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Palmer R.A.,University of London | Potter B.S.,University of London | Leach M.J.,University of Greenwich | Jenkins T.C.,Morvus Technology | Chowdhry B.Z.,University of Greenwich
MedChemComm | Year: 2010

The X-ray crystallographic structures of the mesylate salts of a novel voltage-gated sodium channel-binding ligand R-(-)-BW202W92 and its much less active S-(+)-enantiomer (BW203W92) have been determined to establish their absolute configurations. Each enantiomer exists as two distinct atropisomeric forms in the solid state and the crystal structures for each enantiomer are stabilized by quite distinct patterns of intermolecular hydrogen bonding. Such structural differences will influence the pharmacological properties of the enantiomers and hence dictate their contrasting receptor binding properties. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

Heap J.T.,University of Nottingham | Heap J.T.,Imperial College London | Theys J.,Maastricht University | Ehsaan M.,University of Nottingham | And 8 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2014

Spores of some species of the strictly anaerobic bacteria Clostridium naturally target and partially lyse the hypoxic cores of tumors, which tend to be refractory to conventional therapies. The anti-tumor effect can be augmented by engineering strains to convert a non-toxic prodrug into a cytotoxic drug specifically at the tumor site by expressing a prodrug-converting enzyme (PCE). Safe doses of the favored prodrug CB1954 lead to peak concentrations of 6.3 μM in patient sera, but at these concentration(s) known nitroreductase (NTR) PCEs for this prodrug show low activity. Furthermore, efficacious and safe Clostridium strains that stably express a PCE have not been reported. Here we identify a novel nitroreductase from Neisseria meningitidis, NmeNTR, which is able to activate CB1954 at clinically-achievable serum concentrations. An NmeNTR expression cassette, which does not contain an antibiotic resistance marker, was stably localized to the chromosome of Clostridium sporogenes using a new integration method, and the strain was disabled for safety and containment by making it a uracil auxotroph. The efficacy of Clostridium-Directed Enzyme Prodrug Therapy (CDEPT) using this system was demonstrated in a mouse xenograft model of human colon carcinoma. Substantial tumor suppression was achieved, and several animals were cured. These encouraging data suggest that the novel enzyme and strain engineering approach represent a promising platform for the clinical development of CDEPT. Source

Huang W.,University of Liverpool | Huang W.,University of Sichuan | Booth D.M.,University of Liverpool | Cane M.C.,University of Liverpool | And 15 more authors.
Gut | Year: 2014

Objective Non-oxidative metabolism of ethanol (NOME) produces fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) via carboxylester lipase (CEL) and other enzyme action implicated in mitochondrial injury and acute pancreatitis (AP). This study investigated the relative importance of oxidative and nonoxidative pathways in mitochondrial dysfunction, pancreatic damage and development of alcoholic AP, and whether deleterious effects of NOME are preventable. Design Intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]C), NAD(P)H, mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of apoptotic and necrotic cell death pathways were examined in isolated pancreatic acinar cells in response to ethanol and/or palmitoleic acid (POA) in the presence or absence of 4-methylpyrazole (4-MP) to inhibit oxidative metabolism. A novel in vivo model of alcoholic AP induced by intraperitoneal administration of ethanol and POA was developed to assess the effects of manipulating alcohol metabolism. Results Inhibition of OME with 4-MP converted predominantly transient [Ca2+]C rises induced by low ethanol/POA combination to sustained elevations, with concurrent mitochondrial depolarisation, fall of NAD(P)H and cellular necrosis in vitro. All effects were prevented by 3-benzyl-6-chloro-2-pyrone (3-BCP), a CEL inhibitor. 3-BCP also significantly inhibited rises of pancreatic FAEE in vivo and ameliorated acute pancreatic damage and inflammation induced by administration of ethanol and POA to mice. Conclusions A combination of low ethanol and fatty acid that did not exert deleterious effects per se became toxic when oxidative metabolism was inhibited. The in vitro and in vivo damage was markedly inhibited by blockade of CEL, indicating the potential for development of specific therapy for treatment of alcoholic AP via inhibition of FAEE generation. Source

Jaberipour M.,University of Birmingham | Vass S.O.,University of Birmingham | Guise C.P.,University of Birmingham | Grove J.I.,University of Birmingham | And 4 more authors.
Biochemical Pharmacology | Year: 2010

Prodrug activation gene therapy for cancer involves expressing prodrug-activating enzymes in tumour cells, so they can be selectively killed by systemically administered prodrug. For example, Escherichia coli nfsB nitroreductase (E.C., sensitises cells to the prodrug CB1954 (5-[aziridin-1-yl]-2,4-dinitrobenzamide), which it converts to a potent DNA-crosslinking agent. However, low catalytic efficiency with this non-natural substrate appears to limit the efficacy of this enzyme prodrug combination for eliminating the target cancer cells. To improve this, we aim to engineer NTR for improved prodrug activation. Previously, a number of single amino acid substitutions at six positions around the active site of the enzyme were found to increase activity, resulting in up to ∼5-fold enhanced cell sensitisation to CB1954. In this study we have made pairwise combinations among some of the best mutants at each of these 6 sites. A total of 53 double mutants were initially screened in E. coli, then the 7 most promising were inserted into an adenovirus vector and compared in SKOV3 human ovarian carcinoma cells for sensitisation to CB1954 and two alternative prodrugs. The most effective mutants, T41L/N71S and T41L/F70A, were 14-17-fold more potent than WT NTR at sensitising the cancer cells to CB1954. The best mutant for activation of the dinitrobenzamide mustard prodrug SN23862 was T41L/F70A (4.8-fold improvement); and S40A/F124M showed 1.7-fold improvement over WT with the nitrobenzylphosphoramide mustard prodrug LH7. In two tumour xenograft models using SKOV3 or human prostate carcinoma PC3, T41L/N71S NTR demonstrated greater CB1954-dependent anti-tumour activity than WT NTR. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. Source

Morvus Technology | Date: 2015-02-23

There is provided the use as reducing agents of alpha-hydroxycarbonyl compounds capable of forming cyclic dimers. There is also provided corresponding methods of reducing reducible compounds, particularly reduction-activated prodrugs. Examples of the alpha-hydroxycarbonyl compounds used are dihydroxyacetone, glycolaldehyde, glyceraldehyde, erythrose, xylulose, erythrulose or 3-hydroxy-2-butanone.

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