Morocco National Institute of Agronomic Research

Errachidia, Morocco

Morocco National Institute of Agronomic Research

Errachidia, Morocco

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Mohamed L.,Université Ibn Tofail | El Kettani Y.,Université Ibn Tofail | Ali A.,Morocco National Institute of Agronomic Research | Mohamed E.,Université Ibn Tofail | Mohamed J.,Université Ibn Tofail
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2017

Objective: Glucoamylase is among the most important enzymes in biotechnology. The present study aims to determine better conditions for growth and glucoamylase production by Candida guilliermondii and to reduce the overall cost of the medium using Box-Behnken design with one central point and response surface methodology. Methodology: Box-Behnken factorial design based on three levels was carried out to obtain optimal medium combination of five independent variables such as initial pH, soluble starch, CH4N2O, yeast extract and MgSO4. Forty one randomized mediums were incubated in flask on a rotary shaker at 105 rpm for 72 h at 30°C. Results: The production of biomass was found to be pH and starch dependent, maximum production when the starch concentration was 8 g LG−1and the initial pH was 6, while maximum glucoamylase production was found at 6.5 of initial pH, 4 g LG−1yeast extract and 6 g LG−1starch, whereas yeast extract and urea were highly significant, but interacted negatively. Box-Behnken factorial design used for the analysis of treatment combinations gave a second-order polynomial regression model with R2= 0.976 for Biomass and R2= 0.981 for glucoamylase. Conclusion: The final biomass and glucoamylase activity obtained was very close to the calculated parameters according to the p-values (p<0.001), the predicted optimal parameters were confirmed and provides a basis for further studies in baking additives and in the valuation of starch waste products. © 2017 Lagzouli Mohamed et al.

Ennami M.,Morocco National Institute of Agronomic Research | Briache F.Z.,National Institute of Agricultural Research INRA | Gaboun F.,National Institute of Agricultural Research INRA | Abdelwahd R.,National Institute of Agricultural Research INRA | And 4 more authors.
Pest Management Science | Year: 2017

BACKGROUND: Orobanche crenata represents a major biotic constraint to production of faba bean and lentil in Morocco. While this parasitic plant attacks both of these crops, the extent to which Orobanche biotypes specialise in parasitising specific crops is unknown. To address this question, we studied O. crenata that grew on different hosts and quantified their host specificity to faba bean and lentil. The virulence of O. crenata populations on each host was investigated through field trials, pot and Petri dishes assays. Genetic diversity of the parasite populations was also assessed through molecular analyses. RESULTS: The two legume species showed distinct patterns of specificity. Faba bean was more susceptible to both O. crenata populations, while the specificity for lentil by lentil-grown O. crenata was evident at the final stage of the parasite life cycle as shown by correspondence factorial analyses. Considerable internal variation (81%) within O. crenata populations parasitising both legume species was observed by molecular analyses, but significant divergence (19%; Ø = 0.189; P = 0.010) among the populations was detected. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that O. crenata can adapt to specific host species, which is important knowledge when developing integrated pest management practices for parasitic weed control. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

Farissi M.,Unit of Plant Biotechnology and Agrophysiology of Symbiosis | Farissi M.,Morocco National Institute of Agronomic Research | Bouizgaren A.,Morocco National Institute of Agronomic Research | Faghire M.,University Ibn Zohr | And 2 more authors.
Turkish Journal of Botany | Year: 2013

The effect of water deficit on growth and some physiological and biochemical parameters related to water deficit tolerance was studied in 4 Moroccan alfalfa Medicago sativa L. populations that originated from the mountains and oases of Morocco. The experiment was conducted in greenhouse conditions. Seeds were allowed to germinate in pots filled with sand and peat at a 2:1 ratio, respectively. After 1 month of sowing, the plants were subjected to 3 water regimes: optimal irrigation (75% of field capacity, FC), moderate water deficit (50% FC), and severe water deficit (25% FC). At 45 days of stress, the plants were harvested and subjected to some agrophysiological and biochemical analyses related to tolerance. Results showed that the water deficit negatively affected dry biomass, membrane permeability, leaves' relative water contents, and nitrate and phosphorus contents. The behaviors of tested populations were significantly different for most of the considered parameters. The tolerance was positively correlated to the ability of plants to overcome oxidative stress by the induction of antioxidant enzyme activity, accumulation of inorganic ions (Na+ and K+), and maintenance of an adequate level of nitrate reductase and acid phosphatase activities. © TÜBİTAK.

