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Gracey D.M.,Renal Unit | Gracey D.M.,University of Sydney | Snelling P.,Renal Unit | McKenzie P.,University of Sydney | And 2 more authors.
Antiviral Therapy | Year: 2013

Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is increasingly used in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection. Although associated with renal toxicity in HIV-infected patients, renal dysfunction has been reported rarely in the monoinfected CHB population. To date, TDF-associated Fanconi syndrome has not been reported. Here, we present two cases of TDF-associated Fanconi syndrome with rapid resolution after its cessation. We then discuss risk factors for TDF nephrotoxicity and its implications for screening for renal disease in those patients with CHB monoinfection on TDF, and the use of TDF in at-risk populations. © 2013 International Medical Press. Source


Kaffes A.J.,Morrow Gastroenterology and Liver Center
Best Practice and Research: Clinical Gastroenterology | Year: 2012

Advances in modern enteroscopy have been largely due to endoscope development but also through the improved availability of endoscopic accessories along with improved understanding in their application. Device assisted enteroscopy began with the double balloon system in 2001 and was quickly followed by single balloon enteroscopy and spiral enteroscopy. These tools revolutionised deep small bowel endoscopy and allowed for the delivery of virtually all known therapeutic endoscopy intervention to almost all segments of the small bowel. This review covers the types of interventions in regards to indications, methods and their safety profiles as well as reviewing the various device assisted endoscopes available and their attributes. Source


Liu K.,University of Sydney | Kaffes A.J.,Morrow Gastroenterology and Liver Center
European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology | Year: 2012

Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is the most common form of anaemia worldwide. In men and postmenopausal women the commonest cause of IDA is blood loss from lesions in the gastrointestinal tract, making it a common cause of referral to gastroenterologists. Causes of IDA relate either to blood loss or iron malabsorption. After confirmation with laboratory tests, gastrointestinal evaluation is almost always indicated to exclude gastrointestinal malignancy. Specific patient groups such as premenopausal women, patients with low-normal ferritin and iron-deficient patients without anaemia may need an individualized approach. A small proportion of patients have recurrent or persistent IDA despite negative standard endoscopies. These patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding usually require evaluation of the small bowel with capsule endoscopy or double balloon enteroscopy. Treatment should involve prompt iron replacement plus diagnostic steps directed towards correcting the underlying cause of IDA. Oral iron replacement is cheap and effective, but parenteral (intravenous) therapy may be required due to intolerance, noncompliance or treatment failure with oral therapy. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source


Strasser S.I.,Morrow Gastroenterology and Liver Center
Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology | Year: 2014

Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection is a major cause of human mortality worldwide. The majority of people with CHB are infected early in life, and 20-40% of men and 15% of women with chronic infection will develop hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Antiviral therapy is recommended for patients with CHB who have cirrhosis or active disease with the aims of reducing disease progression to cirrhosis, liver failure and liver cancer, thereby preventing death. Evidence that treatment with interferon or with early nucleos(t)ide analogue therapy reduces HCC has been somewhat conflicting, however evidence is emerging to support a significant role in HCC prevention of the more effective antivirals, entecavir and tenofovir. Older patients, those with cirrhosis, and those undergoing curative treatments for HCC derive the greatest medium-term benefit in terms of HCC reduction, but HCC can still occur and long-term surveillance is recommended. © Informa UK, Ltd. Source


Kaffes A.J.,Morrow Gastroenterology and Liver Center
Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Sciences | Year: 2015

Benign biliary strictures are common and occur either from hepato-biliary surgery or from diseases including chronic pancreatitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis, among others. The treatment of many such strictures is endoscopic with evolving new approaches especially with fully covered metal stents. The only classification system available is for postoperative strictures with the intention to guide surgical correction. There is no useful classification system to guide both assessment and management of benign biliary strictures. This proposed classification is relevant to patient care in assisting diagnosis and endoscopic management. © 2015 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery. Source

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