiable parameters including the IOP, the aqueous outflow facility, and geometric measurements of the optic disc and visual defects. Morphological and biochemical analyses of the TM of POAG patients revealed loss of cells, increased accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM), changes in the cytoskeleton, cellular senescence and the process of subclinical inflammation. Various biochemical and molecular biology biomarkers of TM cells senescence are considered in the article. Oxidative stress is becoming an important factor more likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of POAG. Treatment of TM cells with oxidative stress induced POAG-typical changes like ECM accumulation, cell death, disarrangement of the cytoskeleton, advanced senescence and the release of inflammatory markers. Oxidative stress is able to induce characteristic glaucomatous TM changes and these oxidative stress-induced TM changes can be minimized by the use of antioxidants, such as carnosine -related analogues and IOP-lowering substances. There is evidence demonstrating that carnosine related analogues may have antioxidative capacities, can prevent cellular senescence and the attrition of telomeres during the action of oxidative stress. Prevention of oxidative stress exposure to the TM with N-acetylcarnosine ophthalmic prodrug of carnosine and oral formulation of non-hydrolized carnosine may help to reduce the progression of POAG. The previous work has demonstrated that carnosine is able to reach the TM directly via the transcorneal and systemic pathways of administration with N-acetylcarnosine ophthalmic prodrug and oral formulation of non-hydrolized carnosine. We suggest in this article that dual therapy with N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops, oral formulation of nonhydrolized carnosine combined with anti-glaucoma adrenergic drug may become the first-line therapy in glaucoma due to their efficiency in reducing IOP, prevention and reversal of oxidative stress-induced damages in TM and the low rate of severe side effects during combined treatment. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers.

Hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones are major neuroendocrine regulators of human body metabolism being driven directly to the anterior pituitary gland via hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal veins. The alternative physiological or therapeutic interventions utilizing the pharmaco-nutritional boost of imidazole-containing dipeptides (non-hydrolized oral form of carnosine, carcinine, N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops) can maintain health, enhance physical exercise performance and prevent ageing. Carnosine (_-alanyl-L-histidine) is synthesized in mammalian skeletal muscle. There is an evidence that the release of carnosine from the skeletal muscle sarcomeres moieties during physical exercise affects autonomic neurotransmission and physiological functions. Carnosine released from skeletal muscle during exercise acts as a powerful afferent physiological signaling stimulus for hypothalamus, may be transported into the hypothalamic tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN), specifically to TMN-histamine neurons and hydrolyzed herewith via activities of carnosine-degrading enzyme (carnosinase 2) localized in situ. Through the colocalized enzymatic activity of Histidine decarboxylase in the histaminergic neurons, the resulting L-histidine may subsequently be converted into histamine, which could be responsible for the effects of carnosine on neurotransmission and physiological function. Carnosine and its imidazole-containing dipeptide derivatives are renowned for their anti-aging, antioxidant, membrane protective, metal ion chelating, buffering, anti-glycation/ transglycating activities used to prevent and treat a spectrum of age-related and metabolic diseases, such as neurodegenerative disease, sight threatening eye diseases, Diabetes mellitus and its complications, cancers and other disorders due to their wide spectrum biological activities. The precursor of carnosine (and related imidazole containing compounds) synthesis in skeletal muscles beta-alanine is used as the oral supplement by athletes to achieve the fine sporting art results due to the buffering activities of carnosine and its related imidazole- containing compounds which contribute to the maintenance of the acid-base balance in the acting muscles. This work originally emphasizes that overall data indicate the signaling activities of carnosine in skeletal and cardiac muscles switching on the mechanisms of exercise-induced telomere protection and point to the stress response and growth/cellular proliferation pathways as high-priority candidates for the ongoing studies and therapeutic concepts. The therapeutic interventions utilizing the specific oral formulation (Can-C Plus), timing dosing and pharmaco-nutritional boost of imidazolecontaining dipeptides can maintain health, enhance physical exercise performance and prevent aging. The patented therapeutic concept protects the existence of the interesting physiological major activities, better controls and therapeutic treatments for aging/age-related disorders (including age-related loss of muscle mass and muscle function) using carnosine dipeptide for cellular rejuvenation and manipulating telomeres and enzyme telomerase activity that may reduce some of the physiological declines that accompany aging. © 2015 Bentham Science Publishers.

Cataract, opacification of the lens, is one of the commonest causes of loss of useful vision during aging, with an estimated 16 million people world-wide affected. The role of nutritional supplementation in prevention of onset or progression of ocular disease is of interest to health care professionals and patients. The aging eye seems to be at considerable risk from oxidative stress. This review outlines the potential role of the new nutritional strategy on redox balance in age-related eye diseases and detail how the synergism and interaction of imidazole-containing amino acid-based compounds (nonhydrolized L-carnosine, histidine), chaperone agents (such as, L-carnosine, D-pantethine), glutathione-boosting agents (N-acetylcysteine, vitamin E, methionine), and N-acetylcarnosine eye drops plays key roles in the function and maintenance of the redox systems in the aging eye and in the treatment of human cataract disease. A novel patented oral health supplement is presented which enhances the anticataract activity of eye drops and activates functional visual acuity. The clinical data demonstrate the effectiveness and safety of a combined oral health care treatment with amino acids possessing chaperone-like activity with N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops. L-carnosine and N-acetylcarnosine protected the chaperone activity of α-crystallin and reduced the increased posttranslational modifications of lens proteins. Biological activities of the nonhydrolyzed carnosine in the oral formulation are based on its antioxidant and antiglycating (transglycating) action that, in addition to heavy metal chelation and pH-buffering ability, makes carnosine an essential factor for preventing sight-threatening eye disorders having oxidative stress in their pathogenesis, neurodegeneration, and accumulation of senile features. The findings suggest that synergism is required between carnosine or other imidazole-containing compounds and reduced glutathione in tissues and cells for efficacious protection from protein carbonylation as a biomarker for the ability of the non-toxic compounds to reduce oxidative stress. Potential therapeutic applications of oral forms of nonhydrolized carnosine and their specific mechanisms to manage telomere attrition and vascular aging might help elderly patients to withstand the problems of sight-threatening eye diseases related to oxidative stress and accelerated biological ageing in linked with earlier onset of diseases. © 2010 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Babizhayev M.A.,Castle Inc. | Babizhayev M.A.,Moscow Helmholtz Research Institute for Eye Diseases | Vishnyakova K.S.,RAS Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology | Yegorov Y.E.,RAS Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology
Recent Patents on Drug Delivery and Formulation | Year: 2014

