Morocco National Institute of Agronomic Research

Errachidia, Morocco

Morocco National Institute of Agronomic Research

Errachidia, Morocco
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Elazhar F.,Université Ibn Tofail | Tahaikt M.,Université Ibn Tofail | Zouahri A.,Morocco National Institute of Agronomic Research | Taky M.,Université Ibn Tofail | And 2 more authors.
World Applied Sciences Journal | Year: 2013

Fluoride contamination of groundwater has become of increasing worldwide concern. With the decrease in water resources, especially underground water and the frequent excess of fluoride observed these last decades, dilution became an ineffective solution. So to prevent this situation, the National Office of Potable Water (ONEP) in Morocco, has initiated studies to investigate remedial options. The study on the comparison of the performance of electrodialysis and nanofiltration in fluoride removal from Moroccan groundwater was started six years ago using two pilot plants. This study confirms the performances of the two technologies in the fluoride reduction and shows that these performances are comparable. A preliminary economical comparison is carried out. The investment and operating costs have been estimated for the two technologies on the basis of two different adopted models. The results of the two models are discussed and compared with industrial realities. © IDOSI Publications, 2013.

Hayat A.,Morocco National Institute of Agronomic Research | Hayat A.,Cadi Ayyad University | Ahmed Q.,Cadi Ayyad University | Mohamed A.,Morocco National Institute of Agronomic Research
Research Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2017

An efficient protocol for in vitro propagation of mature carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.) was developed using nodal segments. It involves shoot initiation including a pre-culture period, multiple shoot formation and rooting. Half strength Murashigue and Skoog (MS/2) medium supplemented with various auxin and cytokinin used at different concentrations was tested for their bud initiation and shoot multiplication efficiency while different auxins were used to induce rooting of elongated shoots. Obtained results showed high percentage (>80%) of well-established and healthy cultures with shoot regeneration capacity that varied depending of BAP (6-Benzylaminopurine) and IBA (Indole acetic acid) concentrations. Hormonal pretreatments of explants, whatever may be its duration and plant growth regulators, considerably increased bud initiation. Pre-culture in 5 mg/L TDZ (Thidiazuron) for one week induced the highest bud initiation (87%), 4 times higher than in non-pre-cultured explants. The maximum shoot (16.35) and leave (21.80) formation with best shoot length (2.42 cm) were observed when 0.5 mg/L BAP was combined with 0.5 mg/L IBA. Elongated shoots rooted more frequently produced multiple roots (5.89) with the highest root length (6.83 cm) on MS/2 medium supplemented with 1 mg/L IAA (Indole-3-Acetic acid). Acclimatization of plantlets was successful; 66% survived after transfer to ex vitro conditions.

Khadraji A.,Unit of Plant Biotechnology and Symbiosis Agro Physiology | Mouradi M.,Unit of Plant Biotechnology and Symbiosis Agro Physiology | Houasli C.,Morocco National Institute of Agronomic Research | Qaddoury A.,Unit of Plant Biotechnology and Symbiosis Agro Physiology | Ghoulam C.,Unit of Plant Biotechnology and Symbiosis Agro Physiology
Seed Science and Technology | Year: 2017

Seed osmopriming has positive influences on germination and growth in many plant species, particularly under tough environmental conditions such as drought. In this study, seeds of five Moroccan chickpea (Cicer arietinum) varieties were osmoprimed with polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000) solutions (-0.5 MPa (PI) and -0.7 MPa (P2)), for 24 hours at 20°C and germinated for eight days at osmotic potential of 0, -0.2 and -0.4 MPa PEG 6000. Several germination and growth parameters were assessed, as well as antioxidant activities and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) content in germinated seedlings. Drought decreased germination and growth in all of the studied genotypes with significant variation between them. Osmoprimed seeds presented higher germination and growth than unprimed ones. 'Zahour' and 'Rizki' seeds from PI presented the highest percentage of normal seedlings (PNS) of 91.6 and 88.3%, respectively, under severe stress (-0.4 MPa) and the highest peroxidase activity and the lowest MDA content. 'Rizki' seedlings from P2 presented the highest vigour index (SVI) of 2496 mm, while 'Farihane' and 'Mazouzia' did not show good germination performances and had inefficient antioxidant activities under stress. Strong correlations were detected between the priming effect, antioxidant activities, germination parameters and malonyldialdehyde content.

