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Iyer R.,Mosaic Fertilizer LLC
Proceedings of the Air and Waste Management Association's Annual Conference and Exhibition, AWMA | Year: 2015

The foregoing simple scrutiny using the GP and the author's ammoniated phosphate air permit application cases shows that the PSD applicability analysis can be accomplished with different objectives in mind that may be guided by corporate goals and philosophy and or immediate project requirements. The demand growth exclusion concept is admittedly predicated upon market conditions showing some demonstrable steady growth and is ideally applicable to the baseline being the ninth and tenth years of the look back period, in other words the most recent 2 years, and the growth projection is substantiated by '⋯the company's greatest projections of business activity⋯' per §52.21(b)(41)(a). In reality, such text book like ideal conditions may not prevail. In the WEPCO case(4), the baseline agreed upon was for years 1983 and 84 for determinations done in 1988 and 89, citing plant utilization disruption by physical problems as an apparent reason. The coal burned used a forecast and upper maximum forecast that differ in the 1995 through 2009 period from 15 to 30 percent. The WEPCO case also mentioned that calculation of estimated, future and actual emissions based on control technology performance levels were acceptable only if such items were made federally-enforceable; otherwise the calculations would need to be made with existing federally-enforceable limits in SIP, NSPS which would result in greater projected future emissions and would affect PSD findings. In the ammoniated phosphate example in this paper, the greatest production in the ten (10) year look back period is used in the projected actual emissions calculation. The use of control technology performance levels can be a complex task in a plant with a number of individual venturi, packed bed, impact spray and such devices configured in parallel/series serving different processing steps. These plants can have single or multiple stack emissions data that need to be then evaluated accordingly. The use of annual stack test or five (5) year averages of stack test results is likely a good measure of fluctuations of individual pollution control devices in a plant, as is the use of the ten (10) year maximum production for projections when no firm demand growth is available, and, overall, striving for emissions increase close to the PSD SER appears to be a sensible goal. The approach to accomplish a PSD applicability analysis appears to be based on average and maximum values of production and stacks test data. Because PSD rules are tied to the concept of baseline emissions obtained by the two (2) year average within the ten (10) year look back period, it may be worthwhile to extend such analysis to be based on the modeled performance of pollution control equipment and market demand functions. For instance, double absorption sulfuric acid plants can be expected to show a SO2 control efficiency dependent upon the approximately 18 month turnaround cycle when the catalyst is changed and other necessary repairs done plus some overall plant deterioration function over the period of its planned lifetime. Data, including equations and production stack test data, could be used as inputs to optimization programs such as General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) using object function formulations to provide insights relating to corporate goals and project requirements.


Yang Y.,University of Florida | Yang Y.,Chinese Academy of science | He Z.,University of Florida | Yang X.,University of Florida | And 4 more authors.
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2012

Most soils in Florida are very sandy, and water-soluble fertilizers (WSF) are subjected to leaching loss. Alternate fertilization is a promising practice to reduce such loss. Dolomite phosphate rock (DPR), which contains calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus, is potentially useful for agricultural production and landscaping plants. In this study, DPR fertilizers were developed from mixing of DPR material and N-viro soil. A typical agricultural soil (Alfisol) in Florida was used for greenhouse studies, and ryegrass and citrus seedlings were tested. The DPR fertilizers appeared superior to WSF for the growth of ryegrass based on dry-matter yield and nutrient concentrations in plant; however, it was not evident in citrus seedlings. DPR fertilizers were effective in raising pH (by 3 units) and electrical conductivity of acidic sandy soils and increasing soil organic matter, total nutrients, and available nutrients. The concentrations of copper, lead, and zinc in the plant tissues were less than toxicity limits. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Britton E.,Mosaic Fertilizer LLC | Gliebova K.,Mosaic Fertilizer LLC | Rembold T.,Clariant
Ammonia Plant Safety and Related Facilities | Year: 2015

During a recent turnaround at Mosaic's St. James Ammonia Plant, a plant incident during theLTS reduction caused the pressure drop across the primary reformer to triple. Mosaic and Clariant Technical Services worked together to determine the cause of the primary reformer pressure drop increase and implement procedures to attempt salvaging the charge of reforming catalyst. This paper will discuss the troubleshooting that was completed, remedial action attempted, safety precautions taken following the shutdown to make sure the primary reformer and LTS were started back up safely, and lessons learned.


