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State College, United States

Naze Y.,University of Liege | Rauw G.,University of Liege | Ud-Doula A.,Morrisville State College
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2010

High-energy emissions are good indicators of peculiar behaviours in stars. We have therefore obtained an XMM-Newton observation of HD155806 and 1RXS J171502.4-333344, and derived their spectral properties for the first time. The X-ray spectrum of HD155806 appears soft, even slightly softer than usual for O-type stars (as shown by a comparison with the O9 star HD155889 in the same XMM-Newton field). It is well-fitted with a two-component thermal model with low temperatures (0.2 and 0.6 keV), and it shows no overluminosity (log[L X/LBOL] = -6.75). The high-resolution spectrum, though noisy, reveals a few broad, symmetric X-ray lines (FWHM ∼ 2500 km s -1). The X-ray emission is compatible with the wind-shock model and therefore appears unaffected by the putative dense equatorial regions at the origin of the Oe classification. 1RXS J171502.4-333344 is a nearby flaring source of moderate X-ray luminosity (log[LX/LBOL] = -3), with a soft thermal spectrum composed of narrow lines and presenting a larger abundance of elements (e.g. Ne) with a high first ionization potential (FIP) compared to lower-FIP elements. All the evidence indicates a coronal origin for the X-ray emission, in agreement with the dMe classification of this source. © 2010 ESO. Source

Ud-Doula A.,Morrisville State College
Revista Mexicana de Astronomia y Astrofisica: Serie de Conferencias | Year: 2010

All main sequence stars lose mass via stellar winds. The winds of cool stars like the sun are driven by gas pressure gradient. However, the winds of hot massive stars which tend to be luminous are driven by the star radiation pressure. In this talk, I describe the nature of such radiative driving and show that the continuum and line opacities in the wind determine how large the stellar atmosphere may appear in an interferometer. Currently, interferometers can detect only relatively large scale structures. I will describe how these structures are induced by rotation, pulsations, magnetic fields or wind-wind interactions. © 2010: Instituto de Astronomía, UNAM. Source

Reymers K.,Morrisville State College
International Journal of Technoethics | Year: 2011

In 2008, a resident of a computerized virtual world called "Second Life" programmed and began selling a "realistic" virtual chicken. It required food and water to survive, was vulnerable to physical damage, and could reproduce. This development led to the mass adoption of chicken farms and large-scale trade in virtual chickens and eggs. Not long after the release of the virtual chickens, a number of incidents occurred which demonstrate the negotiated nature of territorial and normative boundaries. Neighbors of chicken farmers complained of slow performance of the simulation and some users began terminating the chickens, kicking or shooting them to "death." All of these virtual world phenomena, from the interactive role-playing of virtual farmers to the social, political and economic repercussions within and beyond the virtual world, can be examined with a critical focus on the ethical ramifications of virtual world conflicts. This paper views the case of the virtual chicken wars from three different ethical perspectives: as a resource dilemma, as providing an argument from moral and psychological harm, and as a case in which just war theory can be applied. Copyright © 2011, IGI Global. Source

Galusky W.,Morrisville State College
Science as Culture | Year: 2010

To engage the mediating and enabling aspects of food technology, I reflect in this essay on my (rueful) attempts at raising chickens. As an incompetent chicken-raising hobbyist and an STS-trained scholar, I came to view my chickens as technologies themselves-results of human interactions with nature, through the overarching frame of domestication. Viewing the chicken-human relationship as a technological one has allowed me to foreground several elements at once. First, the chicken and the systems that sustain it put in stark relief the process of defining nature very specifically. Certain aspects are coveted and augmented while others are disregarded or overcome. Thus, technology does not strictly demarcate artificial from natural, but rather restricts or accommodates fuller forms of nature. Second, these definitions of nature (the chicken in this case) stabilize and enable other technological forms that take the initial stability for granted (e.g. human social and geographic organizations premised on industrialized agriculture). Third, these systems of stabilities, premised on necessarily partial versions of nature, complicate normative decisions on proper human-chicken relationships. In creating a uniform animal, and a relatively cheap and stable source of protein, we have empowered identities that can think about food less as necessity, and more as choice. As a result, we as consumers become increasingly dependent on the systems of domesticated nature that make such choice possible. And when the chicken itself becomes a product of that lifestyle choice (expressed as an element of consumer behavior), its very skeletal structure becomes optional. © 2010 Process Press. Source

Adams A.E.,Morrisville State College | Ahola J.K.,Colorado State University | Chahine M.,University of Idaho | Ohlheiser A.L.,Colorado State University | Roman-Muniz I.N.,Colorado State University
Professional Animal Scientist | Year: 2016

This pilot study evaluated the effect of on-farm Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) training on welfare- and BQA-related traits in dairy cows and determined practices in place on dairy farms that negatively affected dairy cow welfare and BQA. Twelve dairies participated, with 4 in each category: small (1 to 199 cows); medium (200 to 1,499 cows); and large (1,500 cows or more). Two dairies in each category received BQA training. During 2 visits (before and after training) a survey was administered to identify management practices in place that concern dairy cow welfare and BQA, and an attempt was made to evaluate every lactating cow for BCS and locomotion score. The number of measures in place to avoid residues in the food supply was greater for milk than for meat (3.4 vs. 1.9; P < 0.01). Participants reported that injections were administered in each of the following locations: 63.9% neck, 17.3% hind leg, 15.3% upper hip/rump, 3.1% shoulder, and 0.4% tailhead. Because the neck is the only BQA approved location for administering i.m. or s.c. injections, educational efforts are needed to improve injection practices on dairy operations. The percentage of lame and severely lame cows per farm was 14.7 and 3.9% during the pretraining visit and 14.0 and 4.2% during the posttraining visit, respectively. One dairy producer hired a full-time employee to trim hooves and manage lameness on their operation after receiving BQA training. Implementation of an on-farm dairy BQA training has the potential to positively affect dairy cow welfare and BQA practices. © 2016 American Registry of Professional Animal Scientists. Source

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