Essarioui A.,University of Minnesota | Essarioui A.,Morocco National Institute of Agronomic Research | Kistler H.C.,University of Minnesota | Kistler H.C.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Kinkel L.L.,University of Minnesota
Plant and Soil | Year: 2016

Background an aims: Nutrient use overlap among sympatric Streptomyces populations is correlated with pathogen inhibitory capacity, yet there is little information on either the factors that influence nutrient use overlap among coexisting populations or the diversity of nutrient use among soil Streptomyces. Methods: We examined the effects of plant host and plant species richness on nutrient use of Streptomyces isolated from the rhizosphere of Andropogon gerardii (Ag) and Lespedeza capitata (Lc) growing in communities of 1 (monoculture) or 16 (polyculture) plant species. Growth on 95 carbon sources was assessed over 5d. Results: Cumulative growth was significantly greater for polyculture vs. monoculture isolates, and for Lc vs. Ag isolates. Isolates from monocultures, but not polycultures, exhibited a drop in growth rates between 24 h and 72 h post-inoculation, suggesting resource allocation to non-growth functions. Isolates from high-carbon (polyculture) or high-nitrogen (Lc) soils had larger niche widths than isolates from low-C (monocultures) or low-N (Ag) soils. Sympatric isolates from polycultures were significantly more differentiated from one another in preferred nutrients for growth than sympatric isolates from monocultures. Conclusions: These results suggest that Streptomyces populations respond to selection imposed by plant host and plant community richness and that populations from polyculture but not from monoculture, mediate resource competition via niche differentiation. © 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

In its strategy of intensifying and extending date palm cultivation, Morocco has succeeded to select and micro-propagate new date palm genotypes known by their high fruit quality and Bayoud disease resistance. 'Najda' (INRA-3014) is one of these highly interesting selected genotypes that were distributed as vitroplants to farmers. However, as a newly introduced cultivar, most growers still lack suitable agricultural techniques for its cultivation. The determination of 1) the period at which the female flowers of 'Najda' date palm remain receptive for pollination and 2) the most suitable pollinator to induce a metaxenia effect is very important to date palm growers. For this objective, six 'Najda' palm trees, 15 years old and grown in the same environment of the Zagora Date Palm Experimental Station, were carefully chosen and used to study the effects of 3 polliniser cultivars including: the Moroccan selected males 'NP3' and 'NP4', and a normal male usually used by local growers. Another six palm trees were used for the study of the effect of pollination time and were therefore pollinated at 1, 7, 10 and 15 days from female spathe opening. Both experiments were established in a completely randomized block design. Obtained results showed that pollination by 'NP3' or 'NP4' pollen enhanced fruit maturity by 10 days, and significantly improved fruit length by 1 cm, fruit width by 3 mm and fruit weight by 35% compared to the control. Furthermore, pollinating 'Najda' flowers between the 7 th and the 10th day after spathe opening induced significant increase in the mean fruit set by 70% while the mean fruit weight remained acceptable (13,14 g). Pollinating earlier or after this period, significantly reduced fruit set which in turn resulted in somewhat higher fruit characteristics. Based on these results, it seems reasonable to conclude that the 'Najda' cultivar should be pollinated using 'NP3' or 'NP4' pollen, particularly between the 7 th and the 10th day after spathe opening.

Nassif F.,Morocco National Institute of Agronomic Research | Tanji A.,Morocco National Institute of Agronomic Research
Lazaroa | Year: 2013

Nassif, F. & Tanji, A. Floristic analysis of Marmoucha's plant diversity (Middle Atlas, Morocco). Lazaroa 34: 117-140 (2013). As part of an ethnobotanical exploration among the Berbers of Marmoucha in the Middle Atlas in Morocco, a floristic analysis was conducted to inventory the existing plants and assess the extent of plant diversity in this area. Located in the eastern part of the Middle Atlas, the Marmoucha is characterized by the presence of various ecosystems ranging from oak and juniper forests to high altitude steppes typical from cold areas with thorny plants. The fieldwork was conducted over five years (2008-2012) using surveys and informal techniques. The results show that the number of species recorded in Marmoucha is 508 distributed over 83 families and 325 genera, representing 13%, 54% and 33% of species, families and genera at the national level, respectively. With 92 species, the Asteraceae is the richest family, representing 18% of the total reported followed by Poaceae and the Fabaceae. From a comparative perspective, the ranking of the eight richer families of the local flora in relation to their position in the national flora reveals a significant match between the positions at local and national levels with slight ranking differences except in the case of Rosaceae. In the study area, the number of endemics is significant. It amounts to 43 species and subspecies belonging to 14 families with the Asteraceae counting 10 endemics. The numbers of Moroccan-Algerian and strictly Moroccan endemics compared to other categories of endemics are rather significant. The study area host to 37 species and subspecies distributed in 16 families that could be considered rare or endangered, being Asteraceae the richest with 9. We considered Marmoucha an area with a high diversity with an important contigent of endemic, rare, and endangered species. Available information on these species is scarce. Therefore, it is imperative to pay further attention to them for conservation purposes, in order to elaborate the red list in Morocco. © 2013. Universidad Complutense de Madrid.