Britton E.R.,Mosaic Fertilizer LLC
Ammonia Plant Safety and Related Facilities | Year: 2013

On October 11, 2006, the ammonia plant at Mosaic Fertilizer's Faustina facility suffered a catastrophic failure of its synthesis loop boiler feedwater heater when the inlet channel suddenly and completely separated from the body of the heat exchanger. The failure destroyed the heat exchanger and caused significant collateral damage to piping and equipment in the synthesis loop area. This paper presents the findings from the investigation into the cause of the failure, the subsequent testing of other synthesis loop equipment following the sudden depressurization of the synthesis loop, and lessons learned from incident.


Hagemo C.,Mosaic Fertilizer LLC
Energy Engineering: Journal of the Association of Energy Engineering | Year: 2012

In today's world of rising energy prices and uncertain global energy supply, energy management is more relevant than ever. This article explores some fundamental aspects of how to develop a sustainable energy management program. While the specific details of the article deal primarily with a sulfuric acid plant integrated into a phosphate fertilizer manufacturing complex, the approach is applicable in just about any industry or for any utility. The key topics covered are the need for robust energy maps and models, the need for good leading and lagging indicators, and some practical results and suggestions from the author's experience with energy management. As the title suggests, the purpose of this article is not to introduce novel concepts or cutting edge technologies; instead, every effort has been made to eliminate the distractions of formulas and technical jargon so that the information presented can be useful to the department manager or utility engineer.


Hall W.L.,Mosaic Fertilizer LLC | Siegel S.,Mosaic Fertilizer LLC
Journal of AOAC International | Year: 2014

Several methodologies are used throughout the world to determine phosphate concentration (measured as PO4 and expressed as % P2O5) in fertilizers. Concentrated phosphate materials, including diammonium phosphate (DAP) and monoammonium phosphate (MAP), are traded in large volumes (millions of metric tons) internationally. The International Fertilizer Association (IFA) identified a need to assess the methods currently being used to measure the phosphate content for suitability (scope), accuracy, and repeatability. Even small discrepancies in the expressed P2O5 content can have a major financial impact on buyers and sellers as contracts are settled and import regulations are imposed. The IFA's Technical Committee selected a working group to address issues dealing with harmonization of fertilizer sampling and analytical methodologies. The working group identified phosphate content in DAP and MAP fertilizers as a major concern for commerce. The working group initiated a method screening and comparison project to assess method performance and to determine which methods, if any, could be considered best practice methods and, therefore, be deemed acceptable for use by the industry. In order to systematically review the acceptability of methods for consideration, the task force developed an assessment protocol outlined in a white paper involving three steps: (1) compile all known relevant methods practiced in global fertilizer trade, (2) review and evaluate methods based upon specific evaluation criteria, and (3) compare the methods that most closely fit the evaluation criteria by multilaboratory analysis of unknown materials for accuracy and repeatability. Six methods were evaluated for analysis of total phosphate in concentrated phosphate products. From these methods, four were determined to be acceptable as best practice methods. The study members proposed three of the methods, while a fourth method was commonly used among the participating laboratories. This publication is a summary of the method comparison process and statistical evaluation of analysis of total phosphate content in concentrated phosphate fertilizers.


Hall W.L.,Mosaic Fertilizer LLC | Ramsey C.,EnviroStat | Falls J.H.,Mosaic Fertilizer LLC
Journal of AOAC International | Year: 2014

Bulk blending of dry fertilizers is a common practice in the United States and around the world. This practice involves the mixing (either physically or volumetrically) of concentrated, high analysis raw materials. Blending is followed by bagging (for small volume application such as lawn and garden products), loading into truck transports, and spreading. The great majority of bulk blended products are not bagged but handled in bulk and transferred from the blender to a holding hopper. The product is then transferred to a transport vehicle, which may, or may not, also be a spreader. If the primary transport vehicle is not a spreader, then there is another transfer at the user site to a spreader for application. Segregation of materials that are mismatched due to size, density, or shape is an issue when attempting to effectively sample or evenly spread bulk blended products. This study, prepared in coordination with and supported by the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services and the Florida Fertilizer and Agrochemical Association, looks at the impact of varying particle size as it relates to blending, sampling, and application of bulk blends. The study addresses blends containing high ratios of N-P-K materials and varying (often small) quantities of the micronutrient Zn.

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