It has been documented that telomere-associated cellular senescence may contribute to certain age-related disorders, including an increase in cancer incidence, wrinkling and diminished skin elasticity, atherosclerosis, osteoporosis, weight loss, age-related cataract, glaucoma and others. Shorter telomere length in leukocytes was associated crosssectionally with cardiovascular disorders and their risk factors, including pulse pressure and vascular aging, obesity, vascular dementia, diabetes, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction (although not in all studies), cellular turnover and exposure to oxidative and inflammatory damage in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It has been proposed that telomere length may not be a strong biomarker of survival in older individuals, but it may be an informative biomarker of healthy aging. The data reveal that telomere dynamics and changes in telomerase activity are consistent elements of cellular alterations associated with changes in proliferative state and in this article these processes are consequently considered as the new therapeutic drug targets for physiological control with advanced drug delivery and nutritional formulations. In particular, the presence of highly specific correlations and early causal relationships between telomere loss in the absence of telomerase activity and replicative senescence or crisis, and from the other side, telomerase reactivation and cell immortality, point to new and important treatment strategies or the therapeutic manipulation during treatment of age related disorders and cancer. Once better controls and therapeutic treatments for aging and age-related disorders are achieved, cellular rejuvenation by manipulating telomeres and enzyme telomerase activity may reduce some of the physiological declines that accompany aging. In this work, we raise and support a therapeutic concept of using non-hydrolyzed forms of naturally occurring imidazoledipeptide based compounds carnosine and carcinine, making it clinically possible that slowing down the rate of telomere shortening could slow down the human aging process in specific tissues where proliferative senescence is known to occur with the demonstrated evidence of telomere shortening appeared to be a hallmark of oxidative stress and disease. The preliminary longitudinal studies of elderly individuals suggest that longer telomeres are associated with better survival and an advanced oral nutritional support with non-hydrolyzed carnosine (or carcinine and patented compositions thereof) and patented N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops are useful therapeutic tools of a critical telomere length maintenance that may fundamentally be applied in the treatment of age-related sight-threatening eye disorders, prolong life expectancy, increase survival and chronological age of an organism in health control, smoking behavior and disease. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers.

The implication of oxidative stress associated with increased oxidant production in mammalian and human cells characterized by the release of free radicals, resulting in cellular degeneration, is involved in many ocular diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration, retinopathy of prematurity, retinal light damage, primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), and cataract. Cataract is the leading cause of blindness, accounting for 50% of blindness worldwide. Glaucoma, the leading cause of irreversible blindness, is considered as a progressive optic neuropathy often caused by elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) consequent to abnormally high resistance to aqueous humor (AH) drainage via the trabecular meshwork (TM) and Schlemm's canal. Morphological and biochemical analyses of the TM of patients with POAG revealed the loss of cells, increased accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins (ECM), changes in the cytoskeleton, cellular senescence, and the process of subclinical inflammation. The TM is the target tissue of glaucoma in the anterior chamber, and the development and progression of glaucoma are accompanied by the accumulation of oxidative damage in this tissue. The separate studies were conducted to comparatively evaluate the sensitivity to oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation (LPO) of anterior chamber tissues including TM. Accumulation of the primary, secondary, and end products of LPO (diene and triene conjugates, Schiff's bases) was noted in the studied extracts. Significant differences in the levels of all mentioned LPO products in comparison with the control were observed. The data may be considered as an evidence of LPO participation in the destruction of the trabecule and Schlemm's canal in POAG. Treatment of TM cells with oxidative stress induced POAG-typical changes such as ECM accumulation, cell death, disarrangement of the cytoskeleton, advanced senescence, and the release of inflammatory markers. By pretreatment with antioxidants, prostaglandin analogs, beta-blockers, or local carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, these effects were markedly reduced. Oxidative stress can induce characteristic glaucomatous TM changes, and these oxidative stress-induced TM changes can be minimized by the use of antioxidants and IOP-lowering substances. It is tempting to speculate that the prevention of oxidative stress exposure to the TM may help to reduce the progression of POAG. The author's laboratory has developed and patented the dual combination therapy with N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops and oral formulation of nonhydrolyzed carnosine in ripe cataracts and POAG. The specific regimen for the treatment in each stage of age-related ophthalmic disease has been taken up. In the treatment of POAG, this dual therapy can be combined with conventional antiglaucoma therapy with beta-blocking and/or adrenergic agonist medicines providing the significant IOP-lowering effect and significant increase in outflow facility. The developed therapy is a prominent management care of the glaucomatous neurodegeneration. © 2011 The Author Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2011 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

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