Zirari A.,Morocco National Institute of Agronomic Research | Laaziza Ichir L.,Moulay Ismaï University
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

'Najda' (INRA-3014) is one of the interesting date palm genotypes that were selected for several highly desirable characters, micro-propagated and distributed as vitroplants to date palm growers in Morocco. However, it has been frequently found that adult vitroplants of this cultivar produce lots of offshoots, most of which are high offshoots. Removal of these offshoots is essential for the mother plant and the removed offshoots can be used as an additional source of high quality planting material for the intensification of date palm cultivation in Morocco. Promoting root formation on these offshoots weighing less than 8 kg is therefore essential. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of exogenous indole butyric acid (IBA) on root formation and leaf growth of 'Najda' small offshoots. Removed offshoots from adult 'Najda' vitroplants grown in the Zagora Date Palm Experimental Station were separated in 4 weight groups (0-2, 2-4, 4-6 and 6-8 kg). Prior to planting in pots, offshoots were dipped for 15 min in 4 IBA solutions (2, 5, 10 and 15 mg L -1). Results showed that exogenous IBA induced significant rooting of 'Najda' offshoots. More than 96% of offshoots rooted if treated with 10 or 15 mg L -1 IBA solutions, while only 50% rooting was obtained with 2 mg L -1 IBA treated and control offshoots. These rooted offshoots produced an average of 12 visible roots per offshoot. Furthermore, 90% of offshoots of less than 2 kg rooted well if treated with 10 or 15 mg L -1 IBA solutions. Offshoots' rooting was also accompanied by a good leaf growth. During this 8-months experiment, offshoots treated with 10 or 15 mg L -1 IBA solutions produced an average of 4 new leaves, and an increment of 9 cm in the central leaf length. Based on these results, it seems reasonable to conclude that treatment with 10 or 15 mg L -1 IBA solutions, allows a good rooting of small high offshoots of 'Najda'.

Zirari A.,Morocco National Institute of Agronomic Research | Laaziza Ichir L.,Moulay Ismaï University
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

One of the most depreciatory damage on date palm fruit quality in Morocco is the dates infestation by moths (Ectomyelois ceratoniae). The percentage of infested dates is estimated between 1 to 4% in the field and can reach more than 70% during fruit storage. The objective of the present study is to prevent the responsible adult insect to reach the fruits through bunch covering on the trees. For this purpose, four palm trees, 15 years old from the 'Najda', 'Bousthammi', 'Tademmamte', 'Bouslikhene', 'Admou' and 'Iklane' cultivars grown in the same environment of the Zagora Date Palm Experimental Station, were carefully chosen and used to study the effects of 4 different kinds of cover bags including: jute cover, and net covers with meshes as small as 3.8, 1.7 and 0.15 mm2. The experiment was established at early khalal stage in a complete randomized block design. Samples of 400 dates were harvested in early October and damages were determined by counting the number of infested fruits per sample. The results of this three-years experiment showed that the lowest infestation rates (less than 1%) occurred with net covers of 1.7 and 0.15 mm2 meshes while the highest damages (4.1 and 4.5%) occurred with jute covers and control respectively. Analysis of fruits dimensions and weights showed no significant differences between all treatments. These results were demonstrated and verified on 16 palm trees of 'Najda' and 'Jihel' cultivars grown at some growers' fields. These field experiments allowed dates production of less than 1% infestation rates. Accordingly, bunch covering with nets of 1.7 and 0.15 mm2 meshes could be recommended to growers under similar conditions of the present study.

El-Fadili M.,Morocco National Institute of Agronomic Research
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2012

Growth and carcass characteristics were evaluated on 82 lambs of both sex of the INRA180 breed from 2007 to 2010. This Moroccan new synthetic breed was created from the Timahdite and D'man parental local breeds which contribute each with 50% of genes. The development and ewe performances and lamb pre-weaning traits of the INRA180 new breed were reported in a previous paper. During the fattening period of 45 days, the INRA180 lambs had average daily gain (ADG) of 247 g/day and a feed conversion index of 5.00. At the averaged slaughtering age of 170 days, the INRA180 lambs weighed 30.8 and 15.92 kg respectively for slaughter and carcass weight and showed a dressing percentage of 51.6%. Furthermore, the INRA180 lambs deposited 603 g and 3.24 mm, respectively, for mesenteric fat and back fat thickness. In addition, the conformation score was 3.43 and longissimus dorsi muscle area 10.1 cm2. These results indicated that the infusion of 50% of the prolific D'man genes into the INRA180 lambs did not affect post-weaning growth and carcass traits. INRA180 promise a high potential genetic merit in purebred or maternal breed in terminal crossing for increasing sheep flocks productivity and for improving red meat production in the agricultural production system in Morocco.

PubMed | Morocco National Institute of Agronomic Research, National Agency of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Mohammed V University, ICARDA INRA Cooperative Research Project and Southern Illinois University Carbondale
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Chemistry & biodiversity | Year: 2016

In this study, the in vitro and in vivo essential oil (EO) composition and genetic variability in six micropropagated genotypes of Thymus saturejoides Coss., a Mediterranean medicinal and aromatic plant, were analyzed by GC/MS and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Yield and composition of the EO varied between genotypes. Cluster analysis based on RAPD data and EO grouped the six genotypes in three groups in both culture conditions, thus showing considerable intraspecific genetic and chemical variations. Applying the Mantel test, the result showed a significant correlation between the two proximity matrices RAPD and EO obtained from in vitro genotypes, whereas this correlation was not observed when using the EO obtained from the in vivo genotypes.

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