Essarioui A.,University of Minnesota | Essarioui A.,Morocco National Institute of Agronomic Research | Kistler H.C.,University of Minnesota | Kistler H.C.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Kinkel L.L.,University of Minnesota
Plant and Soil | Year: 2016

Background an aims: Nutrient use overlap among sympatric Streptomyces populations is correlated with pathogen inhibitory capacity, yet there is little information on either the factors that influence nutrient use overlap among coexisting populations or the diversity of nutrient use among soil Streptomyces. Methods: We examined the effects of plant host and plant species richness on nutrient use of Streptomyces isolated from the rhizosphere of Andropogon gerardii (Ag) and Lespedeza capitata (Lc) growing in communities of 1 (monoculture) or 16 (polyculture) plant species. Growth on 95 carbon sources was assessed over 5d. Results: Cumulative growth was significantly greater for polyculture vs. monoculture isolates, and for Lc vs. Ag isolates. Isolates from monocultures, but not polycultures, exhibited a drop in growth rates between 24 h and 72 h post-inoculation, suggesting resource allocation to non-growth functions. Isolates from high-carbon (polyculture) or high-nitrogen (Lc) soils had larger niche widths than isolates from low-C (monocultures) or low-N (Ag) soils. Sympatric isolates from polycultures were significantly more differentiated from one another in preferred nutrients for growth than sympatric isolates from monocultures. Conclusions: These results suggest that Streptomyces populations respond to selection imposed by plant host and plant community richness and that populations from polyculture but not from monoculture, mediate resource competition via niche differentiation. © 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

In its strategy of intensifying and extending date palm cultivation, Morocco has succeeded to select and micro-propagate new date palm genotypes known by their high fruit quality and Bayoud disease resistance. 'Najda' (INRA-3014) is one of these highly interesting selected genotypes that were distributed as vitroplants to farmers. However, as a newly introduced cultivar, most growers still lack suitable agricultural techniques for its cultivation. The determination of 1) the period at which the female flowers of 'Najda' date palm remain receptive for pollination and 2) the most suitable pollinator to induce a metaxenia effect is very important to date palm growers. For this objective, six 'Najda' palm trees, 15 years old and grown in the same environment of the Zagora Date Palm Experimental Station, were carefully chosen and used to study the effects of 3 polliniser cultivars including: the Moroccan selected males 'NP3' and 'NP4', and a normal male usually used by local growers. Another six palm trees were used for the study of the effect of pollination time and were therefore pollinated at 1, 7, 10 and 15 days from female spathe opening. Both experiments were established in a completely randomized block design. Obtained results showed that pollination by 'NP3' or 'NP4' pollen enhanced fruit maturity by 10 days, and significantly improved fruit length by 1 cm, fruit width by 3 mm and fruit weight by 35% compared to the control. Furthermore, pollinating 'Najda' flowers between the 7 th and the 10th day after spathe opening induced significant increase in the mean fruit set by 70% while the mean fruit weight remained acceptable (13,14 g). Pollinating earlier or after this period, significantly reduced fruit set which in turn resulted in somewhat higher fruit characteristics. Based on these results, it seems reasonable to conclude that the 'Najda' cultivar should be pollinated using 'NP3' or 'NP4' pollen, particularly between the 7 th and the 10th day after spathe opening.

Nassif F.,Morocco National Institute of Agronomic Research | Tanji A.,Morocco National Institute of Agronomic Research
Lazaroa | Year: 2013

Nassif, F. & Tanji, A. Floristic analysis of Marmoucha's plant diversity (Middle Atlas, Morocco). Lazaroa 34: 117-140 (2013). As part of an ethnobotanical exploration among the Berbers of Marmoucha in the Middle Atlas in Morocco, a floristic analysis was conducted to inventory the existing plants and assess the extent of plant diversity in this area. Located in the eastern part of the Middle Atlas, the Marmoucha is characterized by the presence of various ecosystems ranging from oak and juniper forests to high altitude steppes typical from cold areas with thorny plants. The fieldwork was conducted over five years (2008-2012) using surveys and informal techniques. The results show that the number of species recorded in Marmoucha is 508 distributed over 83 families and 325 genera, representing 13%, 54% and 33% of species, families and genera at the national level, respectively. With 92 species, the Asteraceae is the richest family, representing 18% of the total reported followed by Poaceae and the Fabaceae. From a comparative perspective, the ranking of the eight richer families of the local flora in relation to their position in the national flora reveals a significant match between the positions at local and national levels with slight ranking differences except in the case of Rosaceae. In the study area, the number of endemics is significant. It amounts to 43 species and subspecies belonging to 14 families with the Asteraceae counting 10 endemics. The numbers of Moroccan-Algerian and strictly Moroccan endemics compared to other categories of endemics are rather significant. The study area host to 37 species and subspecies distributed in 16 families that could be considered rare or endangered, being Asteraceae the richest with 9. We considered Marmoucha an area with a high diversity with an important contigent of endemic, rare, and endangered species. Available information on these species is scarce. Therefore, it is imperative to pay further attention to them for conservation purposes, in order to elaborate the red list in Morocco. © 2013. Universidad Complutense de Madrid.

Zirari A.,Morocco National Institute of Agronomic Research | Laaziza Ichir L.,Moulay Ismaï University
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

'Najda' (INRA-3014) is one of the interesting date palm genotypes that were selected for several highly desirable characters, micro-propagated and distributed as vitroplants to date palm growers in Morocco. However, it has been frequently found that adult vitroplants of this cultivar produce lots of offshoots, most of which are high offshoots. Removal of these offshoots is essential for the mother plant and the removed offshoots can be used as an additional source of high quality planting material for the intensification of date palm cultivation in Morocco. Promoting root formation on these offshoots weighing less than 8 kg is therefore essential. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of exogenous indole butyric acid (IBA) on root formation and leaf growth of 'Najda' small offshoots. Removed offshoots from adult 'Najda' vitroplants grown in the Zagora Date Palm Experimental Station were separated in 4 weight groups (0-2, 2-4, 4-6 and 6-8 kg). Prior to planting in pots, offshoots were dipped for 15 min in 4 IBA solutions (2, 5, 10 and 15 mg L -1). Results showed that exogenous IBA induced significant rooting of 'Najda' offshoots. More than 96% of offshoots rooted if treated with 10 or 15 mg L -1 IBA solutions, while only 50% rooting was obtained with 2 mg L -1 IBA treated and control offshoots. These rooted offshoots produced an average of 12 visible roots per offshoot. Furthermore, 90% of offshoots of less than 2 kg rooted well if treated with 10 or 15 mg L -1 IBA solutions. Offshoots' rooting was also accompanied by a good leaf growth. During this 8-months experiment, offshoots treated with 10 or 15 mg L -1 IBA solutions produced an average of 4 new leaves, and an increment of 9 cm in the central leaf length. Based on these results, it seems reasonable to conclude that treatment with 10 or 15 mg L -1 IBA solutions, allows a good rooting of small high offshoots of 'Najda'.

Zirari A.,Morocco National Institute of Agronomic Research | Laaziza Ichir L.,Moulay Ismaï University
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

One of the most depreciatory damage on date palm fruit quality in Morocco is the dates infestation by moths (Ectomyelois ceratoniae). The percentage of infested dates is estimated between 1 to 4% in the field and can reach more than 70% during fruit storage. The objective of the present study is to prevent the responsible adult insect to reach the fruits through bunch covering on the trees. For this purpose, four palm trees, 15 years old from the 'Najda', 'Bousthammi', 'Tademmamte', 'Bouslikhene', 'Admou' and 'Iklane' cultivars grown in the same environment of the Zagora Date Palm Experimental Station, were carefully chosen and used to study the effects of 4 different kinds of cover bags including: jute cover, and net covers with meshes as small as 3.8, 1.7 and 0.15 mm2. The experiment was established at early khalal stage in a complete randomized block design. Samples of 400 dates were harvested in early October and damages were determined by counting the number of infested fruits per sample. The results of this three-years experiment showed that the lowest infestation rates (less than 1%) occurred with net covers of 1.7 and 0.15 mm2 meshes while the highest damages (4.1 and 4.5%) occurred with jute covers and control respectively. Analysis of fruits dimensions and weights showed no significant differences between all treatments. These results were demonstrated and verified on 16 palm trees of 'Najda' and 'Jihel' cultivars grown at some growers' fields. These field experiments allowed dates production of less than 1% infestation rates. Accordingly, bunch covering with nets of 1.7 and 0.15 mm2 meshes could be recommended to growers under similar conditions of the present study.

El-Fadili M.,Morocco National Institute of Agronomic Research
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2012

Growth and carcass characteristics were evaluated on 82 lambs of both sex of the INRA180 breed from 2007 to 2010. This Moroccan new synthetic breed was created from the Timahdite and D'man parental local breeds which contribute each with 50% of genes. The development and ewe performances and lamb pre-weaning traits of the INRA180 new breed were reported in a previous paper. During the fattening period of 45 days, the INRA180 lambs had average daily gain (ADG) of 247 g/day and a feed conversion index of 5.00. At the averaged slaughtering age of 170 days, the INRA180 lambs weighed 30.8 and 15.92 kg respectively for slaughter and carcass weight and showed a dressing percentage of 51.6%. Furthermore, the INRA180 lambs deposited 603 g and 3.24 mm, respectively, for mesenteric fat and back fat thickness. In addition, the conformation score was 3.43 and longissimus dorsi muscle area 10.1 cm2. These results indicated that the infusion of 50% of the prolific D'man genes into the INRA180 lambs did not affect post-weaning growth and carcass traits. INRA180 promise a high potential genetic merit in purebred or maternal breed in terminal crossing for increasing sheep flocks productivity and for improving red meat production in the agricultural production system in Morocco.

PubMed | Morocco National Institute of Agronomic Research, National Agency of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Mohammed V University, ICARDA INRA Cooperative Research Project and Southern Illinois University Carbondale
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Chemistry & biodiversity | Year: 2016

In this study, the in vitro and in vivo essential oil (EO) composition and genetic variability in six micropropagated genotypes of Thymus saturejoides Coss., a Mediterranean medicinal and aromatic plant, were analyzed by GC/MS and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Yield and composition of the EO varied between genotypes. Cluster analysis based on RAPD data and EO grouped the six genotypes in three groups in both culture conditions, thus showing considerable intraspecific genetic and chemical variations. Applying the Mantel test, the result showed a significant correlation between the two proximity matrices RAPD and EO obtained from in vitro genotypes, whereas this correlation was not observed when using the EO obtained from the in vivo genotypes.

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